All gpu ranked: Best Graphics Cards — November 2022

RX 6600 XT benchmark with Core i9-10900K 1080p, 1440p, Ultrawide, 4K benchmarks at Ultra Quality

Compare To
Select..AMD Radeon 530 Mobile — $ 636AMD Radeon 540 Mobile — $ 1,086AMD Radeon HD 6850 — $ 199AMD Radeon HD 6870 — $ 199AMD Radeon HD 6950 — $ 250AMD Radeon HD 6970 — $ 299AMD Radeon HD 6990 — $ 699AMD Radeon HD 7750 — $ 140AMD Radeon HD 7750M — $ 858AMD Radeon HD 7790 — $ 149AMD Radeon HD 7850 — $ 249AMD Radeon HD 7850M — $ 964AMD Radeon HD 7950 — $ 149AMD Radeon HD 7950M — $ 1,023AMD Radeon HD 7970 — $ 299AMD Radeon HD 7970 GHz Edition — $ 299AMD Radeon HD 7970M — $ 1,079AMD Radeon HD 7990 — $ 999AMD Radeon Pro WX 7100 Mobile — $ 1,959AMD Radeon R5 — $ 710AMD Radeon R5 — $ 701AMD Radeon R7 250 — $ 95AMD Radeon R7 265 — $ 149AMD Radeon R7 370 — $ 202AMD Radeon R9 270 — $ 275AMD Radeon R9 280 — $ 350AMD Radeon R9 280X — $ 350AMD Radeon R9 285 — $ 380AMD Radeon R9 290 — $ 310AMD Radeon R9 290X — $ 399AMD Radeon R9 295X2 — $ 1,499AMD Radeon R9 380 — $ 299AMD Radeon R9 380X — $ 229AMD Radeon R9 390 — $ 465AMD Radeon R9 390X — $ 495AMD Radeon R9 FURY — $ 549AMD Radeon R9 FURY X — $ 649AMD Radeon R9 M270X — $ 1,016AMD Radeon R9 M280X — $ 1,070AMD Radeon R9 M280X 2GB — $ 1,070AMD Radeon R9 M290X — $ 1,209AMD Radeon R9 M380 — $ 1,074AMD Radeon R9 Nano — $ 1,529AMD Radeon RX 460 — $ 140AMD Radeon RX 470 — $ 342AMD Radeon RX 470 Mobile — $ 1,203AMD Radeon RX 480 — $ 399AMD Radeon RX 480 Mobile — $ 1,275AMD Radeon RX 540 Mobile — $ 645AMD Radeon RX 550 — $ 74AMD Radeon RX 550 Mobile — $ 923AMD Radeon RX 5500 XT 4GB — $ 169AMD Radeon RX 5500 XT 8GB — $ 199AMD Radeon RX 550X Mobile — $ 923AMD Radeon RX 560 — $ 99AMD Radeon RX 560 Mobile — $ 987AMD Radeon RX 5600 XT — $ 279AMD Radeon RX 560X Mobile — $ 641AMD Radeon RX 560X Mobile 2GB — $ 987AMD Radeon RX 570 — $ 123AMD Radeon RX 570 Mobile — $ 1,260AMD Radeon RX 5700 — $ 349AMD Radeon RX 5700 XT — $ 399AMD Radeon RX 580 — $ 151AMD Radeon RX 580 Mobile — $ 1,307AMD Radeon RX 580X Mobile — $ 1,307AMD Radeon RX 590 — $ 214AMD Radeon RX 6700 XT — $ 479AMD Radeon RX 6800 — $ 579AMD Radeon RX 6800 XT — $ 649AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT — $ 999AMD Radeon RX VEGA 10 — $ 632AMD Radeon RX VEGA 3 — $ 567AMD Radeon RX VEGA 6 — $ 1,119AMD Radeon RX VEGA 8 — $ 601AMD Radeon RX Vega 56 — $ 269AMD Radeon RX Vega 56 Mobile — $ 1,579AMD Radeon RX Vega 64 — $ 419AMD Radeon VII — $ 664ATI Radeon HD 4870 — $ 299NVIDIA GeForce GT 1030 — $ 79NVIDIA GeForce GT 640 — $ 79NVIDIA GeForce GTS 450 — $ 199NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 — $ 129NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Max-Q — $ 1,282NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Mobile — $ 750NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Mobile 2GB — $ 1,062NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Ti — $ 129NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Ti Max-Q — $ 1,270NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Ti Mobile — $ 876NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 3GB — $ 170NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 6GB — $ 159NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 Max-Q — $ 1,185NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 Mobile — $ 987NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 — $ 329NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Max-Q — $ 1,106NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Mobile — $ 1,559NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti — $ 503NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 — $ 522NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Max-Q — $ 1,955NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Mobile — $ 1,857NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti — $ 807NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 — $ 149NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 Max-Q — $ 1,239NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 Mobile — $ 1,151NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 SUPER — $ 160NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 — $ 220NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 SUPER — $ 229NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Ti — $ 279NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Ti Max-Q — $ 1,185NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Ti Mobile — $ 1,758NVIDIA GeForce GTX 260 — $ 449NVIDIA GeForce GTX 260 Core 216 — $ 299NVIDIA GeForce GTX 280 — $ 649NVIDIA GeForce GTX 285 — $ 249NVIDIA GeForce GTX 470 — $ 299NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 — $ 499NVIDIA GeForce GTX 550 Ti — $ 199NVIDIA GeForce GTX 560 — $ 153NVIDIA GeForce GTX 560 Ti — $ 220NVIDIA GeForce GTX 570 — $ 349NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580 — $ 399NVIDIA GeForce GTX 590 — $ 699NVIDIA GeForce GTX 650 — $ 49NVIDIA GeForce GTX 650 Ti — $ 64NVIDIA GeForce GTX 650 Ti Boost — $ 169NVIDIA GeForce GTX 660 — $ 79NVIDIA GeForce GTX 660 Ti — $ 299NVIDIA GeForce GTX 660M — $ 987NVIDIA GeForce GTX 670 — $ 79NVIDIA GeForce GTX 670M — $ 1,058NVIDIA GeForce GTX 670MX — $ 1,058NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 — $ 485NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680M — $ 1,083NVIDIA GeForce GTX 690 — $ 439NVIDIA GeForce GTX 750 Ti — $ 279NVIDIA GeForce GTX 760 — $ 320NVIDIA GeForce GTX 760M — $ 1,036NVIDIA GeForce GTX 770 — $ 179NVIDIA GeForce GTX 770M — $ 1,100NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780 — $ 355NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780 Ti — $ 410NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780M — $ 1,162NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780M — $ 1,162NVIDIA GeForce GTX 950 — $ 89NVIDIA GeForce GTX 960 — $ 89NVIDIA GeForce GTX 960M — $ 1,066NVIDIA GeForce GTX 970 — $ 449NVIDIA GeForce GTX 970M — $ 1,249NVIDIA GeForce GTX 970M 6GB — $ 1,249NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 — $ 249NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 Mobile — $ 1,345NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 Ti — $ 619NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980M — $ 1,345NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980MX — $ 1,345NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN — $ 650NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN BLACK — $ 999NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN X — $ 1,099NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 — $ 349NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 Mobile — $ 1,104NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 SUPER — $ 400NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 — $ 469NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 Max-Q — $ 1,516NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 Mobile — $ 1,724NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 SUPER — $ 499NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 — $ 693NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Max-Q — $ 1,772NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Mobile — $ 1,942NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER — $ 699NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti — $ 1,187NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3050 — $ 200NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3050 Ti — $ 249NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060 — $ 329NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060 Ti — $ 399NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 — $ 499NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 Ti — $ 599NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 — $ 699NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 Ti — $ 799NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3090 — $ 1,499NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4050 — $ 200NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4060 — $ 329NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4060 Ti — $ 399NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4070 — $ 499NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4080 — $ 699NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4080 Ti — $ 799NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4090 — $ 1,499NVIDIA TITAN RTX — $ 2,499NVIDIA TITAN V — $ 2,999NVIDIA TITAN Xp — $ 1,199

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Select. .AMD Athlon 5000 Dual-Core — $ 100AMD Athlon 5200 Dual-Core — $ 30AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 4200+ — $ 130AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 4400+ — $ 60AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 4600+ — $ 360AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 4800+ — $ 460AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 5000+ — $ 331.5AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 5200+ — $ 53.1AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 5400+ — $ 53AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 5600+ — $ 150AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 5800+ — $ 25AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 6000+ — $ 46AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 6400+ — $ 260AMD Athlon 7550 Dual-Core — $ 60AMD Athlon 7750 Dual-Core — $ 148.7AMD Athlon 7850 Dual-Core — $ 209.7AMD Athlon Dual Core 5000B — $ 95AMD Athlon II X2 215 — $ 12AMD Athlon II X2 220 — $ 32.2AMD Athlon II X2 240 — $ 35AMD Athlon II X2 245 — $ 35AMD Athlon II X2 250 — $ 39AMD Athlon II X2 255 — $ 65.2AMD Athlon II X2 260 — $ 20AMD Athlon II X2 265 — $ 82.9AMD Athlon II X2 270 — $ 24AMD Athlon II X2 B22 — $ 36AMD Athlon II X2 B24 — $ 40AMD Athlon II X2 B28 — $ 49.1AMD Athlon II X3 425 — $ 104. 2AMD Athlon II X3 435 — $ 50AMD Athlon II X3 440 — $ 47AMD Athlon II X3 445 — $ 91AMD Athlon II X3 450 — $ 40AMD Athlon II X3 455 — $ 116.9AMD Athlon II X3 460 — $ 50AMD Athlon II X4 620 — $ 60AMD Athlon II X4 630 — $ 43AMD Athlon II X4 631 Quad-Core — $ 80AMD Athlon II X4 635 — $ 70AMD Athlon II X4 640 — $ 80AMD Athlon II X4 641 Quad-Core — $ 91.5AMD Athlon II X4 645 — $ 50AMD Athlon X4 740 Quad Core — $ 277AMD Athlon X4 760K Quad Core — $ 46AMD Athlon X4 840 — $ 78.7AMD Athlon X4 845 — $ 50AMD Athlon X4 860K — $ 64AMD Athlon X4 870K — $ 80AMD Athlon X4 880K — $ 90AMD Athlon X4 950 — $ 60AMD E2-3200 APU — $ 8AMD FX-4100 Quad-Core — $ 130AMD FX-4130 Quad-Core — $ 76AMD FX-4170 Quad-Core — $ 100AMD FX-4200 Quad-Core — $ 228.2AMD FX-4300 Quad-Core — $ 53.4AMD FX-4350 Quad-Core — $ 130AMD FX-6200 Six-Core — $ 340AMD FX-6300 Six-Core — $ 59AMD FX-6350 Six-Core — $ 130AMD FX-8120 Eight-Core — $ 100AMD FX-8150 Eight-Core — $ 383.5AMD FX-8300 Eight-Core — $ 80.6AMD FX-8320 Eight-Core — $ 79.5AMD FX-8320E Eight-Core — $ 98. 9AMD FX-8350 Eight-Core — $ 80AMD FX-8370 Eight-Core — $ 135AMD FX-8370E Eight-Core — $ 180AMD FX-9370 Eight-Core — $ 178.9AMD FX-9590 Eight-Core — $ 122AMD Phenom 8250e Triple-Core — $ 47AMD Phenom 8450 Triple-Core — $ 30AMD Phenom 8600 Triple-Core — $ 53AMD Phenom 8600B Triple-Core — $ 53AMD Phenom 8650 Triple-Core — $ 50AMD Phenom 9100e Quad-Core — $ 40AMD Phenom 9150e Quad-Core — $ 40AMD Phenom 9350e Quad-Core — $ 3382.1AMD Phenom 9450e Quad-Core — $ 105AMD Phenom 9500 Quad-Core — $ 60AMD Phenom 9550 Quad-Core — $ 40AMD Phenom 9600 Quad-Core — $ 50AMD Phenom 9600B Quad-Core — $ 147.2AMD Phenom 9650 Quad-Core — $ 55AMD Phenom 9750 Quad-Core — $ 60AMD Phenom 9850 Quad-Core — $ 50AMD Phenom 9950 Quad-Core — $ 180AMD Phenom II X2 545 — $ 44AMD Phenom II X2 550 — $ 50AMD Phenom II X2 555 — $ 142.1AMD Phenom II X2 565 — $ 30AMD Phenom II X2 B55 — $ 48AMD Phenom II X3 705e — $ 152.3AMD Phenom II X3 710 — $ 84.5AMD Phenom II X3 720 — $ 70AMD Phenom II X3 B73 — $ 75AMD Phenom II X4 805 — $ 174AMD Phenom II X4 810 — $ 116AMD Phenom II X4 820 — $ 75AMD Phenom II X4 840 — $ 90AMD Phenom II X4 905e — $ 212. 4AMD Phenom II X4 910 — $ 100AMD Phenom II X4 910e — $ 157AMD Phenom II X4 920 — $ 67AMD Phenom II X4 925 — $ 160AMD Phenom II X4 940 — $ 120AMD Phenom II X4 945 — $ 50AMD Phenom II X4 955 — $ 130.2AMD Phenom II X4 960T — $ 135AMD Phenom II X4 965 — $ 59.5AMD Phenom II X4 B95 — $ 73AMD Phenom II X4 B97 — $ 90AMD Phenom II X6 1035T — $ 189AMD Phenom II X6 1045T — $ 175AMD Phenom II X6 1055T — $ 185AMD Phenom II X6 1075T — $ 260AMD Phenom II X6 1090T — $ 396.1AMD Phenom II X6 1100T — $ 200AMD Phenom X3 8550 — $ 170AMD Ryzen 3 1200 — $ 95AMD Ryzen 3 1300X — $ 125AMD Ryzen 3 2200G — $ 98AMD Ryzen 3 3100 — $ 90AMD Ryzen 3 3200G — $ 99AMD Ryzen 3 3300X — $ 120AMD Ryzen 5 1400 — $ 134AMD Ryzen 5 1500X — $ 144.9AMD Ryzen 5 1600 — $ 155AMD Ryzen 5 1600X — $ 178.4AMD Ryzen 5 2400G — $ 159AMD Ryzen 5 2600 — $ 150AMD Ryzen 5 2600X — $ 210AMD Ryzen 5 3400G — $ 150AMD Ryzen 5 3500 — $ 148AMD Ryzen 5 3500X — $ 160.5AMD Ryzen 5 3600 — $ 199AMD Ryzen 5 3600X — $ 249AMD Ryzen 5 5500 — $ 160AMD Ryzen 5 5600X — $ 299AMD Ryzen 7 1700 — $ 190AMD Ryzen 7 1700X — $ 200AMD Ryzen 7 1800X — $ 250AMD Ryzen 7 2700 — $ 249. 2AMD Ryzen 7 2700X — $ 305AMD Ryzen 7 3700X — $ 330AMD Ryzen 7 3800X — $ 399AMD Ryzen 7 5700X — $ 300AMD Ryzen 7 5800X — $ 399AMD Ryzen 7 5800X3D — $ 450AMD Ryzen 9 3900X — $ 499AMD Ryzen 9 3950X — $ 750AMD Ryzen 9 5900X — $ 499AMD Ryzen 9 5950X — $ 710AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1900X — $ 350AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1920X — $ 420AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X — $ 680AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2950X — $ 900AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2990WX — $ 1720Intel Core i3-10100 — $ 122Intel Core i3-10300 — $ 143Intel Core i3-11100 — $ 122Intel Core i3-11300 — $ 143Intel Core i3-12100 — $ 122Intel Core i3-12300 — $ 143Intel Core i3-2100 @ 3.10GHz — $ 60Intel Core i3-2102 @ 3.10GHz — $ 58Intel Core i3-2105 @ 3.10GHz — $ 80Intel Core i3-2120 @ 3.30GHz — $ 30Intel Core i3-2125 @ 3.30GHz — $ 199Intel Core i3-2130 @ 3.40GHz — $ 70Intel Core i3-3210 @ 3.20GHz — $ 100Intel Core i3-3220 @ 3.30GHz — $ 34.9Intel Core i3-3225 @ 3.30GHz — $ 100Intel Core i3-3240 @ 3.40GHz — $ 46Intel Core i3-3245 @ 3.40GHz — $ 80Intel Core i3-3250 @ 3. 50GHz — $ 95Intel Core i3-4130 @ 3.40GHz — $ 140Intel Core i3-4150 @ 3.50GHz — $ 260Intel Core i3-4160 @ 3.60GHz — $ 140Intel Core i3-4170 @ 3.70GHz — $ 150Intel Core i3-4330 @ 3.50GHz — $ 180Intel Core i3-4340 @ 3.60GHz — $ 170Intel Core i3-4350 @ 3.60GHz — $ 170Intel Core i3-4360 @ 3.70GHz — $ 280Intel Core i3-4370 @ 3.80GHz — $ 450Intel Core i3-530 @ 2.93GHz — $ 20Intel Core i3-540 @ 3.07GHz — $ 21Intel Core i3-550 @ 3.20GHz — $ 180Intel Core i3-560 @ 3.33GHz — $ 30Intel Core i3-6098P @ 3.60GHz — $ 133.7Intel Core i3-6100 @ 3.70GHz — $ 166.1Intel Core i3-6300 @ 3.80GHz — $ 143Intel Core i3-6320 @ 3.90GHz — $ 160Intel Core i3-7100 @ 3.90GHz — $ 170Intel Core i3-7300 @ 4.00GHz — $ 210Intel Core i3-7320 @ 4.10GHz — $ 174.8Intel Core i3-7350K @ 4.20GHz — $ 230Intel Core i3-8100 @ 3.60GHz — $ 130Intel Core i3-8300 @ 3.70GHz — $ 179.4Intel Core i3-8350K @ 4.00GHz — $ 184Intel Core i3-9100 @ 3.60GHz — $ 170Intel Core i3-9100F @ 3.60GHz — $ 105Intel Core i3-9320 @ 3.70GHz — $ 162Intel Core i3-9350KF @ 4. 00GHz — $ 224Intel Core i5 750S @ 2.40GHz — $ 100Intel Core i5-10400 — $ 182Intel Core i5-10600K — $ 236.8Intel Core i5-11400 — $ 182Intel Core i5-11600K — $ 262Intel Core i5-12400 — $ 143Intel Core i5-12600K — $ 290Intel Core i5-2300 @ 2.80GHz — $ 80Intel Core i5-2310 @ 2.90GHz — $ 80Intel Core i5-2320 @ 3.00GHz — $ 195.3Intel Core i5-2380P @ 3.10GHz — $ 90Intel Core i5-2400 @ 3.10GHz — $ 84Intel Core i5-2400S @ 2.50GHz — $ 65.7Intel Core i5-2405S @ 2.50GHz — $ 164.4Intel Core i5-2450P @ 3.20GHz — $ 90Intel Core i5-2500 @ 3.30GHz — $ 105Intel Core i5-2500K @ 3.30GHz — $ 124Intel Core i5-2500S @ 2.70GHz — $ 75Intel Core i5-2550K @ 3.40GHz — $ 130Intel Core i5-3330 @ 3.00GHz — $ 100Intel Core i5-3330S @ 2.70GHz — $ 95Intel Core i5-3340 @ 3.10GHz — $ 262Intel Core i5-3340S @ 2.80GHz — $ 150Intel Core i5-3350P @ 3.10GHz — $ 170Intel Core i5-3450 @ 3.10GHz — $ 128Intel Core i5-3450S @ 2.80GHz — $ 100Intel Core i5-3470 @ 3.20GHz — $ 125Intel Core i5-3470S @ 2.90GHz — $ 140.1Intel Core i5-3475S @ 2. 90GHz — $ 143.5Intel Core i5-3550 @ 3.30GHz — $ 330Intel Core i5-3550S @ 3.00GHz — $ 341Intel Core i5-3570 @ 3.40GHz — $ 140Intel Core i5-3570K @ 3.40GHz — $ 144Intel Core i5-3570S @ 3.10GHz — $ 285Intel Core i5-4430 @ 3.00GHz — $ 180Intel Core i5-4430S @ 2.70GHz — $ 160Intel Core i5-4440 @ 3.10GHz — $ 170Intel Core i5-4440S @ 2.80GHz — $ 463Intel Core i5-4460 @ 3.20GHz — $ 170Intel Core i5-4460S @ 2.90GHz — $ 660Intel Core i5-4570 @ 3.20GHz — $ 175Intel Core i5-4570S @ 2.90GHz — $ 221.6Intel Core i5-4590 @ 3.30GHz — $ 185Intel Core i5-4590S @ 3.00GHz — $ 198Intel Core i5-4670 @ 3.40GHz — $ 188Intel Core i5-4670K @ 3.40GHz — $ 250Intel Core i5-4670R @ 3.00GHz — $ 276Intel Core i5-4690 @ 3.50GHz — $ 200Intel Core i5-4690K @ 3.50GHz — $ 200Intel Core i5-4690S @ 3.20GHz — $ 269.9Intel Core i5-5675C @ 3.10GHz — $ 400Intel Core i5-6400 @ 2.70GHz — $ 200Intel Core i5-6402P @ 2.80GHz — $ 190Intel Core i5-650 @ 3.20GHz — $ 100Intel Core i5-6500 @ 3.20GHz — $ 234.4Intel Core i5-655K @ 3.20GHz — $ 60Intel Core i5-660 @ 3. 33GHz — $ 49Intel Core i5-6600 @ 3.30GHz — $ 220Intel Core i5-6600K @ 3.50GHz — $ 288.9Intel Core i5-661 @ 3.33GHz — $ 100Intel Core i5-670 @ 3.47GHz — $ 90Intel Core i5-680 @ 3.60GHz — $ 90Intel Core i5-7400 @ 3.00GHz — $ 213.5Intel Core i5-750 @ 2.67GHz — $ 160.5Intel Core i5-7500 @ 3.40GHz — $ 210Intel Core i5-760 @ 2.80GHz — $ 100Intel Core i5-7600 @ 3.50GHz — $ 240Intel Core i5-7600K @ 3.80GHz — $ 251Intel Core i5-7640X @ 4.00GHz — $ 250Intel Core i5-8400 @ 2.80GHz — $ 200Intel Core i5-8500 @ 3.00GHz — $ 239Intel Core i5-8600 @ 3.10GHz — $ 244.5Intel Core i5-8600K @ 3.60GHz — $ 377.7Intel Core i5-9400 @ 2.90GHz — $ 170Intel Core i5-9400F @ 2.90GHz — $ 170Intel Core i5-9600K @ 3.70GHz — $ 280Intel Core i5-9600KF @ 3.70GHz — $ 215Intel Core i7-10700K — $ 409.1Intel Core i7-11700K — $ 410Intel Core i7-12700K — $ 470Intel Core i7-2600 @ 3.40GHz — $ 150Intel Core i7-2600K @ 3.40GHz — $ 198Intel Core i7-2600S @ 2.80GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-2700K @ 3.50GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-3770 @ 3.40GHz — $ 179Intel Core i7-3770K @ 3. 50GHz — $ 249Intel Core i7-3770S @ 3.10GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-3820 @ 3.60GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-3930K @ 3.20GHz — $ 399Intel Core i7-3960X @ 3.30GHz — $ 800Intel Core i7-3970X @ 3.50GHz — $ 954Intel Core i7-4770 @ 3.40GHz — $ 240Intel Core i7-4770K @ 3.50GHz — $ 285Intel Core i7-4770S @ 3.10GHz — $ 250Intel Core i7-4771 @ 3.50GHz — $ 300Intel Core i7-4790 @ 3.60GHz — $ 279Intel Core i7-4790K @ 4.00GHz — $ 307Intel Core i7-4790S @ 3.20GHz — $ 342.6Intel Core i7-4820K @ 3.70GHz — $ 500Intel Core i7-4930K @ 3.40GHz — $ 399Intel Core i7-4960X @ 3.60GHz — $ 770Intel Core i7-5775C @ 3.30GHz — $ 450Intel Core i7-5820K @ 3.30GHz — $ 300Intel Core i7-5930K @ 3.50GHz — $ 499Intel Core i7-5960X @ 3.00GHz — $ 770Intel Core i7-6700 @ 3.40GHz — $ 433.7Intel Core i7-6700K @ 4.00GHz — $ 335Intel Core i7-6800K @ 3.40GHz — $ 420Intel Core i7-6850K @ 3.60GHz — $ 550Intel Core i7-6900K @ 3.20GHz — $ 1200Intel Core i7-6950X @ 3.00GHz — $ 1576Intel Core i7-7700 @ 3.60GHz — $ 325.1Intel Core i7-7700K @ 4. 20GHz — $ 355Intel Core i7-7740X @ 4.30GHz — $ 349Intel Core i7-7800X @ 3.50GHz — $ 370Intel Core i7-7820X @ 3.60GHz — $ 930Intel Core i7-8086K @ 4.00GHz — $ 553Intel Core i7-860 @ 2.80GHz — $ 290Intel Core i7-860S @ 2.53GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-870 @ 2.93GHz — $ 310Intel Core i7-8700 @ 3.20GHz — $ 454.5Intel Core i7-8700K @ 3.70GHz — $ 369.9Intel Core i7-875K @ 2.93GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-880 @ 3.07GHz — $ 583Intel Core i7-920 @ 2.67GHz — $ 174Intel Core i7-930 @ 2.80GHz — $ 60Intel Core i7-940 @ 2.93GHz — $ 70.7Intel Core i7-950 @ 3.07GHz — $ 245Intel Core i7-960 @ 3.20GHz — $ 100Intel Core i7-965 @ 3.20GHz — $ 140Intel Core i7-970 @ 3.20GHz — $ 150Intel Core i7-9700 @ 3.00GHz — $ 330Intel Core i7-9700F @ 3.00GHz — $ 368Intel Core i7-9700K @ 3.60GHz — $ 410Intel Core i7-975 @ 3.33GHz — $ 180Intel Core i7-980 @ 3.33GHz — $ 200Intel Core i7-980X @ 3.33GHz — $ 220Intel Core i7-990X @ 3.47GHz — $ 350Intel Core i9-10900K — $ 590Intel Core i9-11900K — $ 488Intel Core i9-12900K — $ 590Intel Core i9-7900X @ 3. 30GHz — $ 1380Intel Core i9-7920X @ 2.90GHz — $ 1096.7Intel Core i9-7940X @ 3.10GHz — $ 1192.1Intel Core i9-7960X @ 2.80GHz — $ 2000Intel Core i9-7980XE @ 2.60GHz — $ 2005.5Intel Core i9-9900 @ 3.10GHz — $ 440Intel Core i9-9900K @ 3.60GHz — $ 835Intel Core2 Duo E4300 @ 1.80GHz — $ 158Intel Core2 Duo E4400 @ 2.00GHz — $ 9Intel Core2 Duo E4500 @ 2.20GHz — $ 40Intel Core2 Duo E4600 @ 2.40GHz — $ 158Intel Core2 Duo E4700 @ 2.60GHz — $ 100Intel Core2 Duo E6300 @ 1.86GHz — $ 13Intel Core2 Duo E6320 @ 1.86GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Duo E6400 @ 2.13GHz — $ 20Intel Core2 Duo E6420 @ 2.13GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Duo E6550 @ 2.33GHz — $ 15Intel Core2 Duo E6600 @ 2.40GHz — $ 15Intel Core2 Duo E6700 @ 2.66GHz — $ 30Intel Core2 Duo E6750 @ 2.66GHz — $ 13Intel Core2 Duo E6850 @ 3.00GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Duo E7200 @ 2.53GHz — $ 75Intel Core2 Duo E7300 @ 2.66GHz — $ 20Intel Core2 Duo E7400 @ 2.80GHz — $ 29Intel Core2 Duo E7500 @ 2.93GHz — $ 15Intel Core2 Duo E7600 @ 3.06GHz — $ 120Intel Core2 Duo E8200 @ 2.66GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Duo E8300 @ 2. 83GHz — $ 20Intel Core2 Duo E8400 @ 3.00GHz — $ 9.8Intel Core2 Duo E8500 @ 3.16GHz — $ 40Intel Core2 Duo E8600 @ 3.33GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Extreme Q6800 @ 2.93GHz — $ 1125Intel Core2 Extreme Q6850 @ 3.00GHz — $ 1496Intel Core2 Extreme X6800 @ 2.93GHz — $ 263.6Intel Core2 Extreme X9650 @ 3.00GHz — $ 909Intel Core2 Extreme X9770 @ 3.20GHz — $ 1609Intel Core2 Extreme X9775 @ 3.20GHz — $ 1806Intel Core2 Quad Q6600 @ 2.40GHz — $ 40Intel Core2 Quad Q6700 @ 2.66GHz — $ 45Intel Core2 Quad Q8200 @ 2.33GHz — $ 23Intel Core2 Quad Q8300 @ 2.50GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Quad Q8400 @ 2.66GHz — $ 99.5Intel Core2 Quad Q9300 @ 2.50GHz — $ 50Intel Core2 Quad Q9400 @ 2.66GHz — $ 34Intel Core2 Quad Q9450 @ 2.66GHz — $ 335Intel Core2 Quad Q9500 @ 2.83GHz — $ 35Intel Core2 Quad Q9505 @ 2.83GHz — $ 190Intel Core2 Quad Q9550 @ 2.83GHz — $ 49Intel Core2 Quad Q9650 @ 3.00GHz — $ 69.8Intel Pentium G2010 @ 2.80GHz — $ 34.9Intel Pentium G2020 @ 2.90GHz — $ 32.9Intel Pentium G2030 @ 3.00GHz — $ 41Intel Pentium G2120 @ 3. 10GHz — $ 46Intel Pentium G2130 @ 3.20GHz — $ 50Intel Pentium G2140 @ 3.30GHz — $ 50Intel Pentium G3220 @ 3.00GHz — $ 120Intel Pentium G3240 @ 3.10GHz — $ 80Intel Pentium G3250 @ 3.20GHz — $ 110Intel Pentium G3258 @ 3.20GHz — $ 178.3Intel Pentium G3260 @ 3.30GHz — $ 105Intel Pentium G3420 @ 3.20GHz — $ 110Intel Pentium G3430 @ 3.30GHz — $ 90Intel Pentium G3440 @ 3.30GHz — $ 159.9Intel Pentium G3450 @ 3.40GHz — $ 100Intel Pentium G3460 @ 3.50GHz — $ 288.2Intel Pentium G3470 @ 3.60GHz — $ 104.3Intel Pentium G4400 @ 3.30GHz — $ 80Intel Pentium G4500 @ 3.50GHz — $ 85.3Intel Pentium G4520 @ 3.60GHz — $ 110.9Intel Pentium G4560 @ 3.50GHz — $ 103.1Intel Pentium G4600 @ 3.60GHz — $ 100Intel Pentium G4620 @ 3.70GHz — $ 105.9Intel Pentium G640 @ 2.80GHz — $ 25Intel Pentium G645 @ 2.90GHz — $ 95Intel Pentium G840 @ 2.80GHz — $ 35Intel Pentium G850 @ 2.90GHz — $ 30Intel Pentium G860 @ 3.00GHz — $ 30Intel Pentium G870 @ 3.10GHz — $ 97Intel Pentium Gold G5400 @ 3.70GHz — $ 123.9Intel Pentium Gold G5500 @ 3. 80GHz — $ 100.3Intel Pentium Gold G5600 @ 3.90GHz — $ 100.9

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The Best GPUs, Mid-2022 Update

When it comes to graphics cards, we go in-depth. Year in and out we test dozens of GPUs from Nvidia and AMD (hopefully soon from Intel, too) to see which ones are worth your money, and which are dead on arrival.

To make the process of choosing a new graphics card a little easier, TechSpot’s Best GPUs guide is intended to answer one simple question: Given a specific budget, which is the graphics card you should buy?

Needless to be said, we’re coming off a «dark period» in the GPU market after the mining crypto craze, but the good news is that pricing has slowly but surely going back to normal. To ensure our information is always relevant, we continue to evaluate graphics cards as new games, drivers, and card-specific features are launched.

Update (Nov 2022): Our current picks remain up-to-date on the different price brackets, with most emphasis on the $300-400 GPU segment where you can finally get really great mainstream graphics cards for gaming at a good price. Meanwhile, on the higher-end, Nvidia has now launched their next-gen GeForce RTX 4090 and RTX 4080 GPUs but they are overly expensive options. Come December, AMD will counter with RDNA3 GPUs at more affordable prices.

Entry-level: Spend as Little as Possible

Radeon RX 6400 or GeForce GTX 1650 Super (used)

In months prior, we had tentatively recommended the Radeon RX 6500 XT for this category… by not really recommending it. We identified this was the cheapest new graphics card you can buy, but probably shouldn’t. Looking to the second hand market will result in far better options for the same price such as the Radeon RX 570, 5500 XT or GeForce GTX 1650 Super.

As of writing, the 6500 XT still retails for ~$175, an awful price given the performance and lack of features. The typical selling price of a used GTX 1650 Super is $150, so that’s still the approach we recommend you take to this segment.

But if you have to buy new, the RX 6400 is a little cheaper and while it’s still quite awful and is slower than the 6500 XT (while sharing almost all of its drawbacks), there are some redeeming qualities. First of all, the 6400 is very power efficient and as such there are a number of single-slot / low profile models that don’t require external power. Therefore you can throw them in anything with a PCIe slot, making them very flexible.

Bottom line, for anyone after an LP single-slot graphics card, the RX 6400 is a godsend. For everyone else though, the second hand market is your best bet.

The Ideal Entry Point

AMD Radeon RX 6600

You’re not getting much for $175 with the 6500 XT as we just established, so what do you need to spend in order to really enjoy today’s games at respectable quality settings, while also having enough headroom to be useful for years to come?

For that, the Radeon RX 6600 is currently the go-to option with several models down at $280, which is below the $330 MSRP.

There’s no viable alternative from Nvidia at this price point either. Embarrassingly, the RTX 3050 costs more at $330 yet we found the Radeon to be nearly 30% faster in a recent 51 game benchmark.

While we weren’t thrilled with the Radeon 6600 upon release, in the current market it has shaped up to be a solid deal with good availability. It’s also worlds better than the 6500 XT given it supports more than two display outputs, twice the PCIe bandwidth, twice the VRAM capacity, hardware encoding and AV1 decoding. Basically, it’s a proper graphics card.

It also wreaks the RTX 3050 for rasterization performance, so unless the GeForce GPU is at least 20% cheaper than the RX 6600, there’s no point buying it.

I Want Moar Performance

GeForce RTX 3060 Ti or Radeon RX 6700 XT

If you’re hell bent on buying an Ampere or RDNA2 graphics card and want more performance than what the excellent value the Radeon 6600 offers, what’s your best option? In our opinion, there are two viable choices: Nvidia’s RTX 3060 Ti and AMD’s Radeon 6700 XT.

The Radeon RX 6700 XT was quite a good product at its original MSRP, which used to give the RTX 3070 a run for its money. Today it can be had found just below that old MSRP at $450.

The Radeon 6700 XT delivers ~40% more performance than the 6600, supports the full PCIe x16 bandwidth, and increases the VRAM capacity to 12GB. You’re effectively paying a 60% price premium for around 40% more performance, which is why we recommend to go with the RX 6600 if you can, especially with next-gen cards expected later this year.

Our second choice, for about the same price and very similar performance, the GeForce RTX 3060 Ti is readily available across retailers starting at $470. The only advantage the Radeon RX 6700 XT has over the RTX 3060 Ti is the larger VRAM buffer, jumping from 8GB to 12GB. This is an advantage that will serve the 6700 XT in the future, but right now there are few instances where VRAM becomes relevant in terms of raw performance output. The RTX 3060 Ti, on the other hand, supports DLSS and better ray tracing performance, which may be a key advantage depending on the games you play.

Going beyond these two, you’ll be paying significantly more for an RTX 3070 or 3070 Ti.

Best Value High-end Graphics Card

GeForce RTX 3080 12GB or Radeon 6900 XT

It’s a tough decision to spend big bucks on a new high-end GPU. For months we’ve been recommending buyers avoid high-end GPUs and hold out as we’ve witnessed GPU pricing continue to fall for several months now. For example, on May the lowest price for the RTX 3080 Ti was $1,200, today it’s down to $930. That means the 3080 Ti has dropped by 23% in the last 3 months, and we’ve observed something similar for all high-end GeForce GPUs. We’ve also seen high-end Radeon GPUs fall in price, the 6900 XT by just over 10% and the 6800 XT by 14%.

We anticipate pricing to fall even further, maybe not massively, but combine that with the fact that we’re expecting new GeForce RTX 40 and Radeon 7000 series GPUs to land later this year.

Nvidia GPU Pricing Trends (eBay Average Sale Price)

We believe high-end next gen GPUs will be here before year’s end, offering significant performance gains and as a result, that will push down pricing of current inventory even further. Spending $1,300 on an RTX 3090 is a tough sell even if it’s well under MSRP. The Radeon RX 6900 XT isn’t that tempting at $850 either, though it does offer the most value of the current generation high-end offerings.

The GeForce RTX 3080 12GB is also a good option as surprisingly it’s a little cheaper than the original 10GB model. For about $800, it’s even cheaper than the 6900 XT while offering a similar level of performance.

Closing Notes

Whether you should buy or not right now will ultimately depend on your unique situation. What we do know is that the Radeon RX 6600 is unlikely to get much cheaper over the next few months, and it’s already affordable for what it offers. It’s a solid 1440p graphics card that can play all the latest games using modest quality settings.

If you are set on buying now to wait for next-gen cards, you stand to lose no more than ~$100 on the mid-range Radeon, as right now they’re selling second hand for at most $50 below retail on eBay. Buy high-end though and you could easily lose $200+ before year’s end, making it a more expensive short term investment. In that sense, the RTX 3080 12GB and 6900 XT are more sensible options that should see less of a price drop from this point forward.

Speaking of next-gen GPUs, there’s almost no chance AMD RDNA3 and Nvidia RTX 40 Lovelace won’t sell out almost instantly. This has been the norm for decades now. What will be interesting is what demand looks like two or three months after release and we suspect those who exercise a little constraint will end up with a better deal, rather than missing out entirely, which is what happened for the current generation.

NVIDIA GPUs for Virtualization

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NVIDIA Virtual GPU (vGPU) software accelerated by NVIDIA GPUs. Choose a GPU according to your needs.

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Video memory size 80 GB/40 GB HBM2 24 GB HBM2 48 GB GDDR6 64 GB GDDR6 (16 GB on GPU)
Tasks performed in a virtual environment Virtualized computing including AI, HPC and data processing; support for up to 7 MIG instances. The optimal solution for updating systems based on V100/V100S with tensor cores. Ordinary computing tasks and AI inference; support for up to 4 MIG instances. The optimal solution for upgrading systems based on T4. High-to-Medium 3D Design, Graphics, and Video Tasks with NVIDIA RTX ® Virtual Workstation (vWS). The optimal upgrade solution for Quadro RTX 8000, RTX 6000 or T4 based systems. Office applications, video streaming and teleconferencing for graphically rich virtual desktops, accessible from anywhere. The optimal solution for upgrading systems based on M10 or T4.
vGPU software support NVIDIA AI Enterprise NVIDIA AI Enterprise NVIDIA RTX vWS, NVIDIA Virtual PC (vPC), NVIDIA Virtual Apps (vApps), NVIDIA AI Enterprise NVIDIA RTX vWS, vPC, vApps, NVIDIA AI Enterprise

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Modern graphic processors 2005 / Video cards

The competition between ATI and NVIDIA is intense (namely, they play the role of «trendsetters» in the graphic processor market) and, accordingly, the pace of development of the industry is extremely high: a new generation of graphic adapters replaces the previous one in on average, once every one and a half years. Therefore, many of those who do not have the opportunity to regularly monitor the events currently taking place in the computer graphics market are sure that real chaos reigns there, and it is in no way possible for a “mere mortal” to understand the situation. They are partly right: today in stores you can find more than a hundred different implementations of video cards obtained by the most bizarre combinations, various types of graphics chips and video memory, their operating frequencies and bus widths. But is everything as scary as it seems at first glance? Let’s try to figure this out.

NV4x graphics processors from NVIDIA

The NV4x series is the most popular family of NVIDIA graphics processors. Thanks to the very successful chips of this series, the Californian giant managed not only to improve its position in the market, undermined by the failure of the previous NV3x line, but also to demonstrate to the whole world stable growth trends, especially noticeable against the backdrop of certain failures that befell ATI in recent months.

The flagship model of the NV4x line is the NV40 chip, which was released in April 2004. It is produced according to a well-established, but rapidly outdated 130-nm process technology at IBM factories, its 222 million transistors consume up to 120 watts of energy, so the «power» capabilities of the standard AGP 8x interface are already sorely lacking, and video cards based on the NV40 usually install two (!) additional power connectors. And the cooling system of this entire «stove» should not be the weakest. Along with NV40, its PCI Express modification 9 is also being released.0134 NV45 , which differs from the base model only in the HSI bridge integrated into the AGP-PCI-E chip body. The NVIDIA production line also includes the NV48 chip, which differs from the basic NV40 only in that it is produced at TSMC factories. Thus, NVIDIA completely and completely abandoned IBM’s services in the field of chip manufacturing, and returned to its old and, apparently, more acceptable than IBM technology partner.

256-bit quad-channel (64×4 organization) NV40 memory interface provides connection of up to 1 GB of any type of memory — both conventional DDR1/DDR2 and specially designed for use in GDDR3 video devices.
As for the architectural features of the NV40, it is worth noting that it became the first graphics processor, the capabilities of which fully comply with the DirectX 9 requirements..0c, in other words, its computational capabilities allow the execution of shaders of the SM (Shader Model) 3. 0 version. High performance is provided by 6 vertex and 16 pixel pipelines (each of which, in turn, is equipped with two shader units and one texturing unit). Either two shader units or a texture unit and one of the shader units can work simultaneously. Thus, NV40 allows performing up to 16 texture operations or 32 operations with depth and template buffer per clock, providing anisotropic filtering with aspect ratio up to 16:1 inclusive.

Video cards based on the NV40/NV45/NV48 core are: GeForce 6800 Ultra, GeForce 6800 GT, GeForce 6800 and GeForce 6800 LE. The typical core/bus frequencies of the GeForce 6800 Ultra memory are 400 MHz/1.1 GHz, for the GeForce 6800 GT modification they are reduced to 350 MHz/1 GHz, for the GeForce 6800 — up to 325 MHz/700 MHz, and for the GeForce 6800 LE the frequency the parameters are not specified at all — everything is left to the discretion of the video card manufacturers. At the same time, the last two also have the number of pixel pipelines reduced to 12. Moreover, unlike the generally accepted practice, when «cutting down» is carried out by programmatically disabling a certain number of processors (which allows folk «craftsmen» to connect unused blocks by a simple operation, thus obtaining a fully functional GeForce 6800 for little money), in this case NVIDIA has released a special «truncated» kernel NV41 . It has only 12 «physical» pixel processors, while everything else is fully consistent with the base NV45. The NV42 core is the 110nm version of NV41. By the way, this is the basis of NVIDIA’s latest novelty — GeForce 6800 GS (chip frequency — 425 MHz, memory — 1000 MHz), designed to compete with ATI Radeon X1600 XT.

For mid-range graphics cards, NVIDIA released the NV43 graphics core in August 2004 , which is, however, somewhat simplified (by reducing the number of vertex and pixel processors and memory controller channels) solution based on the NV40 architecture. However, NV43 is made according to 0. 11-micron TSMC technology (the number of transistors in the core is 146 million), and, in addition, it became the first NVIDIA graphics core with an integrated PCI Express controller (it is possible to translate the PCI-E interface into APG 8x using double-sided PCI-E-AGP HSI bridge). Thanks to a «thinner» technological process and a smaller number of actuators in the core, NV43 heat dissipation does not exceed 70 W, that is, an additional power connector is not needed on a PCI-Express card.

The set of computing resources of the NV43 is exactly half that of the older model NV40 — it is equipped with eight pixel pipelines and three vertex pipelines, and the memory bus width has been reduced from 256 to 128 bits.

Currently, there are two Mainstream modifications of video cards based on the NV43 graphics processor — GeForce 6600 and GeForce 6600 GT, as well as one Low-End class — GeForce 6200 (however, it has recently been renamed GeForce 6600 LE). The core and memory bus frequencies of the GeForce 6600 are 300 and 550 (sometimes 500) MHz, while those of the GT modification are 500 and 1000 MHz, respectively. GeForce 6200/6600 LE uses «truncated» core NV43V with four (instead of 8) pixel pipelines, and its frequency range corresponds to that of GeForce 6600.

Due to the rather high clock speed of the chip, despite only 8 pixel rendering pipelines, NV43 provides even higher fillrate than the 12-pipeline GeForce 6800. However, the performance level of its «older comrade» GeForce 6600 GT cannot really be reached — the use of a 128-bit memory bus and the reduction of the number of vertex processors to 3 also have an effect, although all this made it possible to significantly reduce the price of the 6600 series. Therefore, it is not surprising that video cards based on GeForce 6600 GT chips and, especially, GeForce 6600, demonstrate the best price/performance ratio today.

The youngest model of the family of NVIDIA GeForce 6×00 graphics processors — GeForce 6200TC mainly uses the NV44 core, manufactured according to 0.11-micron design standards. As in the case of NV43, its PCI Express is native (that is, implemented on a chip), and the AGP 8x version of the chip is designated as NV44А . NV44 has 3 vertex processors, like NV43, and 4 pixel processors, there are no global architectural differences from NV40 and NV43.

The main performance limiter for the NV44 is the memory subsystem — the bus width is limited to 64-bits. The TC index indicates support for TurboCache technology, designed to use part of the system memory when rendering the frame buffer, fortunately, the bandwidth of the PCI-E x16 bus is enough for this. Of course, such video cards noticeably lose in terms of performance to their full-fledged counterparts, but they slightly outperform them in terms of cost. And for budget solutions, every dollar saved can be decisive in promoting the solutions of one or another competing firm to the market. Nevertheless, for someone who wants to save a little by purchasing such a video card, such a gain will be illusory. After all, system memory, especially DDR2, from which the video system «chops off» its part, is by no means dimensionless and far from free.

NVIDIA G7x Series GPUs

Midsummer 2005 marked a new milestone in NVIDIA’s history with the release of the next-generation G70 GPU. But, despite the new code name of the chip, its architecture cannot be considered fundamentally new — it is the next stage in the evolution of the well-known architecture of the NV4x family (which is evidenced by the original code designation of the chip — NV47).

Plus, NVIDIA didn’t take risks and released it using TSMC’s well-established 110nm process technology, so it’s not surprising that GF7800GTX family video cards became available in mass quantities immediately after the announcement.

The main innovation of the G70, which is based on the same Shader Model 3.0 (SM 3.0) shader set, is an increase to 24 (or, in NVIDIA terminology, up to 6 quad processors) number of pixel processors slightly improved compared to NV4x, and vertex — up to 8, the amount of addressable memory type GDDR3 can reach 1 GB. In addition, the optimization of power and power consumption was carried out, thanks to which the typical consumption of the GeForce 7800 GTX video card does not exceed 110 watts, that is, it remains at the level of the GeForce 6800 Ultra, despite the 30% increase in the number of transistors.
The G70 introduces hardware support for a number of potential «hits» of the near future: HDTV video playback, as well as support for important accessibility features of the Windows Vista graphics driver model.
In addition to the high-end video card GeForce 7800 GTX (430/1200 MHz), the G70 processor is also installed in its slightly more modest counterpart — the GeForce 7800 GT, which differs from the GTX not only in lowered (up to 400/1000 MHz) frequencies, but also in a reduced number of pipelines (20 pixel and 7 vertex) rendering, which places it (in terms of performance) somewhere between the GeForce 7800 GTX and GeForce 6800 Ultra.

The next new NVIDIA chips should be G72 and G74 (the official names are GeForce 7600 and GeForce 7200), which should be expected in February-March 2006. They will most likely be stripped down versions of the base G70, and will be NVIDIA’s first 0.09 micron graphics chips. They should replace NV43 and NV44 in the Mainstream and Low-End sectors, respectively. Thus, in the next six months, NVIDIA is going to completely replace all NV4x chips with new products from the G7x line. In addition, NVIDIA plans to introduce chip 9 in early 2006.0134 G71 which is a 0.09 µm version of the G70 with a smaller die area and lower power consumption.

ATI R4xx graphics processors

For more than a year, ATI’s flagship graphics processor, which became the basis for the entire Radeon R4xx family, was R420 , largely repeating the architecture of the previous, very successful R300 family. Moreover, the main characteristics of the Radeon X800 (it is under this marketing name that the graphics processor based on the R420 core is known) are in many respects similar to its main competitor, the NV40.

Judge for yourself: both are manufactured to 0.13-micron design standards, both are equipped with four-channel 256-bit memory controllers compatible with advanced GDDR-3 memory, their geometric processing units have the same number of vertex processors — 6 each, pixel pipelines — 16 each, and each of them is equipped with two shader units and one texture unit. And there is nothing surprising in this — both companies, each going their own way, are trying to get the optimal solution based on a well-established structure of graphics pipelines.
However, unlike the NV40, the R420 graphics core provides hardware compatibility only with shaders of the 2.0b generation (by the way, not accepted by Microsoft as an official standard) and does not fully meet the requirements of the DirectX 9 specification..0s.

The power consumption of the R420 is relatively low — it consumes about 90 W and still needs an additional connection to the computer’s power supply to power it, the core heat dissipation level is low and, unlike the NV40, allows the use of a more compact and less noisy cooling system.
Initially, R420 GPUs were equipped with an integrated AGP controller, but there is another modification of it — R423 , which is distinguished by the presence of a PCI Express controller. In general, there are currently five modifications of the R42x core. The most popular today is the relatively new chip R430 , which is a 0.11 µm variant of R423, as well as R480 (PCI Express) and R481 (AGP) chips — optimized and slightly «overclocked» (due to 0.13 µm process technology using low-k dielectrics ) variants R423 and R420 respectively. All of them serve as the basis for a dozen different modifications of ATI video cards. So, based on the R480, the top PCI Express video cards Radeon X850 XT Platinum Edition (operating frequencies of the chip / memory are 540/1180 MHz), Radeon X850 XT (520/1080 MHz) and Radeon X850 Pro (the frequencies are the same as those of the X850 XT, but the number of pixel pipelines is reduced to 12), and R481 are their AGP counterparts.

In the Radeon X800 family, by now, the outdated R423/R420 has been almost completely replaced by the more promising R430, which is used in relatively inexpensive PCI Express video cards Radeon X800 XL (400/980 MHz) and Radeon X800 (400/700 MHz and 12 pixel conveyors). With the help of an optional PCI-E/AGP Rialto bridge, AGP options are obtained. In addition, recently, apparently in order to fully utilize the available stocks of top-end chips of the R4xx family, on the eve of the 500 series, ATI has released two new series of low-cost video cards Radeon X800 GT (8 pixel pipelines, operating frequencies 475/980 or 700 MHz) and Radeon X800 GTO (12 pixel pipelines, operating frequencies 400/980 or 700 MHz).

The core RV410 , designed to create mid-range Radeon X700 video cards, is designed to compete with the extremely successful NVIDIA GeForce 6600 GT. It is a scalable (by reducing the number of pipelines and memory controller channels) solution based on the R420 architecture, but manufactured to 0.11-µm design standards (using low-k dielectrics). The number of pixel pipelines in it is halved compared to the R420 (to 8), and the memory bus is «shrunk» to 128 bits. But the number of vertex pipelines remained unchanged (6), which gives boards with RV410 a certain advantage when competing with the GeForce 6600 (with only 3 vertex units). The chip consumes less than 70 watts of power (that’s why the PCI-Express card does not need a connector for additional power), the only interface provided is PCI Express.

Based on RV410, there are video cards of two modifications — Radeon X700 Pro and X700, the core/memory bus clock speeds of these models are 420/864 MHz and 400/700 MHz, respectively. At the same time, the first of them also has an AGP variant obtained by using the Rialto bridge.

The R4xx family, unfortunately, cannot boast of solutions for budget video cards — it is not clear why ATI decided to leave the previous generation core architecture for its line of mid-range and low-end graphics processors — RV380 for Radeon X600 and RV370 for Radeon X300 respectively. Therefore, they are only compatible with the base DirectX 9.0 (SM 2.0) specification and do not have the new features of the R4xx family of kernels. Both cores have four pixel and two vertex pipelines, and differ from each other mainly in the process technology used: while RV380 is manufactured according to 0. 13-micron design standards, RV370 has been switched to a more advanced 0.11-micron process technology.

At present, RV380 is used to produce mid-range video cards — Radeon X600 XT and Radeon X600 Pro with core/memory bus frequencies of 500/740 MHz and 400/600 MHz, respectively. Value-class is represented by video cards Radeon X550 (400/500 MHz), Radeon X300 and X300 SE (325/400 MHz). The maximum bus width reaches 128 bits for all models, except for the X300 SE modification, in which it is limited to 64 bits. However, thanks to sometimes unnecessarily «thrifty» vendors, 64-bit «stubs» like X550 and X300 are very often found. At the very «bottom» of the budget segment, its no less odious twin from ATI — Radeon X300 SE HM (325/296 MHz), equipped with a system for using part of the system memory for the needs of the Hyper Memory video system, which is not much different from TurboCache.

ATI R5xx graphic processors

The family of R4xx video processors is good for everyone, but today, in the days of the triumphal procession of the new top NVIDIA G70 graphic processor, it already looks a bit «pale». And a worthy response to NVIDIA’s new products was greatly delayed. The announcement of a new generation of processors was originally expected almost in May, then a series of more and more transfers followed, associated, according to ATI, with the unsatisfactory yield of usable chips manufactured by 9TSMC’s 0nm process. Finally, at the beginning of October 2005, the long-awaited came true — ATI announced the release of a new family of R5xx graphics processors designed for Radeon X1800, Radeon X1600 and Radeon X1300 video cards.

Top of the line is the high performance chip R520 . Manufactured on a 90nm process, it has 16 pixel pipelines grouped into 4 quad processors (consisting of four pixel pipelines each) as well as 8 vertex processors. The main differences between the R520 and previous ATI video processors are the long-awaited support for SM 3.0 shaders at the hardware level, as well as the new ring internal 512-bit RingBus memory bus, which ensures stable operation of the chip at very high clock frequencies. Programmable eight-channel 256-bit (8×32) memory controller supports all modern types of GDDR memory, as well as the new GDDR4, which is expected in the near future.

This is not the end of architecture improvements: also added color representation in the dynamic range (HDR, High Dynamic Range) and dynamic data flow control, and efficient load distribution between pixel processors (in ATI terminology — Ultra-Threading Dispatch Processor, by analogy with Intel Hyper-Threading). The development company also provided high-quality and comprehensive support for high-quality video (including an HDMI interface for outputting images and sound to digital cinemas and other new-generation audio / video playback devices), as well as ATI Avivo technology, for which the R520 chip provides a special a video processor that performs video decoding, post-processing and display.

So it’s not surprising that the R520 graphics processor turned out to be more complex than the NVIDIA G70. As a result, despite the presence of 16 pixel processors versus 24 for the competitor’s product, the total number of transistors reached 320 million, which made the R520 the most complex graphics processor in the world. And if we take into account its high operating frequency, then the sad «leadership» in heat dissipation, previously held by NV40, is guaranteed. After all, graphics cards Radeon X1800 XT, made on the basis of R520, will support a core clock frequency of 625 MHz, and the memory will operate at frequencies up to 1.5 GHz. More affordable Radeon X1800 XL cards will support 500 MHz core clock speeds and up to 1.0 GHz memory speeds. Both of them are fairly heated, despite the «monstrous» cooling systems that occupy two slots.

A less powerful version of the new GPU — RV530 has: three quad pixel processors (12 pixel processors), 5 vertex processors and a total of 4 texture units. To some extent, such a strong «truncation» compared to the basic version is compensated by optimizing the operation of Ultra-Threading pipelines. The progressive RingBus remains, but it has become twice «thinner», so the external memory interface of the RV530 is only 128-bit. But every cloud has a silver lining — the new chip turned out to be very compact (the area of ​​the RV530 chip is almost equal to that of the RV380) and economical.
It is expected that the Radeon X1600 family will take the place of the Radeon X700 Pro, and will also replace the younger models of the Radeon X800 line. Mainsteram Radeon X1600 XT cards will have a core clock speed of 590 MHz and a memory clock speed of 1.38 GHz. Cards based on the Radeon X1600 PRO chip will support a core frequency of 500 MHz and a memory frequency of 780 MHz.

The lowest line in ATI’s new line of video chips is occupied by the RV515 chip, thanks to which all kinds of RV3xx will finally become a thing of the past. It contains only 4 pixel and 2 vertex processors. As in the case of the RV530, ATI implemented the Ultra-Threading technology in it, which provides even load distribution between pixel processors. It also features Avivo’s video processor for enhanced video display and hardware decoding of the next-generation H.264 DVD format. But the RingBus bus architecture, unfortunately, is not supported.

Nevertheless, the performance of Radeon X1300 Pro video cards based on RV515 chips with a core clock speed of about 600 MHz and a memory of 800 MHz roughly corresponds to the Radeon X700 (but not Pro!). Mass and relatively inexpensive Radeon X1300 cards will support 450 MHz core clock and 500 MHz memory clock. Ultra-budget versions of the Radeon X1300 with HyperMemory technology will support a core clock speed of 450 MHz, memory up to 1 GHz. It is also possible that video cards of the Radeon X1300 family will appear, supporting the AGP 8x interface with the help of a Rialto transitional bridge. With only 30W of power dissipation, the silent Radeon X1300 equipped with a passive heatpipe cooling system will look very attractive.

Around the first quarter of 2006, ATI should introduce a new flagship — the R580 chip. Obviously, it will not bring any architectural or technological changes compared to the R520, but will only provide a certain performance boost (either due to a simple increase in the operating frequency of the chip, or due to an increase in the number of pixel pipelines — for now, for sure not known).

And here are the subsequent graphics processors of the intermediate (i. e., occupying a place approximately between the high-performance R580 chip and the «middle» RV530) level R560 , as well as the average (RV535) and the initial (RV505) levels expected closer to the summer of 2007, are of much greater interest — they will most likely become the first 0.08 micron ATI chips. Such a «modest» step forward compared to the current 0.09 micron process technology is explained by the limited technological capabilities of the main manufacturers of ATI chips — TSMC and UMC. Now mass production according to the 0.065 micron process technology is only possible for such «giants» as IBM and Intel.

click the table to enlarge

click the table to enlarge

Looking ahead designation WGF 2.0 (former DirectX 10). Through the efforts of ATI and Microsoft, this graphical interface is based on the philosophy of unifying shader operations at the software level, which graphics processors with a fundamentally new, unified architecture will be able to implement, in which there will be no division into pixel and vertex shaders.

The load distribution will be monitored by a special block that dynamically determines what currently requires priority processing: vertices or pixels. Apparently, ATI has already decided that the unified architecture is the future, because for its C1 (or Xenos) chip, which will become the heart of the graphics subsystem of the Xbox 360 game console, the Canadian company has chosen just such an architecture. The chip will contain 16 texture fetch units and 48 universal pipelines that can perform both pixel and vertex operations. Based on it, next year we can expect the appearance of a truly revolutionary family of video chips R6xx .

NVIDIA, which is planning to introduce WGF 2.0 solutions in the new generation graphic accelerators G8x , is unlikely to lag far behind the Microsoft/ATI team in promoting a fundamentally new architecture. So, in 2006, namely for this period, the announcement of Windows Vista with the unified WGF 2.0 API is planned, we can witness a real breakthrough, thanks to which, at last, the asymmetry in the capabilities of texture units of vertex and pixel shaders, which is characteristic of all modern video processors, will disappear , including the latest — G70 and R520.