Are founder edition cards better: Are Founders Edition GPUs Any Good?

Are Founders Edition GPUs Any Good?

Are Founders Edition GPUs any good? If so, are they worth picking over other GPU options?

Today, I’m going to teach you everything you need to know about Founders Edition graphics cards, and by the time I’m done, you’ll know for sure whether or not you should pick one.

What is a Founders Edition GPU?

Before I properly explain what a Founders Edition GPU is, it’s important to understand how graphics cards are distributed.

While all current PC graphics cards are manufactured by Nvidia or AMD (eventually Intel), you’ll most likely be buying the graphics card from one of their hardware partners rather than AMD or Nvidia themselves.

For non-Founders Edition graphics cards, the process goes something like this:

  1. Nvidia manufactures the GPU. Not the full graphics card, but rather the necessary GPU chip for the graphics card to function.
  2. Once the GPU has been manufactured, it’s sent to something called an AIB (Add-In Board) Partner. These are your GPU brands like EVGA and Gigabyte.
  3. Once the AIB Partner in question has the chip, they can do what they want with it before putting out a card (within limits). This means adding their own cooling to it, binning chips for higher-end overclocked versions of the graphics card, and so on.

With a Founders Edition graphics card, the process instead goes like this:

  1. Nvidia manufactures the GPU, and “bins” some high-quality chips. The ones they don’t keep for themselves go to AIB partners in the process described above.
  2. Once Nvidia has their ideal chips, they can slap them into their own Founders Edition cards with their custom cooling setup.
    Additionally, these Founders Edition cards will often run at higher clocks than the “reference” spec that is sent to AIB partners, but AIB partners tend to overclock and tweak their cards anyways.
  3. Since there is no longer a middle man, Nvidia is now free to sell their Founders Edition graphics cards and pocket more of the profit than they would if an AIB partner sold it instead.

So basically, a Founders Edition GPU is a GPU that you buy directly from Nvidia rather than a partner. This is similar in concept to buying a reference design or “stock” GPU, but those are actually meant to be as cheap as possible.

In contrast, since Nvidia launched the Founders Edition line in 2016, Founders Edition cards are instead seen as premium products with a markup from the base GPU’s MSRP.

Does AMD Have Founders Edition GPUs?


While AMD does have reference design cards that it sells directly to consumers, they have no marketing or price markup compared to non-reference cards.

This is how Nvidia used to do things prior to the GTX 10-series’ release in 2016, but since then only AMD has been carrying the torch of selling cheap reference design cards directly to consumers.

This doesn’t make buying reference GPUs from AMD an inferior option by any means, though, especially not if you’re picking a card that’s outperforming a similar Nvidia option for the price.

Are Founders Edition GPUs Always Blower-Style?

A common myth these days is that all Founders Edition graphics cards are blower-style, but this is a myth that’s actually rooted in some fact.

While this is no longer the case, there was a time when both Nvidia and AMD’s stock designs were only blower style, rather than open-air or any kind of alternatives.

Starting with the RTX 20 series’ release, Nvidia began using a dual-fan open-air cooling design for their Founders Edition graphics cards instead of their previously-traditional blower-style cooler design.

The RTX 30 series still uses dual fans, but is something of a hybrid between the two styles of design, since one fan serves to exhaust air out of the case while another serves to push air up through the heatsink (and exhaust some heat into the case).

There are some mixed pros and cons to adopting an open-air design over a blower-style design.

For a well-ventilated, non-Mini ITX case, an open air styled graphics card will generally be preferred.

Open-air graphics cards tend to run a little quieter, colder, and faster than their blower-style counterparts, especially with the factory overclocking that’s common from both Nvidia and other GPU providers.

However, there are scenarios where a blower-style graphics card is better than an open-air alternative.

If you’re building in a Mini ITX case or hoping to run a multi-GPU setup (both scenarios where an open-air card would be choked of airflow and exhaust more heat into the rest of the PC/components), a blower-style graphics card will actually run much cooler.

This is because the two different styles of graphics card cooling get rid of heat differently.

An open-air graphics card gets rid of heat by exhausting it in pretty much every direction after taking in cool air from the fans. This is fine in a larger case with good airflow, but becomes problematic if the cooling fans don’t have sufficient room to breathe.

Additionally, if your airflow isn’t up to par, you run the risk of your graphics card making other components in your system run hotter, since it’s heat isn’t being effectively dissipated from your machine.

Meanwhile, a blower-style graphics card intakes all of its air from a single fan…and exhausts it all in one go, outside of the case.

If you’re stacking graphics cards in a multi-GPU setup (or a NVLink setup, if you’re thinking Nvidia) or building in a Mini ITX case, you can achieve some pretty great results with a blower-style card.

Speaking of Founders Edition cards specifically, the RTX 30-series Founders Edition cards are somewhat well-balanced for both scenarios.

Want to learn more about GPU cooler designs? Check out Alex’s full article on Open-Air vs Blower-Style Coolers!

What Makes Founders Edition GPUs Better Than Other GPUs?

So if Nvidia is willing to mark up the price and amp up the advertising for a Founders Edition graphics card, what makes them so much better than other options?

Founders Edition cards have replaced cheaper reference design cards in the market, and indicate a willingness from Nvidia to compete directly with their partners.

I think it’s fair to say that Nvidia had better be willing to back that up:


To help answer this question, let’s discuss binning. We’ve mentioned this process in passing earlier in the article, but now it’s time to explain it a little more.

Basically, when any processor (GPU or CPU) is being manufactured, there’s something called a binning process that occurs.

The binning process involves testing each and every chip that is manufactured and “binning” them based on performance.

An interesting thing about binning is that it can sometimes result in entirely new products.

For instance, let’s say Intel tries to make a six-core Intel CPU, but learn during the binning process that two of those cores aren’t working well enough to sell the whole package.

It’d be a waste of good materials to just throw it all away at that point, so instead the CPU is rebranded as a four-core part, the dysfunctional cores are disabled, and the final product is sold to consumers.

In the case of Founders Edition graphics cards, binning is part of the reason why they’re considered a good option.

Since Nvidia is in charge of manufacturing all of its GPU chips, it can selectively bin high-performing chips to use with its Founders Edition graphics cards before selling the others to its partners.

However, this doesn’t mean that every partner card has an inferior chip- many on the high-end are also thoroughly binned.

Besides binning, it’s also worth discussing pricing and cooling.

If you’re lucky enough to check out a Founders Edition graphics card when it’s available in a direct sale from Nvidia’s website, you’ll be getting the card at MSRP instead of the dramatically inflated prices of other outlets.

This isn’t usually an option, though, and outside of this scenario, Founders Edition cards can actually be more expensive than alternative options.

Meanwhile, current-gen Founders Edition cards are actually fairly well-cooled, thanks to their hybrid approach to GPU cooler design.

Cooling Setup of Nvidia RTX 30 Series Founder Edition GPUs – Image-Credit: Nvidia

With good binning on top of good cooling, it also makes Founders Edition cards a viable choice for GPU overclocking, which can help enthusiasts squeeze just that extra bit of performance and lifespan out of a graphics card.

Where Do Founders Edition GPUs Falter Compared To Other GPUs?

Now, let’s discuss where Founders Edition graphics cards fall short.

One big issue is pricing, especially if you aren’t buying directly from Nvidia. Even prior to chip shortages, Founders Edition cards came with a price premium over budget options from AIB partners.

During the pandemic, where most cards are sold on storefronts or by scalpers at MUCH higher prices than MSRP, this difference has become a lot less apparent…but it’s not what I would call a win for Founders Edition cards.

Next is actually still raw performance and overclocking potential.

While it’s true that Founders Edition cards are pretty good in this regard still, they don’t quite match up to the highest-end graphics cards from Nvidia’s partners. I’d choose a high-end EVGA RTX 3060 over a Founders Edition RTX 3060 any day of the week, for instance, and not just because of more powerful cooling or a slightly higher overclock.

Founders Edition cards may be straight-up superior to budget partner cards, but when the partners themselves choose to compete with their own binning and cooling…Nvidia doesn’t always come out on top. Thus, is the nature of competing with your own hardware partners, it seems.


Are Reference Design GPUs The Same as Founder’s Edition GPUs?

No. While some partners are still putting out reference design GPUs for Nvidia, Founders Edition cards are meaningfully different from the reference cards that Nvidia used to sell themselves.

We’ve discussed why in detail in the article above, but the short version is that a Founders Edition graphics card is meant to directly compete with custom designs from partners rather than provide a cheaper point of entry.

What Alternatives Should I Consider To A Founders Edition Card?

If you aren’t sure about getting a Founders Edition card, or you just want a good idea of what else to consider, you’re in the right place.

First, let’s talk about a few options that become available when you get an Nvidia graphics card from a partner instead of Nvidia.

These options include:

  • Smaller versions of the GPU in question.
    Not all GPUs have more compact partner versions, but for the ones that do, getting a smaller card that can actually fit in a more compact case may be the better option than a bulkier design from a Founders Edition card or a partner.
  • High-end cards with better cooling, better overclocking potential, or both.
    Especially from brands like EVGA, there are ample options for great Nvidia graphics cards without needing to buy a Founders Edition.
    You aren’t gonna liquid cool that Founders Edition, but an EVGA card can come with a liquid cooler!
  • Full blower-style cards for use in multi-GPU configurations or Mini ITX PC builds.
    As discussed earlier in the article, blower-style cooling has its own unique benefits and the current generation of Founders Edition cards still exhaust some heat into the rest of the case.
    An informed purchase of a blower-style card can be a better option for many customers.


This is about where I’m ready to wrap things up, but before I go, remember that you’re welcome to ask any lingering questions you may have in the comments section.

I’d also like to point you in the direction of Best GPU Brands for AMD and Nvidia for further reading since you’ll get a better idea of the alternative options available to you (compared to Founders Edition cards).

To tie a neat little bow on this whole thing, let’s rewind back to the initial question: are Founders Edition GPUs any good?

Certainly. They aren’t the best by any stretch of the imagination, though.

Do your research and choose the card that’s best for your particular needs- that could be a Founders Edition card, but it could also be any number of competing alternatives.

Over to You

If you have any other questions about founders edition GPUs, let us know in the comments below or our forum!

CGDirector is Reader-supported. When you buy through our links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

Should You Get The Founders Edition GPU? – Graphics Cards Advisor

As technology advances, more and more people are interested in getting their hands on the latest and greatest gadgets. The same can be said for graphics cards, or GPUs. Many people are wondering if they should get the Founders Edition GPU.
The answer to this question is complicated. It depends on a few factors, such as budget and what games you want to play. In general, the Founders Edition GPU is a great choice for gamers who want the best possible performance. However, it is important to keep in mind that there are other options available on the market.

Graphics cards based on the Founders Edition are intended to be more expensive than reference designs. AMD sells reference design cards directly to consumers, but there is no marketing or price markup. By no means are they inferior, especially if they compare favorably to a similar Nvidia product for the same price. If the enclosure is well-ventilated and does not have a mini ITX port, the graphics card should be open-flamed. Graphics cards designed for open-air use tend to be quieter, colder, and faster than those designed for blower use. An open-air card, on the other hand, can be more useful if you’re running multiple graphics cards. In recent years, the market for reference design cards has shifted to the Founders Edition.

Testing each and every chip in production and sizing them based on their performance is a critical step in the manufacturing process. If you can get the card when it is available in a direct sale on Nvidia’s website, you will get it at MSRP rather than at any other retailer. A good binning and cooling system, along with low cost, are what set Founders Edition cards apart from others. Nonetheless, they are not as good as Nvidia’s partners’ high-end graphics cards. If I had to pick a card every day, I would prefer a high-end EVGA RTX 3060 over a Founders Edition. The Founders Edition cards are significantly more expensive than reference cards that Nvidia once sold themselves. An Founders Edition graphics card is designed to compete directly with custom designs from partners rather than provide a lower-cost entry point. Other options, such as Nvidia graphics cards from a partner, can be obtained after purchasing an Nvidia graphics card.

Are Founder Edition Gpu Better?

Credit: WCCFtech

Binning is one of the reasons why Founders Edition graphics cards are regarded as a good choice. Because Nvidia manufactures all of its GPU chips, it can selectively remove high-performing chips from use with its Founders Edition graphics cards before selling others to its partners.

When it comes to the selection of PC parts, graphics cards are regarded as one of the most important considerations. Each vendor creates cards based on the same reference specifications, and different architectures are used to achieve the same result. You can choose between a reference or Founders Edition card made by Nvidia or AMD, or a card made by a third-party partner. Customers who purchase a Founder Edition card will receive exclusive benefits. Graphics cards with higher base and clock boosts are typically sold by AIBs in addition to the Founders Edition. Nvidia bins its GPUs and focuses on its own; however, partners continue to push their parts further. The Nvidia 20-series Founders Edition graphics cards are distinguished by dual-axial fan configurations rather than blower-style coolers.

Third-party AIBs spend more money on cooler systems that better disperse heat while also producing less noise. You can easily change the cooler by making sure it fits into your existing case. Custom AIB card water blocks are built by EK Water Blocks. Other water cooling companies are generally not involved in the development of custom PCB designs. There is usually a greater selection of aftermarket water cooling support available for reference and founder cards. AMD continues to sell reference design cards, but only the ultra-high-end Vega and Vega Pro series are available. Nvidia has the advantage of being able to tell you more about its hardware specifications than anyone else. The value of purchasing a reference or Founders Edition graphics card for early adopters is in keeping up with the latest and greatest technology. If performance is a priority, you should consider a custom AIB card that has a robust cooling solution.

Nvidia’s Rtx 3090 Founders Edition: Excellent Performance At High Temperatures

When temperatures are high, the Nvidia Founders Edition cards provide excellent performance, allowing overclockers to squeeze a few extra performance gains from the CPU. The company’s own path to revolution in PC gaming sets it apart from other reference cards. In terms of mining performance, the RTX 3090 Founders Edition is not the best, but it is used 2% more power, 11% slower, and 2% less power in this sample.

Is The Founder Edition Good?

Credit: Good Gear Guide

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the founder edition of a product may be good for some people and not so good for others. It really depends on each individual’s needs and preferences. Some people may find that the founder edition offers all the features and benefits they need, while others may prefer the more basic version of the product. Ultimately, it is up to the individual to decide whether the founder edition is good for them.

The GeForce RTX 3090 is without a doubt one of the most impressive pieces of hardware on the market. The card has far superior performance to even the most expensive GeForce GTX 1070 cards, and it has far superior graphics capabilities to the most expensive. It is unquestionably one of the best graphics cards on the market, and it is ideal for anyone looking for the highest performance.

Nvidia’s Rtx 3090 Founders Edition: The Best Of The Best

There is a noticeable distinction between the Founders Edition and the other variants in terms of craftsmanship. This card is without a doubt Nvidia’s best yet, and it’s clear that the company is devoted to providing its customers with the best possible experience. If you’re looking for a card that will help you get the most out of your gaming experience, the RTX 3090 Founders Edition is a great choice.

Is The Rtx 3090 Founders Edition Worth It?

The Nvidia GeForce RTX 3090 is the most powerful graphics card on the market today, capable of performing playable 8K gaming as well as outstanding 3D rendering and encoding. To have this level of power, however, you must pay a high price.

The GeForce RTX 3090 is Nvidia’s flagship platform based on the company’s Ampere architecture. Nvidia has completely reinvented the designs for its RTX 30-series cards with the help of the Founders Edition. It is a massive triple card design, but it is also made of clean black and sliver metal finishes and rounded edges, giving it a completely classy appearance inside any chassis. The RTX 3090 is a quiet card, with only the noise of moving air kicking up the decibels as soon as you start stressing it, the majority of the time. When there are high noise levels under load, however, it can be difficult to manage. This is Ampere unimpeded, with a base clock speed of 1395MHz and a maximum clock speed of 1800MHz. Based on the Ampere architecture, both traditional rasterization workloads and even more impressive workstation workloads can be realized, and even RT cores can be stressed to achieve even greater performance gains.

DLSS can transform playable but sub-par framerates into highly smooth experiences when combined with a monitor that supports G-Sync. It is a great card, perhaps only slightly letdown, with a solid 10GB of VRAM, compared to a 24GB one in the RTX 3080. Nvidia should also stock the Founders Edition in its local market. Obtaining one is almost guaranteed to result in a GPU designed specifically for you.

Is The Rtx 3080 Founders Edition Worth It?

When compared to the previous-generation card it replaces (the GeForce RTX 2080 Founders Edition), the RTX 3080 Founders Edition’s results in F1 2020 were up to 70 percent faster. While both the GeForce RTX 2080 Ti and the GeForce RTX 2080 Super were competitive, the

Founders Edition Gpus

Founders Edition GPUs are special edition GPUs that are released by graphics card companies. These GPUs are usually released to commemorate a milestone or to celebrate a special event. They are often more expensive than regular GPUs, and they usually come with special features or aesthetics that make them stand out from the crowd.

Are Founder Edition Gpu Good?

overclockers can use the cooler to squeeze a few extra performance gains out of the CPU when using the Founders Edition card

What Is Special About The Founders Edition Nvidia?

For our own GeForce RTX graphics cards, we created the Turing Edition, the first NVIDIA-designed gaming graphics card to launch with a factory overclock for superior out-of-the-box performance, as well as the first to feature dual fans for cool-yet-quiet gaming.

Nvidia Founders Edition Card

Nvidia’s Founders Edition cards are reference models that the company produces in-house. Nvidia sells these cards at a higher price than AIB (add-in-board) partners, which are the companies that produce and sell the majority of Nvidia’s graphics cards. The Founders Edition cards are meant to show off what Nvidia’s GPUs are capable of and are generally considered to be the best performing option. However, they are not always the most expensive option, as AIBs often release their own high-end cards that are priced higher than the Founders Edition.

The graphics card is the most important component of a gaming or creative computer. The GPU’s design is geared toward improving graphics rendering speed as 3D graphics become more common. Nvidia refers to their reference cards as “Founders Edition” whenever they release a new chip. It should be noted that aftermarket cards are of higher quality than original editions. Nvidia’s original graphics cards will be competing with versions from its partner companies such as EVGA, MSI, and Zotac. AIB partners can modify the PCB layout and electronic components of the design to make it even better. The aftermarket version has a greater advantage over the original version.

The RTX 30 Founders Edition is equipped with new performance and aesthetics features. In terms of design, we can see improvements in the cooling system’s architecture, with better airflow and acoustics. It is not only a reference card, but it is also a formidable opponent for aftermarket cards.

What Is Nvidia Founders Edition Gpu?

The graphics cards are the first to incorporate AI-enhanced gaming and ray-tracing effects into AI-enhanced games. To top it off, they’re blisteringly fast, and they can trace data at up to 6X faster than previous Pascal-architecture cards.

Nvidia Geforce Rtx 3090 Founders Edition: The Most Powerful And Expensive Graphics Card

The GeForce RTX 3090 Founders Edition is a massive graphics card with three slots and a size of 12 inches long and three slots. Nvidia’s graphics card has also set a new price record, with the regular model costing $499 and the Founders Edition costing $549.
The GeForce RTX 3090 is a powerful graphics card designed for high-end gaming that is Nvidia’s fastest graphics card to date. It is one of the most expensive graphics cards Nvidia has ever released, selling for $499 on the regular model and $549 on the Founders Edition.
Depending on your budget and your personal preference, you might want the best graphics card Nvidia has ever released. If you have a lot of money to spend on a graphics card, the GeForce RTX 3090 Founders Edition from Nvidia is the best value on the market.

Graphics Card Face-Off: Founders Edition or Reference GPUs vs 3rd-Party Design

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When piecing together a custom computer—especially one that will be used for gaming—the graphics card choice is one of the most critical selections. It’s important to get the right card for your gaming needs. But unfortunately, selecting a GPU is one of the most complicated aspects of PC part selection. Not only are there different architectures to pick between, there are different vendors making graphic cards based off the same reference specifications.

Should you buy a reference or Founders Edition card made by the architecture’s designer, Nvidia or AMD, or a card built around AMD or Nvidia’s GPUs, but made by a third-party partner like MSI, Gigabyte or Asus?

There are so many variables to consider when purchasing a graphics card that we’re going to break it down into bite-sized chunks instead of throwing it all at your at once. For this article, we’re not going to get into the different GPU performance tiers (you can find that on our GPU benchmarks page), and we’re not going to delve into the benefits of Nvidia’s cards compared to those from AMD.

Before you can make an informed purchase, you must first understand the differences between a factory reference or Founders Edition card and an add-in board (AIB) partner’s custom card. There are pros and cons for both options, which may not be evident at first glance.

What Is a Reference or Founders Edition Graphics Card?

When Nvidia or AMD design a new graphics processor, they define the minimum hardware specifications—known as the reference design—which manufacturers must follow to build graphics cards with the new GPUs.

Nvidia and AMD give the reference specifications to their partners, who build graphics cards that adhere to the unique specifications. Partners are also allowed to improve upon the reference design and create custom cards with overclocked GPUs and memory and with better components, such as higher-quality capacitors or more robust power phases. Custom graphics cards almost always include improved cooling solutions too. But they also carry higher price tags than reference cards, which were traditionally sold in limited quantities with lower profit margins. 

When Nvidia launched its 10-series (based on the Pascal architecture) in 2016, the company also introduced the concept of the Founders Edition graphics card, which is slightly different than the reference approach. Founders Edition cards are sort of like reference design cards, but are meant to be sold to the general public with the Nvidia branding and, thus, compete with partner cards based off the same reference architecture.  

Clock Speed Advantage

Nvidia cherry-picks the most robust GPU samples for its Founders Edition cards, which gives them a performance advantage over the basic reference configuration. Founders Edition cards offer higher boost clock speeds than the reference specifications. 

However, custom cards from AIBs often offer even higher clock speeds for improved performance. Nvidia poaches the best GPUs for their Founders Edition cards, but partner manufacturers also sort their their GPU allotment based on overclocking ability and other performance factors (a process known as binning), giving the best chips to their top cards. The most-capable GPUs are usually paired with over-engineered power delivery systems, high-quality components and robust cooling solutions that enable you to squeeze a few more megahertz out of your chip.

If you’re shopping for an AMD card, you may or may not have the option of purchasing a reference card (the Radeon RX 580 isn’t available in a reference config), but if you can, it will almost always feature a lower clock speed than partner cards with the same GPU.

Winner: AIB. Nvidia bins its GPUs and keeps the best for itself, but that doesn’t stop the company’s partners from pushing their parts even further than Nvidia. AIBs often sell graphics cards with higher base and boost clocks than a Founders Edition card.

Overclocking Performance

Choosing a graphics card with the intent to overclock is a mixed bag. On the one hand, AIB cards are often meant for overclocking, with PCBs featuring additional layers and extra copper in the circuity to handle increased power input.

AIBs will also improve the power delivery systems, sometimes offering as much as 12-phase power to stabilize the power draw. Some custom cards also feature additional power plugs to deliver the power required for extreme overclocking.

However, we can’t overlook the support for aftermarket water-cooling solutions that you get with reference cards. And in the case of Nvidia’s Founders Edition cards, the binned GPUs have potential to produce higher overclocks than some custom cards.

Winner: AIB. There’s no guarantee that either option will give you better performance. Ultimately, it all comes down to the silicon lottery. Any graphics card can be overclocked, but on average you should get the best results with a card that was engineered to be pushed to its limits.

Air Cooling Solutions

Traditionally, the included coolers for reference graphics cards get the job done but not efficiently. You often find blower-style coolers on reference cards, which are effective but loud. To draw enough air over the card and push it out the vents on the back, the blower fan must spin fast, which creates significant noise.

Blower-style coolers are suitable for cramped spaces where you need to exhaust the hot air out the back of the PC case. But if you have a chassis with good air flow, a dual- or triple-fan solution typically keeps temperatures down without creating as much noise.

Nvidia moved away from the blower-style fan for its 20-series Founders Edition lineup. The company’s new cooler features a dual-fan setup that pushes the hot air back into the case for the case fans to dump outside. Unfortunately, Nvidia valued aesthetics here more than cooling efficiency, as it blocked most of the heatsink’s exhaust area with a metal shroud that traps air inside.

Third-party AIBs often install superior coolers on their graphics cards that usually include thicker heatsinks with higher copper density than reference coolers and more massive fans than most reference coolers. Larger, more efficient coolers enable cooler GPU operating temperatures, which in turn allow higher factory overclocks. Third-party coolers also often feature quieter fans, a nice bonus.

In addition, custom cards usually include dual- or triple-axial fan configurations, rather than the traditional blower-style coolers. However, (as mentioned) the 20-series Founders cards also have a dual-axial fan configuration.

Winner: AIB. Reference coolers get the job done, but AIBs spend extra money on superior coolers that are better at dispersing heat while producing less sound. Just make sure the cooler solution you opt for fits in your existing case.

Liquid Cooling Options

With most water-cooling parts manufacturers stick with the reference or Founders Edition designs because more people have cards that feature the default PCB layout. That said, a handful of AIB partners offer graphics card options with pre-installed water blocks, such as EVGA’s Hydro-Copper series, as well as top-tier cards with closed-loop cooling solutions for their custom PCB cards.

AIB partner cards include superior air-cooling solutions, but reference and Founders Edition cards often have better aftermarket water cooling support than partner cards. EK Water Blocks is somewhat of an outlier in the water-cooling business in that it builds water blocks for custom AIB cards. Most other water-cooling companies don’t play with the custom PCB designs because the market is too small. Still, EK has forged partnerships with the likes of Asus, Gigabyte and MSI. 

Winner: Reference / Founders Edition. You can find water-cooled custom cards and water blocks for some custom cards, but if you buy a graphics card with a reference design PCB, you’ll have options from every water-cooling parts maker.


It used to be that purchasing a reference card meant that you would save some money. Reference designs used to be the base platform for a graphics card architecture, while the AIB cards were higher-priced cards with improved designs and faster clock speeds. But when Nvidia introduced the Founders Edition series in 2016, that went out the window.

Nvidia decided to give the Founders Edition cards a premium price tag over the base MSRP for their cards, which eliminated them as the cheap alternative.

These days, you won’t find many examples of top-tier, third-party GeForce RTX cards, such as the RTX 2080 and RTX 2080 Ti, priced lower than Nvidia’s Founders Edition, which makes the base MSRP irrelevant. Though, it is possible to find RTX 2070 cards priced closer to Nvidia’s MSRP.

AMD still sells classic reference design cards, but only the ultra-high-end RX Vega and Vega Pro series are available with the reference blower cooler and PCB design. AMD doesn’t work with as many partners as Nvidia anymore, but Gigabyte, Asus, and Sapphire offer Vega cards with custom coolers, and most of them sell for significant premiums over the reference model.

AMD’s mid-tier RX 580 and RX 590 are available from a handful of AIBs, but AMD didn’t release a retail version of its reference design for those GPUs.

Winner: AIB. Reference design graphics cards used to be cheaper, but that’s not always the case anymore. Founders Edition cards can be more expensive than some AIB cards. AIBs also usually offer options at several different price points to suit anyone’s budget.


When Nvidia launches a new graphics card or GPU architecture, it’s a safe bet that you’ll usually have access to Founders Edition cards before the custom cards hit the market. Nvidia has the distinct advantage of knowing the hardware specifications before anyone else, which enables it to prepare its stock in advance.

AIB partners can bring reference design cards to market pretty quickly, and some of them include improved cooling solutions, but the custom cards with better components usually hit the market far later. For example, Nvidia launched the GeForce RTX 2080 and RTX 2080 Ti in September, but we saw new custom card announcements as recently as the CES tech show in January of 2019. This gives you a sense of how long it can take for AIBs to perfect their designs.

Winner: Reference / Founders Edition. If you’re the type of person who doesn’t like to wait, you’re far better off picking up a reference design. If you wait for custom cards to hit the market, your new GPU might be old news to early adopters of reference cards.

Purchasing the right graphics card comes down to identifying your needs. Early adopters who always want the latest and greatest as soon as possible will find value in buying a reference or Founders Edition graphics card because they’ll be able to get their hands on one sooner than a custom card. Liquid cooling enthusiasts may also be inclined to look for a reference or Founders Edition for the broader availability of water blocks.

However, if maximum performance is critical to you, a custom AIB card with a robust cooling solution and advanced power delivery system is a superior choice.

Round Reference/Founders Edition AIB Custom Cards
Clock Speed Advantages
Overclocking Performance
Air Cooling Solutions
Liquid Cooling Options
Total 2 4

For more help on choosing your next graphics card, be sure to check out our graphics card buying guide, list of best graphics cards and our GPU benchmarks hierarchy.

 Kevin Carbotte is a contributing writer for Tom’s Hardware who primarily covers VR and AR hardware. He has been writing for us for more than four years. 

Tom’s Hardware is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. Visit our corporate site .

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Founder’s Edition (Reference Cards) vs ‘Normal’ GPUs: Which Are Best?

Finding the right graphics card is one of the biggest challenges in putting together a custom PC. This has only gotten more difficult as the cost of graphics cards has gone through the roof. NVIDIA has recently started doing something interesting by releasing their own, Founders Edition graphics cards, but are they worth it?

Founders Edition graphics cards are made directly by NVIDIA and sold at a lower cost to consumers. They are similar to AMD’s Reference Cards, but are designed to compete directly in the graphics card market. Founders Edition graphics cards have high-performing specifications, a lower-cost than third-party competitors, but also have more limited heat mitigation.

Let’s find out which type of graphics card is going to be the best choice for your PC.

What Are Founders Edition GPUs?

An Nvidia branded RTX 5000 graphics card installed in a Dell machine

Founders Edition graphics cards are made directly by NVIDIA and sold on their website as well as at third-party retailers. NVIDIA saves their highest performing graphics chips to be put into in-house Founders Edition graphics cards. These graphics cards have an outstanding combination of high performance and low-cost.

What is an AIB Partner?

An AIB is an Add-In-Board partner. These are third-party companies that take the chips made by AMD, NVIDIA, and soon to be Intel and add them into housings and cooling systems to make full graphics cards.

AMD and NVIDIA do not actually make graphics cards. They only make chips. It’s up to their AIBs to integrate those chips into housing and cooling systems that create a full GPU.

An AIB also makes a few changes along the way. They can adjust specs, cooling and create overclocked GPUs and other specialized models:

A Gigabyte GeForce RTX 3080 Ti card

Founders Edition cards aren’t always better than AIB cards. In fact, a high-end AIB card might far surpass what a Founders Edition card is capable of. It all depends on both the specs of the cards themselves and the PC that they will be installed into.

Just Bin It

Depending on where in the world you’re from, you might be surprised to hear that NVIDIA and AMD “bin” almost every graphics card they make!

Bin isn’t being used in the slang term meaning to throw away, but is actually a process of sorting cards based on how well they perform. Chips are sorted into “bins” in a process known as “binning.” Chips that do well during this testing get set aside to be used in Founders Edition GPUs.

Are Reference Cards Different From Founders Edition Cards?

Founders Edition cards and Reference Cards have some similarities in their history, but are in fact completely different products today.

Both come from the same process. When AMD or NVIDIA start to make a new graphics card, they go through the testing process mentioned above. They take some graphics chips that perform exceptionally well and sell them on their own rather than with the help of their AIB partners, such as Sapphire:

A Sapphire Pulse RX 6700 XT graphics card resting on an anti static bag

Reference Cards are standard issue GPUs from AMD, and formerly from NVIDIA. They have standard specs, standard cooling, and typically take a no-frills approach to design. They act as a “reference” point for other GPUs using those same chips.

Reference Cards have always given PC builders a way to enter the graphics card market without spending as much money as they would with an AIB. Reference Cards tend to deliver plenty of computing power, but, at a cost that is much more affordable than you get after those cards have been moved from AMD to one of their partners.

NVIDIA used to do this prior to 2016. In that year, they decided to step directly into the market and compete with their AIB partners, rather than just offer a more price friendly way for people to enter the graphics card market.

Founders Edition GPUs compete directly with AIB partners. They might offer similar specs to a Reference Card from AMD (such as having similar graphics memory and GPU clock speeds), but they’re designed to compete with higher-end products rather than offer cost-effective ways to get a graphics card.

How to Buy Founders Edition GPUs

There are a few different places where you can purchase a Founder’s Edition graphics card from NVIDIA. The first place to check is the online shop on the Nvidia website. This will be kept up-to-date with the latest stock and, since NVIDIA can now sell Founder’s Edition GPUs directly, it’s the best place and typically offers the best deal:

The Nvidia store which lists Founders Edition and third party graphics cards

You can also find Founders Edition GPUs at third-party retailers. Best Buy and similar stores typically carry these graphics cards. However, you can expect a markup in cost as well as more sudden fluctuations in stock.

The graphics card market is still in a very turbulent place. The constant up and down of the cryptocurrency industry drives a lot of rapid change for graphics card scalpers and third-party retailers.

This also means you’ve had a good chance to find Founders Edition GPUs being offloaded on other retailers like eBay.

Are Founder’s Edition Cards Rarer Than Regular GPUs?

Yes, Founders Edition GPUs from NVIDIA are rarer than other GPUs that use the same chips. This is because NVIDIA only makes a limited run of their Founders Edition graphics cards. They don’t have the same production capability as their Add-In-Board partners which means they have a more limited ability to produce Founder’s Edition graphic cards.

Founders Edition graphics cards are also highly sought-after. They have impressive specifications, a decent price tag, and a unique design. This means that consumers are more eager to buy these than they are the standard issue graphics cards coming from third-party companies.

Founders Edition Cards vs Regular GPU

Let’s do a head-to-head comparison of Founder’s Edition graphics cards and regular graphics cards. Which costs less, which has better performance, and most importantly, which is better for your PC?


Usually Founder’s Editions cards are the cheapest in a specific card line-up. Where they aren’t the cheapest, they will only usually be beaten by budget cards that may compromise on cooling or GPU clock speeds.

Let’s look at some specific pricing examples, as of mid-July 2022:

Card Price Source
Nvidia RTX 3080 Ti (Founder’s Edition) $1,199.99 Nvidia website
EVGA GeForce RTX 3080 Ti (AIB/Third Party) $1,249.99 Nvidia website
MSI GeForce RTX 3080 Ti Gaming X Trio (AIB) $1,399. 99 Nvidia website
Nvidia GeForce RTX 3060 Ti (Founder’s Edition) $399 Best Buy
EVGA GeForce RTX 3060 Ti (AIB) $519.99 Best Buy
Gigabyte GeForce RTX 3060 Ti (AIB) $539.99 Best Buy

Comparing the price of six different Nvidia graphics cards

As you can see, the Nvidia founder’s edition card is cheapest for both the RTX 3060 Ti and 3080 Ti – when compared to EVGA and Gigabyte.

But that’s not to say that a slightly more budget provider such as Palit might not come out with a card that is slightly cheaper than the founder’s edition:

A Palit RTX 3060 Ti graphics card

It all depends on stock levels, build quality and whether there’s deals currently on (either for the Palit card, or the Nvidia FE cards).


Founders Edition graphics cards use the best possible chips from NVIDIA (and might have better memory configurations too). NVIDIA saves its highest performing tech to put inside the graphics cards that they sell themselves. This has one very specific utility that some people might find incredibly important.

Founders Edition graphics cards have a reputation for being the best choice for people who want to overclock. These chips have the best-performing silicon which means that they can handle the strain of overclocking better than other chips from the same manufacturer.

However, Founders Edition graphics cards have a reputation for also having slightly worse cooling than cards made by AIB partners. If you plan on getting a Founder’s Edition graphics card, you’re going to want to make sure that you have adequate cooling in your PC case in general to compensate for the slight loss of heat mitigation.

A computer case with 6 chassis fans, and an AIO CPU cooler

You’re also going to be able to find graphics cards with higher specs. Founder’s Edition graphics cards might be some of the best, but third-party manufacturers are turning out graphics cards with overall better performance. However, that will cost significantly more than a Founder’s Edition card.

Build Quality

Founders Edition graphics cards are known for their outstanding build quality. NVIDIA is using this as an opportunity to show off just what they’re capable of and building a graphics card that is really built to last.

We also have to look at the style of graphics cards. If you’re looking to take a break from the LED laser light show going on inside your PC case, a Founders Edition graphic card is exactly what you’ve been looking for. They have a sleek and minimalist style that has a more refined aesthetic than your typical customizable RGB light enabled card.

We should touch on heat mitigation again here in the build quality. Third-party graphics cards can put a lot of design work into heat mitigation. However, Founders Edition cards from NVIDIA currently have very simple heat mitigation.

Depending on how you plan on using your graphics card and the strain it is going to be under, the heat medication technology in a Founder’s Edition graphics card might make or break your purchase.


Knowing all these nuts and bolts is all well and good, but how are people reacting to Founders Edition cards in the real world?

Overall, the reaction to Founders Edition graphics cards is fairly positive. They offer above average specs, a great build quality, and a decent price tag on top. While they will likely always get out competed by third-party high-end graphics cards, they are beating the competition when you compare cards by cost instead of specs.

Is a Founders Edition GPU Worth It?

A Founders Edition GPU is absolutely worth it if you’re looking to get high performance with a decent price tag. These graphics cards are great for overclocking, but you will need to do more heat mitigation inside your PC case to compensate. The Founders Edition graphics cards from NVIDIA also have a truly unique style which could be ideal for people who want their custom PC build to stand out.

Nvidia RTX 30-series: Should I buy Founders Edition or third-party?

(Image credit: Nvidia)

I don’t think it’s an exaggeration to say there are a whole lot of people who really desperately want to get their hands on an Nvidia Ampere GPU right now. Whether that’s the sumptuous RTX 3070, the meaty RTX 3080, or the frankly ludicrous RTX 3090, half the PC Gamer team, and a load of folk at the end of my phone, want to get themselves a new 30-series GPU.

But the question I’m being asked the most is: Do I buy the Nvidia-made Founders Edition with the under-and-over fan and bow-tie shroud design, or one of the many third-party cards from Asus, MSI, Gigabyte, and others? 

It’s a toughie, especially with the cards still a few weeks away from launch and the add-in board (AIB) partners still not divulging the full specs of their own cards, but we’re getting a pretty good idea on pricing now. And we can, at least, see what they all look like. We’ve even had a good look at the most ‘extra’ RTX 30-series cards that are going to be on offer, and they really are something.

If we’re just going by looks and price, c’mon, it’s obviously Palit’s GameRock, a Swarovski-esque graphics card that probably won’t look cheap and tacky once you stick some juice through the RGB LEDs sat behind it.  

Look, if you’ve got yourself some of G.Skill’s genuinely excellent, though unbelievably blingy, Trident Z Royal RAM in your rig then you owe it to yourself to go for the GameRock. Luckily it’s available in all flavours of Nvidia Ampere RTX 30-series graphics card, so you don’t have to make a difficult decision on GPU of choice.

(Image credit: Palit)

Now we’ve got that out of the way, the rest of us, without a single diamond stud in our ear, can have a chat about what else we need to pay attention to. 

Honestly, now that I’ve seen the Founders Edition outside of the dodgy leaked pictures and super-smooth renders, I’ve come around to its design. It’s a far more grown-up look for a graphics card than you’re going to see from pretty much any of the AIBs. The smooth edges, clean lines, and subdued look works for me. There are a lot of grills, but hey, if it’s quiet I’m all for it.

Though obviously that’s a consideration. AIB cards may not look as stylish on the whole, depending on your tastes, but often they will offer superior cooling and quieter operation. There’s no way, without comparative testing, to talk about that right now, however.

But on looks alone, the Founders Editions would actually be the ones I’d go for. Which means eating some humble pie for what I might have said about that shroud before.

(Image credit: Nvidia)

Pricing-wise we haven’t been able to find much detail about US AIBs, but Overclockers UK has listings for a huge number of 30-series cards, and that means we can make some calls about what different cards might cost given the relative Founders Edition pricing on the UK version of the GeForce store.

The short of it is that there are a large number of cards at the base MSRP of the RTX 3070 ($499), RTX 3080 ($699), and even the RTX 3090 ($1,499). Before OCUK published the expected pricing of the cards on its books we were anticipating that the monstrous RTX 3090, with its 10,496 CUDA cores, would end up hitting the £2,000 ($2,650) mark once the AIBs got their hands on it and started cranking out factory overclocked versions.

And there will be factory OC versions for sure—a bunch are already listed—though only the Palit GamingPro OC has the gaul to estimate a boost clock. It’s hedging its bets rather, to be fair, as it’s only some 25MHz higher than the reference boost clock of the Nvidia Founders Edition card. But then it is only £30 more expensive than the base MSRP.

Nvidia RTX 30-Series confirmed specs
Graphics Card Name RTX 3090 RTX 3080 RTX 3070
GPU Name Ampere GA102-300 Ampere GA102-200 Ampere GA104-300
Process Node Samsung 8N Samsung 8N Samsung 8N
CUDA Cores 10,496 8,704 5,888
Boost Clock 1,700 MHz 1,710 MHz 1,730 MHz
Memory Capacity 24 GB GDDR6X 10 GB GDDR6X 8 GB GDDR6
Memory Bus 384-bit 320-bit 256-bit
Bandwidth 936 GB/s 760 GB/s 512 GB/s
Memory Speed 19. 5 Gbps 19 Gbps 16 Gbps
TDP 350W 320W 220W
Recommended PSU 750W 750W 650W
Price $1,499 $699 $499
Release date September 24 September 17 October

Even Asus’ ROG Strix RTX 3090 and MSI’s Gaming X Trio versions are being rather reserved in their pricing, with price tags of £1,569 and £1,499 respectively they’re just £170 and £100 ($225 and $132) more than the reference cards. I guess once those liquid-cooled versions start popping up then we might well see them getting closer to £2,000.

The really big question, however, is one of availability

But it’s worth saying that there are AIB cards listed on Overclockers UK that cost less than the MSRP Nvidia has put out there. We may have picked on Palit before but its RTX 3070 GamingPro is listed for £20 less than the £469 sticker price on the GeForce store. That’s £449 if you can’t be bothered to do the maths.

Basically, you can expect that, around launch, there will be cards with pricing that doesn’t make a mockery of the initial announcement from Nvidia CEO Jen-Hsun Huang’s kitchen this week. There will be higher-clocked, and therefore more expensive cards, but there might even be cheaper options too.

The really big question, when it comes to whether you go for an AIB or Founders Edition, however, is one of availability.

There has already been some rumour-mongering around the potential limited availability of Nvidia Ampere RTX 30-series cards. And, if we’re honest, there is a good chance that early inventory will sell out quick. This is a hotly anticipated generation of graphics cards, and the hype is real. Even more so since the GeForce Special Event unveiling.

But it’s about who will sell out fastest, and who can manufacture and restock quickest. Personally, I’m of the opinion that one of the reasons that you’re going to see third-party cards launching at the same time as the Founders Editions is so that there is significant stock on release day.

I expect the Nvidia-made Founders cards will sell out on Nvidia’s own store first, with retailers more likely to have GPUs available after those run dry. How quickly Nvidia will be able to restock we don’t know, but I would anticipate, because of the number of different AIBs offering silicon, that retailers will be able to find cards pretty rapidly.

So long as the GPUs are there to stick under those different shrouds, anyway.

(Image credit: Nvidia)

Nvidia seems to be relatively confident about the number of chips Samsung can squeeze out of its 8N fabs, and it’s possible one of the reasons the green team opted for the Korean silicon giant is because semiconductor rival, and AMD partner, TSMC, has a whole lot of pressure on its 7nm production. AMD has both CPUs and GPUs in manufacture at TSMC, and Apple has a not-inconsiderable draw on its resources either.

Samsung, however, might be more able to turn around a whole lot of 8N Nvidia Ampere silicon in order to keep the virtual tills ringing at the different retailers around the globe looking for new GPUs.

In the end, there are still a lot of unanswered questions about the different RTX 30-series cards on offer. Personally, I would suggest making a beeline for the Founders Edition cards first, but those may well run dry quick, which means making your selection from the AIB offerings instead.

But that doesn’t mean compromising on price, and likely not on performance either. Nvidia’s Founders cards don’t seem to be factory overclocked in this generation, so MSRP partner cards will perform just as well.

If you want the absolute highest performing versions of Nvidia’s greatest generational graphics card leap then there will be factory overclocked cards just waiting for you to drop a healthy price premium on them.

There are no pre-orders live yet and I would say that before making any decisions, that you should keep an eye on actual independent reviews. There will, of course, be a Radeon response from AMD, and potentially very soon, so it might also be worth waiting to see what the RDNA 2, Big Navi cards might have to offer.  

We’ll have the RTX 3080 Founders Edition tested for launch, and a host of third party cards will be hitting our test rig in the next week or so, too.

Dave has been gaming since the days of Zaxxon and Lady Bug on the Colecovision, and code books for the Commodore Vic 20 (Death Race 2000!). He built his first gaming PC at the tender age of 16, and finally finished bug-fixing the Cyrix-based system around a year later. When he dropped it out of the window. He first started writing for Official PlayStation Magazine and Xbox World many decades ago, then moved onto PC Format full-time, then PC Gamer, TechRadar, and T3 among others. Now he’s back, writing about the nightmarish graphics card market, CPUs with more cores than sense, gaming laptops hotter than the sun, and SSDs more capacious than a Cybertruck.

What Does Nvidia Founders Edition Designation Mean?


1 year ago

by Glynis Navarrete

Second, to the CPU, the graphics card is the most crucial PC component for gamers and creative professionals. At the heart of every graphics card is the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) which primarily drives the graphics card’s performance. 3D graphics are becoming a norm, and the GPU’s designs are geared towards accelerating graphics rendering. Graphics programmers are also constantly developing rendering techniques that would enhance image quality and yield a realistic visual experience.

Computer games have evolved from 2D to 3D, and the list of high-level games is growing rapidly. Likewise, visually-intensive jobs such as those in the film industry and graphic design have been growing in big numbers over the years. Gamers and creative professionals are always on the lookout for the best graphics cards to suit their needs. Choosing the best graphics cards is often not an easy ordeal for most consumers and getting the right card is often a mentally tedious task. Different brands usually develop their own unique offerings, stunning rendering features, and GPU architecture upgrades now and again. On top of that, GPU companies have been releasing reference card editions, adding more difficulty to the consumers’ decision-making.

Nvidia is well-known for its impressive GPU architecture. Being in the business for decades, Nvidia is one of the trusted names for GPU design. In 2016, with the introduction of their Pascal architecture, the famed GPU designer also offered their Founders Edition of graphics cards. The Founders Edition is released in limited numbers and is typically more expensive than their retailed counterparts. Although Nvidia has been releasing the Founders Edition with every new generation of GPU, many are still puzzled about their difference with third-party designs.

What Exactly is The Founders Edition?

Aside from sophisticated GPU architectures, Nvidia is gaining further recognition with their Founders Edition of graphics cards, starting with the RTX 10 series. Founders Edition is Nvidia’s fancy term for the reference cards they release with every new chip they design.

For those who are still not aware, Nvidia has partnered with other companies, known as add-in board (AIB) partners, to do the actual manufacture of the graphics cards containing the GPUs they design. Nvidia developers would design the GPUs, memory architecture, cooling solution, and other basic elements of the graphics cards and hand over the overall design to AIBs. The AIBs can then modify the design’s PCB layout, electronic components, and cooler designs to make an even better board than the original. However, the modified boards must still stick to the minimum hardware specifications set by Nvidia. The revised board is known as the aftermarket version or custom card. In other words, the Founders Edition is Nvidia’s version of graphics cards with their original, raw design.

Founders Editions vs. Customer Cards

Nvidia’s original version of graphics cards is set to compete with the versions of their partner companies such as EVGA, MSI, and Zotac. Once Nvidia passes on the design to its partners, they’re already giving them the power to create an even better board. The aftermarket versions thus have more advantage over the Founders Edition.

The AIB partners benefit from boosting the original design’s performance and usually push the GPU’s overclocking ability further for optimum performance. They also have the benefit of improving the cooling system design of the reference card. Higher factory overclocks can be achieved by a more efficient cooling system, and AIBs would normally opt for larger and quieter fans for better airflow. Add an enhanced power delivery system to all of these, and you get a graphics card with superior quality. The AIB partners also have an edge when it comes to pricing. The Founders Editions have premium price tags, while the AIB versions can be purchased at a cheaper price.

Founders Edition cards, however, still have advantages over their partner’s versions. One important advantage is availability. Nvidia has the distinct advantage of picking the most robust components for the card before the design reaches its AIB partners. Coming from the designer itself, the Founders Edition is released months before the aftermarket versions hit the market. However, this has slightly changed with the RTX 30 series Founders Edition where the Founders Edition competed with AIB’s versions on its first month of release. However, the initial release of AIB’s versions may still not have the best components and best specifications yet as they’re still trying to perfect their design, turning the advantage back to Nvidia. Their perfected versions may hit the market far later, usually just in time when Nvidia has already sold much of the Founders Edition.

Getting Better

Nvidia is not taking the time to slow down despite the fierce competition in the graphics card market. We can see improvements each time Nvidia releases the Founders Editions of the newer generations of Nvidia’s graphics cards. For example, the Founders Edition of the RTX 30 series boasts a boost in performance and better aesthetics. It seems that Nvidia heard the consumers’ pleas to improve the cooling design. We can see innovations in the cooling system’s architecture, with better airflow and enhancements on acoustics greatly reducing the card’s noise level. The GPU expert is also taking the competition seriously, with more competent pricing despite a huge leap in performance, more robust hardware, and a more appealing design than the Founders Editions of the RTX 20 series that came out a bit pricey at the time of its release. Nvidia’s latest generation of RTX graphics has far exceeded the gamers’ expectations, reaping positive reviews from those who have tested the graphics card.

The Founders Edition has set the bar higher for reference cards. They used to be tagged as the mediocre version when compared with the custom cards side by side. Still, Nvidia broke the line and set forth its own path to revolutionize PC gaming with the excellent craftsmanship of its very own design. The Founders Editions is more than just a reference card; it’s also a formidable opponent for the aftermarket cards, setting the challenge straight with no signs of decelerating.


About the author

Glynis Navarrete

A freelance blogger who loves to write about anything related to technology. Born and raised in the Philippines and worked in Singapore for eight years as Technical Support for a wide range of IT equipment. Took a dive into the world of freelancing and now enjoying doing what I’m passionate about while not losing touch with technology.

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Location of all NPCs in Fortnite — Chapter 3 Season 1 (Season 19) — Igromania

Guides — Guide: Location of all NPCs in Fortnite — Chapter 3, Season 1 (Season 19)

NPCs have already become the calling card of Fortnite . With the transition to a new, third chapter in the most popular battle royale, the map has been updated and new NPCs have appeared. We help to find new characters, and at the same time tell you why you need to look for them at all.

Why you need to look for NPCs in Fortnite

NPCs offer the player quests, sell weapons or resources, and some of them are hostile (you can get good rewards for killing them). There are also NPCs that will fight by your side if you hire them.

Companion characters are by no means useless. They can do a good job and help get the crown of the winner. So pay attention to them if you play solo.

For getting to know each of the NPCs, you will receive precious experience that will upgrade the battle pass. In addition, you will receive additional XP just for talking to the character. And if you are the first player to start a conversation with an NPC during a match, the game will reward you with bonus points.

Where to find all the characters in Fortnite Chapter 3 (Season 19)

We list the twenty characters that can be found in the current chapter and for which you can get experience. The list does not include Captain Frost, who randomly moves around the map.

Character Location Benefits
1. Alien Either on the large island northeast of the Vault, or in the eastern part of Vault Sells an assault rifle. You can hire him, activate the fault
2. Experimenter In the northern part of Vault Sells Storm Forecaster and special weapons
3. Agent Jonesy Can be located at four points in different parts of the map (see map below) Sells a sniper rifle. Can be hired, activate rift
4. Founder Walks in the south of the Vault. In order for it to be added to the collection, it must be hit If you get too close to him, he will start attacking. If you kill, get good loot
5. Jonesy Recluse Next to the trailer in the southwest of Jones Village Sells a special weapon, a fishing rod. Heals
6. Brewer Inside a building south of Jones Village Sells meat, machine gun and nectar
7. Zombie In a prison cell under a house in the heart of Jones Village Sells meat, machine gun. Can be hired as a partner
8. Athlete Not far from the red-roofed building north of Jones Village Sells machine gun, honey spray. Lets tip the bus driver
9. Jones First In the last building in the northeast of Jones Village Sells wood and a machine gun. Can be hired as a partner
10. Hug team captain Inside the building with a pink roof in the northern part of Summer Camp Sells a special pistol, assault rifle. Heals
11. Steel Team Captain In a building with a gray roof in the southwest of Summer Camp Sells assault rifle, med spray and metal
12 Deadpool Hug Inside the pink roof building in the east end of Summer Camp Sells an assault rifle and stone. Can be hired as a partner
13. Duck team captain In a house with a yellow roof in the south of the Summer Camp Sells honey spray, wood and assault rifle
14. Taco At the restaurant of the Greasy Diner Sells armor items and a pistol. Heals
15. Horn Inside the ice cream shop at Sundae Crossing Sells a pistol. Allows you to activate the disguise and tip the driver
16 Bao Brothers Roams the east side of the Greasy Diner Sells fish, sniper rifle. Allows you to activate disguise
17. Signor Tomato Outside the shop in the middle of the Greasy Diner Sells a sniper rifle. Allows you to activate the rift and disguise
18. Pancake Southwest of Rocky Cinema Sells a shotgun. Allows you to activate disguise. Can be challenged to a duel
19. Shanta Southwest of Tricky Canyon Sells a sniper rifle. Allows you to activate the rift. Can be hired as a partner
20. Lieutenant Lama South of the Ice Mill Sells a sniper rifle. Can be hired

Finding an NPC is simple — move to the point indicated on the map below until you see an icon in the form of a cloud with text on the map. This symbol indicates the exact location (the map above is only an approximation, as many of the characters are on the move).

in which bank to open a card, how to get a TIN, how much does it cost, personal experience

Card Tourist

received two bank cards in Kazakhstan

Author profile

When the international payment systems Visa and Mastercard left Russia , I thought about how to pay now on foreign trips, foreign online stores and services.

At first, I was hoping for the Chinese Union Pay system. But there were problems with her.

Firstly, not all Russian banks issue a Union Pay card. Of those not under sanctions, these are only Post-Bank, Russian Standard, Solidarity, St. Petersburg, MTS-Bank, Zenit and Primsotsbank.

Secondly, the issue and maintenance of such a card is more expensive than a regular one. For example, in MTS Bank, issuing a Union Pay card costs 5,000 R if ordered on the website, and service from the third month will cost 99 R per month.

Thirdly, news appeared on the Internet that foreign companies refuse to accept payments from Union-Pay cards of Russian banks, and the Chinese system itself does not stand up for users in any way.

I assessed my options and decided to go abroad to get a foreign bank card. Of course, there is a risk that at some point foreign banks will begin to block the accounts of Russians. But in this case, I will only lose the money that at that moment will be in my account. But if the banks that are currently issuing cards to Russians stop doing this, it will be a shame not to have time to jump into the last carriage.

In the article I will tell you how I chose the country and banks in which I received cards, how I processed the documents and how much I spent on all this.


Who takes commissions from cards abroad

Spent on getting two cards from Kazakhstani banks in May 2022 — 62,487 R

1 Hotel for

1 nights
23 000 R
New ticket from Nur-Sultan to Moscow 19 000 R
Azimuth airline tickets Moscow — Nur-Sultan — Moscow 17 000 R
PCR test 2800 R
Simcard from Tele-2 3190 KZT⁣ (387 R)
Taxi from the airport 300 R
Freedom-finance and Kaspi bank cards 0 R

Hotel for 12 nights

23 000 R

New ticket from Nur-Sultan to Moscow0004 17 000 R


2800 R

SIM card from Tele-2

3190 KZT⁣ (387 R)

Taxi from the airport

300 R

cards of banks Frida-Finance and Kaspi

0 Р

How I chose the country

Now many companies offer Russians to issue cards in foreign banks by proxy. And travel agencies even have «card» tours, for example, to Armenia, Turkey and Uzbekistan.

But I chose the country and organized the trip myself, because I wanted to personally get acquainted with the banking system in which I was going to be served, and I could not entrust this to unknown people. And card tours seemed too expensive to me. When I looked at them, they cost about 70,000 R, excluding bank services.

To choose where to get a card, I formulated a number of criteria for myself:

  1. The country must issue cards to non-residents. I have Russian citizenship, and in the near future I do not plan to move abroad.
  2. The banking system in the country must be sufficiently developed so that cards with free issue and maintenance are not something supernatural in it. I’m used to the fact that Russian banks issue and often service cards for free, and even charge cashback and interest on the balance. But not all foreign banks offer such conditions.
  3. You can open a bank account in rubles. This is important because in February 2022, Russians were banned from crediting foreign currency to their accounts in foreign banks. Now this ban is no longer in effect — from June 8, 2022, you can transfer up to $150,000⁣ (7,945,485 R) per month to your account.
  4. The card shouldn’t be too hard to get. Ideally, if I don’t need anything other than a passport for this. And even more so, no notarized translations.
  5. A trip for a card should not be more expensive than a card tour. Or a little more expensive, but so that the quality of banking services compensates for this.

ref. b p. 3 of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated February 28, 2022 No. 79

Now Armenia and Uzbekistan are popular card destinations. I also read about Turkey, Georgia, Serbia and Kyrgyzstan. But these countries did not suit me: it was too difficult, too expensive, or I did not like the conditions of the banks.

So what? 03/25/22

How to pay for purchases if you are going abroad

In May 2022, Belarus also had a hard time with international payment systems. But Kazakhstan came up to my criteria. In addition, in this country, almost everyone speaks Russian, because this is the main language even for many ethnic Kazakhs.

How I chose the bank

To begin with, I just looked up on Wikipedia what banks are in Kazakhstan. And I excluded from this list banks of Russian origin, which fell under blocking sanctions along with their parent banks. These are, for example, Sberbank, VTB and Alfa.

Then I looked at the top five Kazakhstani banks and realized that they all offer only the first year of service for free. But that’s still nothing. The main problem was that recently some banks, such as Narodny and Forte Bank, require foreigners who want to open an account to confirm that they work, study or do business in Kazakhstan. Such conditions did not suit me.

I did not study the banks below in the list in detail, but simply by name I tried to assess whether they open ruble accounts. So I drew attention to Freedom Finance. On the website of this bank, I learned that it is possible to get a four-currency card — dollars, euros, tenge and rubles — with free issue and maintenance. It was what was needed.

The only nuance was that Freedom Finance was part of a group that could be considered Russian, like the bank of the same name operating in Russia. It seems that this was taken into account in the group itself, so its founder decided to sell the Russian bank to the management and renounce Russian citizenship in favor of Kazakhstan.

To be on the safe side, I decided to get another card from Kaspi Bank. It is impossible to open a ruble account in it and from the second year paid service — 1995 KZT⁣ (242 R) per year. But he is not connected with Russia.


How banks work

I decided on the banks and asked their support services if they needed confirmation that I was working or studying in Kazakhstan. I was assured that they would not need it.

How I planned my trip

City selection. You can get a card in many Kazakh cities, but I chose Nur-Sultan because it was cheaper and faster for me to fly there. I spent about 17,000 rubles on Azimuth airline tickets from Moscow round-trip in May 2022. The flight lasted three and a half hours.

If you want to travel to Kazakhstan by car, you can choose a city closer to the border. Just remember to make sure it has the bank you have chosen.

Entry into the country. Citizens of Russia can enter Kazakhstan with an ordinary passport. But I recommend using a passport, because the bank will ask you to confirm that you are legally in the country. And the confirmation can be an entry stamp. But such a mark is not put on an ordinary passport — in order to enter with it, you will have to issue a separate document.

Also in May 2022, a negative PCR test for COVID-19 was required to enter the country. I did it in Moscow before my flight for 2800 R. In June 2022, the test is no longer required.

So what? 07/29/21

Rules for entry into Kazakhstan for Russians in 2022

Travel time. It is worth allocating seven to ten working days for the trip. It’s even better to buy a return ticket when the bank accepts all the documents and you only have to wait five working days for the card to be produced. For example, I planned a seven-day trip and regretted it, because the whole procedure took nine working days — I had to buy a new return ticket.

Housing. I chose a hotel that would be within two or three kilometers:

  1. Bank office.
  2. PSC is a public service center, a local analogue of Russian MFCs.
  3. Profitable exchanger.
  4. Mobile operator salon.
  5. Hypermarket.

Why I needed all these institutions, I will tell later in the article.

I chose a four-star hotel and paid about 20,000 rubles for ten nights. True, when I checked in, I saw that it was no longer new and only attracted three stars. But this did not bother me: I think I got about what I paid for. And next to the hotel there was a hypermarket with low prices and good cooking — «Magnum 24/7».

I did not want to rent an apartment because:

  • I had never rented a house in another country and was afraid that I would be deceived;
  • the Airbnb rental service I knew no longer works with Russians;
  • in Nur-Sultan are cheap hotels, and there are services through which they can be booked and paid with the Mir card. I looked at several services, but settled on Ostrovka because it is promoted by Aviasales.

Luggage and money. Be sure to take cash rubles, dollars or euros. The national currency of Kazakhstan is the tenge, but it was not possible to buy it in Russia. Even in the specialized conversion centers of Sberbank, where they used to sell tenge, they refused me, referring to the order of the Central Bank.

So what? 06/10/22

Buy, withdraw, transfer: what can and cannot be done with dollars and euros

Perhaps now this restriction is no longer relevant. In June 2022, Otkritie Bank sent me a letter saying that you can now buy different currencies from it, including tenge. But whether this is so, I did not check.

Also, almost everywhere in Kazakhstan they do not accept Mir cards. Theoretically, it is possible to withdraw cash from such a card at an ATM of a bank that currently works with this payment system. But in practice, there are very few such ATMs. And the exchange rate in them is unfavorable: according to my calculations, it is about 25% higher.

On the other hand, I recommend that you study the prices in Kazakhstani electronics stores in advance: you may want to buy something there that you would not take at Russian prices. For example, I looked at the iPhone 11 at a discount for about 42,000 R. But when I withdrew cash from the Mir card, it turned out that I was not saving, but overpaying due to the unfavorable exchange rate. As a result, this phone cost me 53,000 R.

I also recommend taking a flash drive with you to write an electronic signature for Kazakhstani public services on it. It is not needed to open an account, but it may come in handy to solve some bureaucratic issues remotely in the future. The signature weighs very little, so any flash drive will do, I had 32 GB.

Also, when packing, do not forget that it is hot and sunny in Kazakhstan in summer, so a hat and sunglasses will come in handy. Moreover, the glasses will protect not only from the sun, but also from the dust that strong steppe winds raise there.


I drove to Kazakhstan to watch the new Doctor Strange

What I did when I arrived

Exchanged money. It is usually unprofitable to change currency at airports. Therefore, I looked in advance at several exchange offices near the hotel. The only problem was how to get to them, because I had neither tenge nor a working bank card.

Current exchange rates in Kazakhstani exchangers

As a result, I called Yandex-Taxi through Wi-Fi at the airport for about 300 R with a card payment and drove to the desired exchanger.

I bought a sim card. I needed a tariff without a monthly fee to simply receive messages from the bank, and with an Internet package for the duration of the trip. I can’t say for sure, but I heard that it’s impossible to register in any Kazakhstani services, including public services, without a local number.

I chose the “Call Everyone” tariff from Tele-2 in advance. But when I came to the operator’s office, I found out that I couldn’t connect to it: I could only switch from another tariff. Therefore, I had to buy the cheapest tariff with a monthly fee. It cost 3190 KZT⁣ (387 R) per month.


How mobile operators ruin our lives: 3 examples

A month later, I switched to a tariff without monthly fees.

I called the bank office, , to make sure that I have all the necessary documents. It turned out that I needed to confirm that I had legally entered the country. I didn’t have a stamp in my international passport: I entered with a Russian passport. So I needed a separate confirmation document.

I was lucky: in my hotel, the confirmation was issued free of charge in ten minutes. But if I rented an apartment or stayed in a less advanced hotel, I would have to contact the migration service. And that would be additional complexity.

Confirmation that was issued to me at the hotel instead of a stamp in my passport

How I received the IIN

Before contacting the bank, you need to get an individual identification number — IIN. Without it, the account will not be opened. The Kazakh IIN is similar to the Russian TIN, but with extended functionality. In fact, this is the main number that identifies a person not only for the tax office, but also for the state and organizations in general that have access to state databases.

You can get an IIN at a public service center. It’s free, all you need is a passport. Any center will do — the addresses can be found on Yandex Maps or in 2GIS.


Rights if you go abroad

Now you can’t get an IIN online

Recently, news appeared on the Internet that until October 1, 2022, Kazakhstan suspended the issuance of IIN to foreigners. In fact, this is not the case: for technical reasons, IINs have ceased to be issued only online, and they can still be obtained at public service centers. So it is written in the official order of the authorities, and the same information was given to me by the information service of Kazakhstani public services — it works at number 1414.

At the same time, it was difficult to issue an IIN online before. This is done through the Kazakh portal of public services. But without an IIN, there cannot be an account on this portal. Therefore, first it was necessary to draw up a power of attorney for someone who has it.

I received an IIN in the middle of May 2022 at the public service center of the Alma-Ata district of Nur-Sultan. There was an electronic queue only for those who already have an IIN, and there was a live queue for registration — to tables No. 11 and 12. I stood in line, waited five minutes for the operator to fill out an application, and received a paper called «spine».

The spine contained my data, the date when the IIN should be ready, and a barcode by which the center employee would quickly find my application in the database.

The same stub — evaluate the government’s desire to save

According to the rules, the IIN should be ready in one business day. Sometimes it can even be done by the evening of the day of the appeal. But I got it only on the third try.

When I came to the center the next day after submitting the application to collect the IIN, I found out that a refusal had come from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Because of this, I had to re-register, and I again got to the same operator. This time he assured that he had done everything and the IIN would be ready tomorrow.

The next morning I went to the center again. I was told that a refusal came “due to a poor-quality passport scan”. I filed an application again, but with another operator — at the next table. When he scanned his passport, I asked him to show it to me and made sure that everything was in order with him.

At that moment, I really thought that the “low-quality scan” was just an unsubscribe, but in fact they don’t like me, because I’m from Russia. But I still decided to go to the PSC in the evening in order to find out early about the refusal and, possibly, submit documents at another center. To my surprise, this time I was still given an IIN.


How the banking system works in France

My Kazakhstan IIN registration certificate

How I received my bank cards

As soon as I received the IIN registration certificate, I immediately took a taxi to the Freedom office -finance». But I didn’t manage to issue a card that day: the employee said that he didn’t see my IIN in the database yet. I returned to the hotel with the thought that now I would have to deal with the migration service so that they would transfer the IIN from their database to the tax authorities’ database, in which the bank would see it.

Addresses of Freedom-Finance offices

The next day I started by going back to the Public Service Center to register an account for Kazakhstani public services. For this, I needed a passport, IIN and an empty flash drive. An employee of the center helped me register in the public services application and recorded an electronic signature on the USB flash drive. The whole procedure took 10-15 minutes.

Then I went to the bank. And this time my IIN was already in the database, so I was able to open an account. To do this, I filled out a long questionnaire with personal data and questions like are there any sanctions on me and am I an American politician. All questions in the questionnaire were in Russian, and I also filled it out in Russian.

As soon as the account was opened, they gave me a sheet with details for international transfers

Now I had to wait five business days for my plastic card to be delivered to the bank office. I received it on time and activated it right away. To do this, he simply requested a balance at an ATM. The issuance and maintenance of my card in Freedom Finance is free.

Then I went to Kaspi. There I received another card in 15 minutes. For this, I filled out only a small questionnaire in Russian. The card itself was issued by a special ATM.

Kaspi issues and services the card for the first year free of charge. From the second year, maintenance costs 1995 KZT⁣ (242 R) per year.

As a result, I spent nine working days to issue two cards. Due to the fact that I received the IIN with a delay, I had to buy a new return ticket for 19,000 R and pay 3,000 R for two additional nights in a hotel.

How I notified the Russian Federal Tax Service

If a Russian citizen opens a bank account abroad, he is required by law to notify the Federal Tax Service of this. This must be done within a month. And then it is necessary to submit a report on the movement of money on this account every year. More about this has already been written in another article by T-Zh. I will tell you how this process went for me.

Part 2 12 of the law on currency control

I submitted a notification through my personal account on the website of the Federal Tax Service. It was easy: I went to the taxpayer’s office, in the “Life Situations” section, selected the item “Inform about an account with a bank located outside the Russian Federation”, and then the item “Notify about opening an account (deposit) in a bank or other financial market organization located outside the territory of the Russian Federation”.

After that, I filled out a short application. It is not complicated, but it is important to choose the right notification attribute:

  1. “pursuant to Part 2 of Article 12 of Federal Law No. 173-FZ of December 10, 2003” if you submit a notice within a month, as required by law;
  2. «in pursuance of Part 8 of Article 12 of Federal Law No. 173-FZ of December 10, 2003» if you notify the Federal Tax Service later.

Next, you only need to enter the bank and account information: name and address, SWIFT or BIC, number, currency and account opening date. The application also contains fields for the number and date of the agreement with the bank, but I did not find them in my documents, so I did not fill them out.

Community 22.02.22

How to transfer money from abroad to Russia?

The tax office arranged everything, and the next day I received a message that the notice had been registered.

You can notify the Federal Tax Service of your foreign account through the taxpayer’s personal account

What is the result

  1. Kazakhstan has a developed banking system, so there are many banking products that are comfortable in terms of cost. But not all of them are available to non-residents — in some banks, in order to open an account, you will have to confirm that you are working or studying in the country.
  2. In banks that open accounts for non-residents, getting a card is easy. But there are nuances — it is worth planning a trip, given that the IIN and the card may be issued with a delay.
  3. The currency in Kazakhstan is tenge. But it is difficult to buy it in Russia now, so take cash rubles, dollars or euros with you and change it in local exchangers. It is not worth counting on the Mir card: banks have a very unfavorable exchange rate.
  4. If you opened an account with a foreign bank, you must notify the Russian Federal Tax Service within a month. This can be done in the taxpayer’s personal account.

Would you like to write such an article for T—F? Any process in which money is involved in some form can be turned into a topic for Tinkoff Magazine. Read our manual for authors and apply for an article.

Not just maps — Mind maps in the work of an assistant manager

Personal assistants and secretaries are familiar with the situation when there are so many work projects that you don’t know what to grab and where to run. Calm! There is a solution. In any incomprehensible situation, draw a Mind map (from the English mind map) — a graphic diagram of an endless thought process. Do you need to make a dynamic presentation, create an agenda for a meeting and record a meeting, prepare a leader for a speech, outline an article or learn a foreign language? All this and much more is possible with mind maps. I will tell you how to create and use them in the work of an assistant manager.

What do we do when we arrive in a foreign city, find ourselves in a new area, or even on a familiar route, in a hurry to avoid traffic jams? That’s right: we turn to the map. After all, getting from point A to point B is much easier if you know the way, right? And what should we do when we want to put things in order, tasks and ideas? It is best to make a mind map or intellectual, mental, associative, thought map, connection diagram. There are many names, but the essence is one. This tool:

  • structures the input data in the first step;
  • develops visual memory;
  • stimulates the imagination to generate new ideas and associations.

You can think alone with yourself, creating a personal map of your responsibilities. Or you can brainstorm with the team. In this case, a collective map is drawn, and the areas of responsibility for working projects are divided (Fig. 1).

At the end, we will get a top view of a separate business case or a device of the entire company, a range of travel plans or a guide to restaurants in the city. You can use this tool to solve any issue! Mind maps give a complete picture, a global view, which is so necessary not only to run, but to know the route, and then return, analyze and draw a new one.


The founder of mind mapping is Tony Buzan, a famous British writer, lecturer and researcher of the problems of thinking. He described this method in detail in his book The Mind Map Book by Tony Buzan[1]. Using the mind-mapping tool he created will appeal to those who want to analyze and memorize information more efficiently, solve non-standard tasks, plan their schedule and distribute tasks in team work.

Mind map literally translates as a mind map. I would put it as a creative way to structure my ideas so that I can explain them to someone else — a boss or a colleague — in order to increase the productivity of the process. You can create a mind map on any topic that you understand or want to understand. A complex topic is laid out on the shelves — and now it is much easier for you to understand it, and therefore remember it.

A mind map is a visualized diagram of the flow of our thoughts. In the process of its creation, the brain uses both hemispheres — the left, which is responsible for the logical representation, and the right — for visibility. Thanks to this, the mind map is an intuitive tool that structures the flow of thoughts. That is, it builds them into a capacious block diagram. We think non-linearly and can develop any idea almost infinitely in all directions through associations.

Mind mapping — the direct process of displaying information in a diagram — will not save your time, but will give you the opportunity to use it with maximum benefit, namely, to think much deeper about a topic or task, plus relieve stress from the fear of losing sight of something — all facets of the issue will be in front of you at a glance. Its main advantage, perhaps, is its versatility. It is suitable for thinking and making decisions on a variety of issues (we are talking here about the degree of their complexity). Yes, he is «too tough» and such tough nuts as generating ideas and creating presentations, not only «banal» planning and organizing tasks.

For me, mind maps are also a search engine for my own notes, a library of knowledge and compiled lists.

So what is it really? It is probably easier to demonstrate it, i. e. make a mind map about a mind map (Fig. 2).


The process of creating a mind map is creative, one might even say that in a sense it is an art. There are no strict rules and formalities. But in order to master mind mapping and use it for good, you need to know the basic principles and techniques of construction. Let’s turn to them.

The principle of construction

The method of constructing mind maps reminds me of the basic principle of the work of artists: from general to specific .

The mind map has a tree structure. There is a center and branches. The hierarchy is built from the main, the largest level to the secondary. There is a central image that may look like the title of a topic, sound like a question, or be a graphic image (drawing, pictogram, photograph) illustrating the subject of study. It is to him, or rather, to his disclosure, that the whole map will be devoted. Consider an example (Fig. 3).

Thick branches of the first level depart from the central concept. Tony Buzan calls them basic ordering ideas ( basic ordering ideas, B OI ). These are the fundamental themes, the titles of the chapters in the book of your thoughts (Figure 4).

Next comes the second level of concepts that refine and develop the global idea of ​​the first level. Third, fourth, etc. You can add as many levels as you like (Fig. 5).

Try to draw at least one card. I am sure that very quickly you will realize how natural and exciting it is. Yes, mind maps are indeed an endless thought process.


You can draw a mind map by placing the central image on the left, right, top, center. It is more convenient to place a sheet of paper horizontally. This way you will have more free space for several levels of ideas. Do not shrink so that there is “air” between the concepts, otherwise it will be difficult to understand what belongs to what. The meaning of the map is still to simplify the understanding of the complex, and not vice versa! Draw in such a way that even an unprepared person can understand it. This is especially true if you are using a mind map to bring newcomers up to speed on the team.

Words can be located both inside the thick branches of each level, and above them. In addition, you can add connecting arrows between the concepts of different levels to show how they «contact» with each other. It will be easier for you to remember what has a logical connection.

You can develop your own system. For example, to place what is more important on top, etc.


A mind map is a rather large tool, so each idea should be expressed briefly. It is advisable to use one keyword, avoiding phrases or sentences, so that there is freedom for further development, room for thought. It is even better to express the idea with a drawing or a symbol. Vivid images will give rise to associations.

Think about the design so that the map is well read. Use different colors, cell shapes and cell sizes to make it easier to read. Highlight each branch from the central image with a certain color. Just don’t overdo it! More than eight colors will be difficult to perceive. Lines between different levels can be voluminous, filled or hollow, and words can be circled. Use shapes of different sizes for hierarchy, different fonts and styles. I repeat: we draw up a map not with the aim of hiding something, hiding, and then painfully deciphering. It comes to mind: «Become simpler — and people will be drawn to you.» In our case, you yourself will thoroughly understand the issue by drawing a detailed map, and then, depending on the task, you will convey each aspect to the team, assign responsibility, or gradually do everything yourself. Therefore, simplicity and once again simplicity.

Logical models in mind maps

  1. Block + list. Allows you to visualize a large number of tasks. Suitable for business plans of organizations, plan for oral presentation to an audience (Fig. 6)

2. Hierarchy. In the center is your target. Branches of the first level are the directions of activity, and the second level are specific tasks to achieve the goal. This can be an action plan for a project or a schedule for a week (Fig. 7).

3. Interconnected. If you need to emphasize the connection between elements, use lines, arrows, the same colors, mathematical signs (Fig. 8).

The mind map adapts to any purpose. Checked! For example, you can make a map of daily / weekly tasks and approach the boss with your action plan to adjust the prioritization. Or set the agenda for the meeting. Or generate ideas together with the team.

As they say, it is better to see once than to hear a hundred times. Therefore, I propose to consider many examples from different fields of activity and for different tasks. Surely you will find something that will interest you!

Brainstorming to solve professional problems

Let’s turn to the experience of Sergey Gorkov, now the head of Rosgeo JSC, and earlier the Deputy Minister of Economic Development and Chairman of Vnesheconombank. Reforming the bank, he developed and then described in his book “Thinking 2.0” [2] a technology for solving unsolvable problems (and assistant managers have such too!). As an example, the author cites a real prototype formed with the help of design thinking when creating a new institution strategy. Structurally, it is arranged as a “user path”. On it, the team modeled and discussed the entire cycle of the client’s interaction with the new business model of Vnesheconombank. Here’s what they got (Fig. 9, ten).

Such a prototype should be so simple that it can be explained to a child.

Key ideas are presented in the form of a mental map at the end of the book (Fig. 11). By the way, “Thinking 2.0” is worthy of direct work with it within the framework of our topic. It’s about making a summary of the book in the form of a mind map. Be sure to try!

The author encourages: “Draw all possible and impossible ideas around the problem. Visualize ideas. Separate words and images will be remembered better than whole sentences. The faster an idea becomes tangible, the faster it can be evaluated and improved.” This is just brainstorming! By the way, do you know where it originated?

I can’t help but be proud to be part of the company that invented the brainstorming method! It was created in 1941 in the USA by Alex Osborne, the founder of the BBDO network of advertising and communication agencies. The author wrote that in the course of work, the participating teams should be maximally involved in the brainstorming process to solve creative problems in groups. The meaning of brainstorming is to stimulate creativity through the free expression of ideas and all sorts of options for getting out of the current situation.

He gave the example that this technique inspires a team of 10 advertisers to come up with 87 offers for a new pharmacy in 90 minutes, i.e. almost at the rate of one idea per minute[3].

Osborne believed that the main difference between brainstorming and other types of team work is the absence of criticism and negative reactions from other participants in the discussion.

A favorable environment should encourage the emergence of irrational ideas. After all, if people are worried that their proposals will be ridiculed by the group, nothing will work! With this format of work, you should forget about quality, and try to give out the maximum number of ideas without limiting your imagination. That’s the whole point: to hold a meeting so that each participant has the opportunity to speak out, without expecting to be accused by the rest of the failure of their proposal. Indeed, even the most absurd idea can become a breakthrough in the indicated problem!

Brainstorming steps

Brainstorming is, on the one hand, a chaotic process, but on the other, it is quite organized. Three main stages can be distinguished.

  1. Statement of a problem or formulation of a question is the central image of a mind map.
  2. Idea generation — free flow of all possible options, all ideas are accepted without criticism.
  3. Analysis — selection, grouping and evaluation of ideas. Here it is already necessary to assess the viability and potential of what was invented, therefore, critical thinking is indispensable.

Job Responsibilities and Job Description

This unexpected way of presenting standard information will come in handy if you are just defining the functionality of a new position or you are already interviewing candidates trying to explain what they will have to do in the workplace.

I have repeatedly written job descriptions for the selection of employees for various positions — from gardeners and costume designers to teachers — native French speakers, interviewed future colleagues in the secretariat of the head.

It’s a pity that I didn’t come up with the idea to use maps for simplicity and clarity! How would it help to structure the candidate’s responsibilities by dividing them into blocks (and the applicant better understand what is required of him). Now I strongly advise you to use such a tool in your work. As an example, I will give a job description of an assistant manager, made in the MindMeister program. It should reflect administrative, business and personal assignments, and also do not forget about professional development (Fig. 12).

Find out more about job descriptions in the library of interactive mind maps created by MindMeister users from all over the world. On duty, we will be interested in the following:

  • Requirements, duties and prospects of an assistant creative director[4];
  • Job card of assistant manager[5];
  • Job description for assistant manager and assistant[6].

You can make a similar map of your professional duties. Firstly, it allows you not to miss any of your areas of responsibility. And secondly, it is useful to reflect on topics that, earlier, perhaps, did not concern you, but in the new realities have become more relevant.

Looking for a job

The magazine repeatedly mentioned that even if you are working, it is useful to update your resume and go to practice interviews. Let me give you a brilliant idea. As you edit your resume, think about the way information is presented in the form of a mind map. So you can profitably present, for example, your skills and abilities. Another option: in addition to the classic resume, make a visual presentation about yourself — a map of personal qualities. This will definitely help distinguish you from the flow of applicants for the position (Fig. 13).

And after you have compiled a resume, it will be useful to prepare for an interview. Again, using the map, think about what you expect from the job and what you can offer as a professional (Figure 14).

Structuring professional information: suppliers / clients / establishments

As I said, mind maps can be used to solve almost any problem. The type of activity does not matter. Although it’s nice to be aware of the fact that mind mapping allows you to perfectly cope with professional tasks, it’s still nice. Assistants and assistants should definitely try this tool and learn how to use it.

A simple example from my experience. In the Mind42 program, I made a utilitarian mental map of Moscow restaurants (Fig. 15).

It is absolutely not necessary to transfer all establishments of this kind located in the city to it. The point is to make a smart selection — a kind of guide to selected locations. In this map I enter:

  • favorite establishments of the head, where he goes most often;
  • restaurants in the immediate vicinity of the office when a business dinner with colleagues is expected;
  • restaurants on the way of the head from the office home when dinner is planned with partners from other companies to meet on neutral territory;
  • restaurants where corporate events and banquets were successfully held;
  • new restaurants that have recently opened and will be interesting to visit. Fortunately, the market in Moscow is quite dynamic!
  • restaurants by cuisine: fish / meat / vegetarian. This turns out to be very convenient when the leader meets with a partner who has certain gastronomic preferences, which can be reported by his assistant when planning the meeting.

The card is useful when you need to choose a suitable restaurant for a corporate dinner for directors , or remember in which zone to book a table, with whom, where and when the meeting took place. I periodically supplement it with new restaurants.

It is possible to make comments next to each item, highlight positions with color or use double underlining, make bulleted lists using icons or emoji or numbers for prioritization — 1, 2, 3.

Solving a big problem

One invaluable property of mind maps is to sort out a big problem. This tool is especially good for working on large long-term projects, where there is a lot of uncertainty at the first stage. For example, construction, repair or relocation (Fig. 16).

Let me give you an example from the life of an assistant. Organizing office relocation is not an easy task. But if you “connect” a mental map to solve it, in which you write down all the steps (what to collect first, what to second, whom to notify, hire, ask, etc.), then everything will happen as if by magic (well, almost everything!). Again, your office relocation card can look anything you like. For example, like this (Fig. 17).

Pros and cons of mind maps

The reader may get the impression (and for good reason — our «live» examples) that the mind map is literally the eighth wonder of the world. It develops logic and imagination, structures thoughts, removes fears and worries before the start of a multifaceted project, etc. etc. But no! Let’s try to structure our knowledge of the mind map, objectively highlighting both the advantages and disadvantages.


  1. Ease of perception. Breaks down a complex question into its components.
  2. Integrated approach. It helps to see the overall picture of all areas of responsibility and instructions for them.
  3. Versatility. It can be used both in the work environment and for personal needs.
  4. Quick access to information. One glance is enough to remember.
  5. Structured information.


  1. Doesn’t save time. To make a map with all the details, you need to sit and think. And then make a draft, the first version of the map and then redraw it clean.
  2. One card can only be dedicated to one topic.
  3. Not all bosses are ready to perceive information in this form. Many are more accustomed to its linear representation.
  4. The cards are individual and illustrate the way of thinking and associations of one person. My card may not suit you, and vice versa.
  5. Maps are dynamic and should be reviewed regularly. The associations you have now and the circumstances in which you draw the map may completely change in a few months.


Mind maps can be paper (created in a notebook or on a flipchart, etc.) or electronic (developed in special applications on a smartphone or in web versions on a computer). It is believed that it is better to draw it by hand, because the drawing process itself stimulates the brain, and it, in turn, generates more ideas (and this is exactly what we need). Electronic maps are less creative, more utilitarian, easy to share with colleagues and saved as separate files. They are suitable for longer-term projects that need to be constantly returned to. This is not a landscape sheet that can be wrinkled and accidentally end up in the wastebasket!

It’s up to you what you choose in the end. Obviously, both options need to be tested in action. And by the way, in some cases, the task itself can become a hint where it should be visualized.

Digital: applications and web services for working on a computer, tablet, phone

to your mind maps at any time.

There are applications for every taste. It is worth testing a few to understand which interface and visual design you like best. Everything is individual here, so only the application that you use regularly will be effective.

Among the popular mind mapping apps are the following in order of AppStore rating:

  • XMind;
  • Simple Mind;
  • MindMeister;
  • MindNode;
  • Miro.

Each application has a free version, as well as advanced subscription functionality. Most of them are Russian-speaking, except for Miro — it is in English.

From the creator of Tony Buzan is Ayoa. Also interesting in design are Venngage, Coggle. There you can find many templates and get inspired by the ideas of other users.

Portal where you can exchange cards — Here you can find many options on the topic of software testing — A lot of design ideas will open up to you if you follow the link

For more information about application analysis, please follow the links:

  • — top 20 services and a guide with examples.
  • — July 2020 Program Review.

Freehand cards: notepad / flipchart / whiteboard + pen / crayons / markers

Mind cards that relate to personal projects and activities are best drawn by hand. Tested on my own experience! Creating a mind map is a truly creative process. In it, you will go through all four stages of creativity, which Graham Wallace writes about in his book The Art of Thinking: preparation, incubation, insight and verification.

Mind maps can be very intricate (fig. 18).

See many examples at

How else to use mind maps?

It’s no longer news that mind maps are becoming more and more popular in. .. business. Yes, this tool, one might say, has become the second assistant (after the main one, of course, without which the manager cannot do without) in organizing and optimizing a variety of processes. For example, it allows you to make a presentation to clients describing the benefits of a new product, develop a website structure, or present a development strategy to potential investors. Or your goal is to enter a new market, or maybe optimize costs, create a strong HR brand, implement the principles of lean manufacturing in the office.

Whatever your goal is, try to visualize all the aspects on the way to it in the form of a mind map. Be sure to add branches — mini-tasks that you have to solve along the way. Obviously, it will be difficult to go astray with such a clearly defined route. Below are examples of how else you can use mental maps for business purposes (Fig. 19, 20).

1. Values, plans and strategy of the company

2. SWOT -analysis


If, after such a detailed explanation of what a mind map is and why it should be used in your work, you still have doubts about its practicality and value, then I offer the opinions of those who are already on “you” with this very mind map.

Daria, graduate MBA Skolkovo :

The mental map helps to structure thoughts and look at the situation more broadly. This is a kind of personal brainstorm (when it comes to personal projects), which can then become a map for discussion with colleagues, friends, i.e. turn into a board for collective brainstorming. I use them for the very first stage, when there are a lot of thoughts and I want to pack everything. It is not superfluous to go back to this mindmap along the way and keep track of which areas have already been conquered.

Marina, young scientist:

I use! Simplifies the planning process!

Tatiana Mitrova, Director of the Energy Center at the Moscow School of Management Skolkovo:

I use mental maps with the team. Important features: the shape of the blocks indicates different types of work, for example, research — an oval, events — a rectangle, scientific articles — a rhombus, a cloud — a column in the media; color — it is different for each employee. This way, areas of responsibility are immediately visible, and in bright red we mark those activities where emergency actions are needed.


When I get into a routine, I want to get out of it as soon as possible. This motivates me to be interested in what else can be done in the profession to which I now dedicate time. How to make every day interesting, and every task done not formally, but creatively. Mind maps are more interesting and easier to work with than linear information. It is a fact! ■

[1] Buzan T. Mind-maps / per. from English. Y. Konstantinova. – M.: Mann, Ivanov and Ferber, 2019. – 199 p.

[2] Gorkov S.N. Thinking 2.0. How to solve unsolvable problems. — M .: Publishing House of the University «Synergy», 2018. — 80 p.




[6]https:/ /

N.V. Murashkovskaya,
Assistant to the Chairman of the Board of Directors,
Chief Executive Officer of BBDO Group

from the Dukes of Milan Games to the Golden Dawn of London Hermeticism — Knife

Tarot has two secrets to success. Firstly, a fascinating symbolic system that has absorbed elements of many occult and mystical traditions. You can get aesthetic pleasure just looking at the cards. Secondly, true democracy. The tarot as it is known to modern Western civilization has never been an exclusive tool available only to initiates.

It is believed that the cards can be used by anyone who respects them, believes them and follows the laws of this art.

The classic tarot deck consists of 78 cards. They have minor arcana — cards of four suits — wands, swords, cups and pentacles / coins. Each suit has cards from one (ace) to ten, as well as four «court» cards — page, knight, queen and king. The Major Arcana are 22 unique cards without a suit. Their numbering and names may differ in different decks.

Major Arcana Tarot. Source

Today, many people invent and sell their Tarot decks. You can find decks based on literary works and TV series, especially in the fantasy genre — for example, Alice in Wonderland or The Lord of the Rings.

Enthusiasts have created metrosexual Tarot, a deck of meme realities and even a Tarot « Rise of the Witches Witches Rebellion » dedicated to an anarchist anti-father worker

Tarot reading is a whole science. Every year, dozens of books are published on the interpretation of card layouts. The general idea is that each of the cards has its own meaning. For example, the Hanged Man (by the leg, not by the throat) is often interpreted as a dead end, from which it is not easy to get out without loss. The Six of Cups means a favorable situation, prosperity and harmony.

Combinations of cards allow you to make a big picture from these units of meaning. If the Hanged Man in the layout is in the position denoting the present, and the six of cups is in the future, this will mean that a person is in for difficulties, from which he will get out with losses, but as a result he will be rewarded.

Intellectual entertainment of the Italian nobility

European occultists of the 18th and 19th centuries claimed that the Tarot was invented by the priests of Ancient Egypt, and spread around the world by the gypsies, who until the 19th century were considered descendants of the Egyptians.

In 1889, the French mystic Gérard Encausse, better known by the pseudonym Papus, wrote:

“The game of cards called Tarot, which is played by the Gypsies, is the Bible of Bibles. This is the book of Thoth by Hermes Trismegistus, the book of Adam, the book of the Primal Revelation of ancient civilizations. Thus, while the Freemasons, intelligent and strong men, lost the tradition; when the priests, also smart and strong, lost Esotericism; the gypsies, although ignorant and vicious, have given us the key that allows us to explain all the symbolism of ancient times.

This version does not withstand any criticism, if only because it is based on a long-refuted medieval assumption about the origin of the Gypsies from the ancient Egyptians. In fact, they came from India.

See also

Revolutionary mediums, women’s communes and tarot arcana. Divination interview with feminist witch and book whore Jessa Crispin

The genesis of the Tarot cards we know began in Northern Italy in the second half of the 15th century.

The word «Tarot» itself comes from the Italian Tarocci, which was the name of the oldest versions of such decks. The etymology of the word is not completely clear, but it is obvious that it is Italian.

Tarot originated as a variation of conventional card games that appeared about a century before. Most likely, the very idea of ​​a card game came to Europe through Muslim Spain from Arabia, China or India. The first mention of playing cards in Europe dates back to 1371, when the king of Aragon, Pedro IV, ordered a deck. A decade later, references to playing cards are already found in documents and annals of many Western European countries.

One of the oldest surviving decks of regular cards, circa 1470. This deck has unique suits — hunting horns, dog collars, game loops and dog harnesses. Source

The main innovation of the Tarot is the appearance of the fifth suit, the highest cards. The first documented mention of such a deck was found in the archives of Leonello d’Este, Count of Ferrara, and dates back to 1442.

However, it is likely that by this time the Tarot had been known and relatively common in the northern Italian states for several years. In the documents of that time, there are many references to expensive hand-painted maps that famous artists made to order for wealthy aristocrats. They have not reached our days.

Each deck had its own system of suits and symbols of high cards, which were invented by customers. They depicted biblical characters, ancient gods, allegories of human virtues and vices. Such decks became a way of self-expression for the Italian nobility of the Renaissance, among which intellectual amusements were in vogue.

Nobody thought to use such cards for divination. They were used to play games, apparently reminiscent of modern bridge. Not a single exact record has been preserved explaining their rules, probably they were already known to everyone.

Some researchers believe that, in addition to games and intellectual expression, the Italian aristocracy used proto-Tarot to memorize the classic stories of ancient literature and medieval philosophy. This method of game learning, based on the constant visual reproduction of images, was advocated by Thomas Aquinas.

How the two Dukes of Milan invented the Tarot

In 1449, the Venetian general Jacopo Antonio Marcello sent the Tarot deck to the Duchess of Anjou Isabella. In the letter that accompanied the cards, he indicated that the cards were given to him by a certain Venetian courtier Scipio Caraffa, who met him in the camp of the Milanese army and convinced him to give the cards to Isabella. Marcello claimed that the card game was invented by their recently deceased contemporary, Duke of Milan Filippo Visconti, who was born in 1397th and reigned from 1412 to 1447. Marcello claimed that his secretary, Marciano di Thornton, who was fond of philosophy and astrology, helped the Duke come up with a new card game.

Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. Source

Duke Visconti was very ugly and suffered from many congenital diseases, and therefore did not like to appear in public and forbade artists to paint him, except in cases of emergency. At the same time, he was a cunning and prudent ruler and, in addition, a highly educated person. All his life he loved intellectual games, which he preferred to all other types of leisure.

Duke Visconti’s original deck of cards has not survived to this day, but di Thornton’s work has been partially preserved, where he explains the meaning and principles of the game. The deck became an intermediate step in the transition from ordinary playing cards to Tarot. There are four ordinary suits in the game, which correspond to animals, but there is also a fifth suit filled with symbolism, the cards of which, although they were connected with the other four, seemed to dominate them. Here are her cards:

  1. Virtues (Eagle): Jupiter, Apollo, Mercury, Hercules;
  2. Wealth (phoenix): Juno, Neptune, Mars, Aeolus;
  3. Chastity (tortoise): Pallant, Diana, Vesta, Daphne;
  4. Pleasures (dove): Venus, Bacchus, Ceres, Cupid.

Marciano described only 24 cards in this deck, however, most likely, there were minor cards in each suit.

Cards from one of the Visconti decks — Sforza. Source

Until his death in 1447, Visconti ordered new decks from various artists, which looked more and more like the Tarot we know. After his death and the ensuing dynastic crisis, power in Milan passed to the Sforza dynasty. Its founder, Francesco, was also fond of cards and created several decks himself. The maps of the Dukes of Milan are combined into category «Tarot Visconti — Sforza» . Partially preserved 15 such decks.

It is in the Visconti-Sforza deck that the symbolic system of Tarot is formed. She is an obvious offspring of northern Italian Renaissance culture.

Cards denoting cosmic bodies appeared in the game thanks to the astrology craze of the Italian nobility. Cards like Fortitude, Mercy, and Strength represented human virtues, which were a popular theme in Renaissance literature. The Hermit card, which depicts an old gray-haired man, originally symbolized the time.

The magician in early cards was a street magician or juggler who performs tricks in front of children at a fair. In the Visconti-Sforza deck, it is called Il Bagatella — «a trifle, an insignificant thing» — and stands at the very bottom of the major arcana. The Emperor and Empress symbolized the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and his wife. The Hierophant is the Pope, and the Priestess is a character in the popular legend in the Middle Ages about Popess John, who allegedly deceived the Catholic Church and occupied the Holy See in the 9th century. The dualism of these two pairs of cards refers to the traditional plot of the dualism of secular and ecclesiastical power. The images of Justice (Themis) and the Wheel of Fortune are borrowed from the ancient Greek tradition.

Il Bagatella from a 15th century deck. Source

The origin of the other cards is not so obvious, but their meanings are easily explained through the Northern Italian cultural context. Researchers believe that the Chariot symbolized a carnival procession or a wedding. According to religious scholar Helen Farley, the Chariot could mean the Roman Church — such an allegory can be found in Dante’s Divine Comedy or in the writings of St. Jerome of Stridon. The image of Death in the form of a skeleton probably symbolized the plague, the outbreaks of which periodically occurred in Italy in the 15th century.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Fragment of the painting «The Triumph of Death», 1527

The Hanged Man card is associated with the tradition of «shameful drawings» , which depicted traitors, thieves and swindlers, suspended in a humiliating pose upside down. Not a single fresco of this genre has survived, however, there are many sketches of such frescoes made by eminent artists.


In the Visconti-Sforza deck, only two cards of the modern Major Arcana were missing — the Tower and the Devil. The tower appeared in the Tarot tradition as early as the 15th century and was probably known to the Visconti. In early decks, it was interpreted as the Tower of Babel, the house of God, the house of the devil, the gates of hell.

Helen Farley believes that the Tower — Torre in Italian — may have had a personal meaning for the Visconti. The dynasty competed for a long time and fought for power with another noble family of Milan — della Torre. By incorporating her symbol into his decks, Duke Filippo would perpetuate the line of bitter enemies.

The Devil appeared in the Tarot only in the 16th century, simply because during the time of the last Visconti and the first Sforza, his image was hardly used in painting.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the Tarot tradition spread throughout the south of France. Here the deck was finally formed, which will be mistakenly called the Marseilles.


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The Marseille deck uses the familiar suit system and contains 22 Major Arcana cards. Until the 16th or 17th century, the Marseille deck was only one of many regional variations of the Tarot, but by about 1700 it became dominant everywhere except Italy, where each province had its own decks and card games.

Marseille deck. Source

Tarot meets the occult

By the 18th century, Tarot had become one of the most popular card games in Europe. It is played in Paris and Geneva, Madrid and St. Petersburg. However, the occult had nothing to do with cards until the end of the century.

For the first time these two worlds came into contact in France a few years before the French Revolution, when a real epidemic of Egyptomania swept Western Europe. It is believed that one of the first Tarot in an esoteric context became interested in Freemason Antoine Court de Gebelin, who combined a passion for the occult with social sciences. In his ten-volume pseudo-anthropological opus magnum, The Primitive World, Its Analysis and Comparison with the Modern World, published in 1781, he devoted one chapter to the history of the Tarot cards.

De Gébelin believed that ancient people lived much better than modern people. In his opinion, Tarot is the ancient Egyptian book of Thoth, written in symbolic form. With her help, the ancient Egyptian priests encrypted wisdom so that it could pass through the millennia and be recognized only by the worthy.

The very name of the maps, in his opinion, consists of two words of the ancient Egyptian language — Tar and Rho, which are translated as «royal road». It was pure manipulation — then no one knew how the ancient Egyptian language sounded, and the first tablet that made it possible to decipher it was found in 1799 year.

De Gébelin claimed that the Chariot symbolized the ancient Egyptian god Osiris, the Star — Isis, and the Devil — their evil brother Typhon. He called the cards Pope and Popess Priest and Priestess. The Hanged Man card, in his opinion, needs to be turned over: in fact, it should be called Caution and it depicts a person who stands balancing on one leg. He interpreted the suits as the four classes of ancient Egyptian society: coins — merchants, bowls — priests, sticks or clubs (which will turn into more noble wands only after a few decades) — peasants, and swords — warriors and kings.

The Hanged Man / Caution and Justice from the deck of de Gebelin. Source

In the same volume, Gebelin placed a work by another author, Comte de Melle. De Melle divided 21 cards into three groups, each of which symbolized an era in human history. Cards 21 to 15 were the Golden Age and the creation of the world, cards 14 to 8 were the Silver Age, and the bottom seven were the «vile» Iron Age that continues to this day. The count also correlated the cards with the letters of the Hebrew alphabet for the first time.

Sketches of the Tarot de Gebelin deck. Source

Three years after the publication of de Gebelin’s work, the French soothsayer Jean-Baptiste Allette, under the pseudonym Ettailla (his last name is reversed), published the first tarot divination manual. He attributed to himself the invention of cartomancy — the occult science of divination on cards. Back in 1770, his first book about card fortune telling, including the Tarot, was published — however, there was no Egypt there.


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Researchers claim that Ettailla knew de Gébelin and accepted his ideas. The esotericist wrote that Tarot cards were developed by a group of 17 magicians led by Hermes Trismegistus 171 years after the Great Flood. Etteila reversed de Melle’s Major Arcana numbering system and reinterpreted many of the cards.

The first card of the Major Arcana symbolized the mystic, or the one who asks the cards a question. The next seven cards depicted the process of the creation of the world — the Pope denoted the creation of light, the Popess denoted heaven, etc. Cards from the ninth to the 12th denoted human virtues (Ettailla had nothing new here), and from the 13th to the 21st are the most important states of human life. So, the Mage means sadness or illness, the Destroyed Temple means poverty and imprisonment, and the Fool means madness.

In 1788, Ettailla created the Society of Tarot Interpreters, which included several dozen enthusiastic spiritualists. In 1790, a year before his death, he created his own deck — the first in history designed not for playing, but for divination, and also founded a school of magic. Ettailla’s student, to whom he bequeathed the leadership of the school, after a few years, it was as if he simply dissolved, and the school was dissolved. However, in those years, the French were no longer in the mood for guessing.

Ettailla Tarot, 1857. Source

Modern tarot adepts appreciate de Gébelin’s contribution to their tradition, but consider him a dim-witted interpreter, while Ettailla is revered as a much more insightful and talented magician. It was he who first managed to connect the Tarot with Hermetic philosophy.

The philosophy of Hermeticism arose in late Antiquity, when two traditions entered into a synthesis in Hellenistic Egypt: the cults of the ancient Greek Hermes and the ancient Egyptian god of wisdom and writing, Thoth. From their confusion arose the image of Hermes Trismegistus, an ancient semi-divine sage who lived much earlier than the earliest Greek philosophers. He is credited with the creation of many philosophical works — the Hermetic Corpus. In her works, Ettailla often refers to Pymandra, the central work of the corpus. Although, as early as the 17th century, historians discovered that in reality these texts were most likely written in the 2nd-4th centuries.

Hermeticism is an extensive doctrine that, in addition to mysticism, covers many topics — fundamental philosophy, morality and ethics, religion. However, it also contains magical, alchemical and astrological texts. From a philosophical point of view, he is at the junction of Neoplatonism, Pythagoreanism and Stoicism. In religious matters, Hermeticism was rather vague, although in general terms it affirmed the existence of a single creator god who is identical with all that exists. Therefore, Hermeticism resonated with some early Christian and Muslim theologians.

One of the key ideas of Hermeticism is the principle of correspondences. According to him, phenomena from different planes of being reveal a striking similarity, and everything that exists is subject to uniform laws. Chemical substances are identical to words, celestial bodies and mathematical symbols, and our world is similar to higher worlds hidden from man. This assumption makes possible magic and alchemy based on the symbolic reproduction of these identities.

Many people who for two millennia called themselves by the Hermeticists , were not too interested in the philosophy of Trismegistus proper. In the teachings, they were attracted only by the magical component.

Tarot in the 19th century

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars interrupted the development of the Tarot tradition for almost a hundred years. A new surge of enthusiasm for the occult and interest in the Tarot began in the second half of the 19th century. The next great cartomist after Ettailla is the mystic and philosopher Alphonse-Louis Constant, known under the pseudonym Eliphas Levi (1810-1875).

His philosophy is an explosive mixture of early French socialism, to which he was faithful from a young age, loosely understood Catholicism and occultism. Levi despised cheap gambling and tricks and considered the occult sciences as a method of internal improvement of a person. Nevertheless, he did not hesitate to experiment with any spiritualistic mysteries of the era — necromancy, communication with the spirit of the dead and, of course, fortune telling on cards.

Levi’s mystical teachings were based on Kabbalah, which he supplemented with ideas from Pythagoreanism and Christian mysticism.

Kabbalah is a school of thought in Jewish mysticism that can be traced back to the 5th-2nd centuries BC. e. Many ideas of Kabbalah are close to Gnosticism — here, too, there is the idea of ​​the identity of a symbol and an existing phenomenon. The most famous concept of Kabbalah is the Tree of Life, in which Hebrew letters line up in a diagram of the structure of the Universe. This idea first appears in the book Sefer Yetzirah. Ten circles-sefirot , corresponding to the numbers, designate the stages of creation and the power that the god-creator uses to create and order the created. The Sefirot are interconnected by 22 connections, which are denoted by the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

Levi was the first to directly link Tarot cards and the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. The ten minor cards of the deck symbolize the ten Sefirot, and the 22 cards of the Major Arcana symbolize the connections between them. Levi believed that the Tarot was invented by the Hebrew priests who compiled the Kabbalah, and he considered the name of the cards to be an acronym for the word «Tetragrammaton», which should replace the sacred name of the god of four letters ( JHWH).

The role assigned to the «court» cards of the minor arcana in his system is not very clear.

Major Arcana Tarot cards on the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. Source

Modern Tarot adepts criticize Levi for the vagueness of his system: the analogies between letters and cards sometimes seem far-fetched and meaningless. His main merit is the comparison of cards with the Tree of Life and the Hebrew alphabet, which has become the main way of esoteric interpretation of the Tarot.

In the second half of the 19th century, the British were infected by the French with a passion for the occult. Like mushrooms after rain, secret societies and orders arose throughout the country, whose members practiced magical rituals. The key to the history of the Tarot, and indeed to the entire Western culture, was the largest and most popular of them — the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

Golden Dawn was founded in 1888 by occultists William Westcott and Samuel Mathers. They claimed that ten years earlier they had received 60 pages of ciphered occult texts that described Hermetic philosophy, Kabbalah and magical rituals, including methods of divination by the Tarot. The book was written in a simple cipher — English, but from right to left, as well as using Hebrew numerals.

See also

Sorcerers, maniacs and fixies. What are modern urban demons and how they affect our lives

Westcott and Mathers said that the manuscript was given to them by a well-known elderly Freemason, who had already died by that time. Where the text actually came from is unclear. At different times, the followers of the order associated the appearance of the manuscript with various secret occult organizations in Europe. In fact, it is likely that the founders of the Golden Dawn created it themselves in order to falsify the succession of their organization.

Initially, the philosophy of the order was based on the writings of Levi, Ettailla and de Gébelin. The Golden Dawn actively exploited the Egyptian theme — the divisions of the organization were named after the gods Horus, Osiris and Isis-Urania, as well as Kabbalah — the organizational structure of the order copied the Tree of Life.

The Order existed until the 1970s, but it was a truly powerful and mass organization from the 1890s until the outbreak of the First World War, after which it became mired in internal strife. Many famous and talented people of the then Britain passed through the Golden Dawn. Hundreds of books have been written about the influence of the order on world culture and the religious consciousness of Western civilization.

Like Levi, the Golden Dawn correlated the minor ten cards of the Tarot with the ten Sefirot, and the cards of the Major Arcana with the connections between them. Mathers supplemented this system by associating with the sefirot also the ranks of the minor arcanum: aces from the sefirot of Keter, tens from Malkuth, etc.

Together with his wife Mona, Mathers developed his own deck, in which there were images from Egyptian, Jewish, Greek and even Celtic and Germano-Scandinavian mythology, but it did not receive much distribution. In the Golden Dawn manuscript, it was said that Tarot can not only predict the future, but also influence it. Therefore, only members of the order of a high level of initiation were allowed to use the Tarot.

Arthur Waite, the informal leader of the London branch of the Golden Dawn, played a key role in the further development of the Tarot. He is considered one of the main intellectuals of the occult of that time. Like Levi, he had a distaste for demonstrative tricks and interpreted occult knowledge and magic as ways of personal development and the elevation of the human individuality.

Waite criticized the attempts of previous writers to contrivedly tie the Tarot to historical narratives and suggested focusing on the symbolism of the cards themselves, in which, without any Egyptian deities, is hidden the very Secret Tradition that the occultists have always sought. Most of all, he was disgusted by the idea of ​​\u200b\u200bthe connection between the Tarot and the Kabbalah, which, in his opinion, limited and smoothed the wisdom of the cards.

In 1911, together with occult artist Pamela Smith, he created that very bewitching tarot deck that is considered a classic today. Smith and Waite developed thoughtful symbolic illustrations for each card, including the minor arcana. At the same time, in most cases, the pictures are arranged in such a way that they easily indicate the meaning of the card. For example, on the Seven of Swords, which is usually interpreted as a difficult situation requiring extraordinary solutions, a man is depicted who is struggling to carry five swords in his hands, while two more are stuck in the ground — he could not take them from him.


Some tarot scholars believe that Smith and Waite were helped to develop the deck by their well-known friends from the Golden Dawn — the great Irish poet William Yeats, who brought Waite to the order, and theater actress and feminist Florence Farr.

After Waite and Smith, the tradition of understanding and interpreting the Tarot continued to develop. However, their subtle and original perception of the Tarot is still the most popular interpretation of the cards to this day.

how the company works, Revolut in Russia


  • How Revolut works
  • Company Overview
  • Criticism Revolut
  • Indicators
  • Revolut in Russia
  • Pros and cons of Revolut
  • Prices Revolut
  • Transfers to Revolut
  • Revolut physical and virtual card
  • Security Revolut
  • Application and registration with Revolut

How Revolut works

The startup describes itself as a digital alternative to banking. Initially, users were offered a prepaid card and an app that allowed travelers to use different currencies at no additional cost. Since then, the range of products and services has been expanded, and among the new features of Revolut appeared:

  • cryptocurrency exchange,
  • travel insurance services,
  • cost analytics,
  • transfers abroad,
  • calculation of interest on the balance,
  • Sharing an account with non-Revolut users.

Fintech application allows the user to quickly open a bank account and issue a physical or virtual card. When crediting money to the account, you can immediately choose a convenient currency. You can manage your account through your smartphone or iPad.

Unlike British competitors such as Monzo and Starling, Revolut’s priority is international expansion rather than building a full cycle bank in one country.

After Brexit, the company obtained a banking license in Lithuania to continue operating in the EU, and applied for UK and US licenses.

Company Overview

The founders of Revolut are Nikolai Storonsky and Vlad Yatsenko. Storonsky was born in Russia, but has been living in the UK since the age of 20 and is a British citizen. Yatsenko is of British-Ukrainian descent and has lived in the United Kingdom since 2010.

Before founding a startup, Storonsky worked for Credit Suisse and the international financial company Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc, while Yatsenko spent five years creating financial systems for large investment banks.

The founders say they started the project because they were frustrated with how long it took traditional banks to introduce digital services for younger customers who prefer to do everything via their smartphone.

The Revolut startup was launched in July 2015 on the basis of the Level39 technology accelerator. Yatsenko holds the position of CTO, and Storonsky is the CEO of the company.

Criticism Revolut

Neobank has been repeatedly criticized for its ambiguous personnel policy.

Wired reported that as a test task for various positions, it was required to look for new clients for the bank within a week. The implementation of the plan did not guarantee a job.

Employees were regularly forced to work for free in order to fulfill their goals. Development leaders in national markets faced pressure. One of Wired’s sources stated that he worked constantly: on weekdays he organized promotional events, and in the evenings and on weekends he translated the Revolut app and website into the language of the country in which he developed the product.

Revolut has a fairly high turnover. If on average, startups work in one position from 18 months to 4 years, then according to former Revolut employees on LinkedIn, more than 80% worked there for less than a year, and more than half stayed with the company for less than 6 months.

In the spring of 2019, Nikolai Storonsky wrote to all employees on Slack, saying that everyone «with a performance rating of ‘significantly lower than expected’ will be fired without discussion following the evaluation. » Within two weeks, three heads of development in national markets left the company.

Screenshot: Wired

On April 14, 2020, shortly after a successful funding round, Revolut said it was trying to avoid potential cuts and cut costs. Employees were asked to voluntarily exchange part of their salary for double the equivalent in Revolut options. The cost of one security was then $121.4015. In May, the company reported that about 60% of employees participated in the scheme.

In 2020, the largest division of Revolut underwent massive layoffs. A support and compliance center is located in Krakow, before that 1,000 employees worked there. About 60 people were fired under the terms of a bilateral agreement with the company, another 50 refused to do so and the reason for the suspension was the lack of efficiency.

Wired sources say at least one HR executive quit after failing to convince Storonsky that the startup should change its approach to achieving goals.


Revolut’s core business is travel services. Despite the sector’s decline during the pandemic, the company’s total revenue in 2020 grew by 34%.

  • At the end of 2020, Revolut has more than 14.5 million retail users and 500,000 companies among its customers.
  • The company’s revenue for 2020 amounted to $361 million, which is 57% more than in 2019.
  • Total revenue reached $170 million
  • In the second half of 2020, Revolut managed to break even.

In 2021, Revolut became the most valuable startup in the UK with a valuation of $33 billion (it increased its valuation by 6 times in a year). The investment round was led by Japanese holding company SoftBank and US investment company Tiger Global Management.

Revolut in Russia

In 2018, Revolut plans to enter Russia became known. Qiwi became a local partner, which was supposed to take over obtaining a banking license, opening accounts and issuing cards. However, the launch was repeatedly postponed: first to the end of 2018, and then to 2019.

In February 2020, it became known that neobank changed its mind about launching in Russia, and employees of offices in Moscow and St. Petersburg will support business in other countries. The Bell sources cited the slow development of a solution by Qiwi as a possible reason for the postponement of plans. However, the Qiwi press service told RB that their API is ready to implement the project with Revolut, and there are all the resources to further refine the infrastructure.

It is also likely that the neobank did not want to be associated with Russia ahead of the big funding round. In February 2020, Revolut raised $500M and raised its valuation to $5.5B. It is especially suitable for several categories of users.

  • For travelers. Unlike traditional banks, Revolut supports multiple currencies and allows you to pay in a convenient way.
  • For those who receive and transfer payments abroad. Traditional bank automatically converts payments to bank account currency. The Revolut app works differently: it shows a column with the amount in dollars, and the user can decide whether to exchange money or use it, for example, to buy shares.
  • For traders. Another cool feature is easy access to stock trading on the US stock exchange.

Neobank has limitations.

  • Revolut does not display detailed information about stock prices and companies, and the user can only trade certain securities.
  • The application does not allow making payments using a QR code.
  • The service does not support traditional bank transfers. Since the account is de facto located in the UK, data for international payments (eg SWIFT and BIC) will be required and the recipient will be surprised that the funds are coming from a foreign account.

Revolut prices

Currently, the service has four tariff plans.

  • Standard. Free basic package that includes a free card. The cash withdrawal limit without commission is €200 per month or five withdrawals. The interest on the balance is 0.15% per annum. For a month, you can exchange currency at the interbank rate for a total amount of up to 1 thousand pounds sterling. The commission for the exchange of cryptocurrencies is 2.5%.
  • Plus. €2.99 per month. In addition to the features of the standard plan, free card delivery is offered. The interest on the balance is 0.3% per annum. Insurance and return of tickets for events. Not available in the USA.
  • Premium. €7.99 per month. Free express shipping card. The cash withdrawal limit without commission is €400 per month. You can make one payment on an international account per month without commission. Interest on the balance — 0.65% per annum. Currency exchange at the interbank rate without restrictions. The commission for the exchange of cryptocurrencies is 1. 5%. Travel medical insurance, luggage insurance.

Photo in text: Tearsheet

  • Metal. €13.99 per month. In addition to the features of the premium plan, there is an increased fee-free cash withdrawal limit of €800 per month. Exclusive metal card and cashback — 0.1% per annum in Europe and 1% outside Europe. You can make three payments on an international account per month without commission.

Transfers to Revolut

The service does not charge a commission for transfers in euros within a single European payment system (for example, if the user sends euros to Poland or France).

For transfers in local currencies, say if you send Polish zloty to Poland from France, there is a flat fee of 0.3%, no less than 0.3 pounds sterling and no more than 5 pounds sterling.

Premium or Metal tariff plan users can make 1 or 3 international transfers without commission.

Physical and virtual Revolut card

You can get a Revolut card almost anywhere in the world — provided that the user has citizenship or at least a work visa of one of the states where Revolut officially operates. These are currently the EU, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, Singapore, the USA and Japan.

In addition, the Premium and Metal plan users can issue an unlimited number of virtual cards. They are linked to the user’s account, but have a different number, and they can be created even for one-time payments.

Therefore, it is safer to make purchases with them — online, in applications and through terminals for paying from a smartphone.

The only restriction is that cash cannot be withdrawn from the virtual card, since it does not have a magnetic stripe or a chip. Like a regular card, it has a 16-digit number, an expiration date, and a CVV code.

Security Revolut

The service has been repeatedly accused of lacking security.

According to the Telegraph, from July to September 2018, neobank turned off the automatic system designed to block suspicious transfers. An internal investigation into the incident took place only at the end of 2018.

According to Business Insider, the decision was made after the system blocked 8,000 legitimate transactions. The head of the legal service of the startup, Tom Hambrett, said that the system was disabled by mistake. In September 2018, the company launched a new anti-fraud system.

UK regulators have previously suspected neobank of carrying out illegal transactions through the platform, and the Lithuanian government repeatedly audited Revolut before granting it a banking license.

Neobank invests a significant part of the collected funds in the direction of compliance. According to the Revolut website, suspicious transactions are now detected by a machine learning algorithm, and its anti-fraud is 7 times better than the systems of large banks.

Application and registration with Revolut

Before using the service, make sure that it is available in the user’s country. Registration takes place in 5 steps:

  1. download the application in the App Store or Google Play Store,
  2. launch the application, enter a phone number and set a password to enter your account,
  3. enter a 6-digit PIN code from SMS into the application,
  4. provide name, postal address, email, social security number or individual taxpayer identification number,

    Note-taking problems

    Almost all people have dealt with notes at least once in their lives. This way of keeping records is traditional, but it has several drawbacks:

    — notes are complex in structure;
    — These records take a lot of time;
    — it is difficult to remember something based on notes.

    The main disadvantage of traditional records is the complex structure and the absence of distinguished main categories. Abstracts look like sheets of text. Yes, some things in them can be distinguished, but this will not help much. The main concepts are always hidden behind large volumes of text.

    We remember the main concepts, focusing on certain key words that serve as reference points. It is very difficult to find them in the abstract. You have to deal with heavy phrases.

    It’s good if the handwriting is understandable. If the handwriting is similar to medical ligature, then deciphering such cryptograms will require additional efforts.

    Benefits of Mind Maps

    Mind maps were created by Tony Buzan as a counterpoint to traditional note-taking and note-taking. Buzan is a psychologist who is well versed in the way individuals perceive information. He stripped the notes of everything superfluous and proposed a very simple system that had already been used before him. It’s just that Tony Buzan rediscovered it.

    Mind maps are:

    — a simple and convenient way to structure information;
    — records that are easily perceived;
    — the presence of selected main concepts and categories, reference points;
    — the minimum amount of text;
    is a clear structure.

    Mind maps are created on a sheet of paper, which is usually placed horizontally. Instead of a simple linear notation, the radial method is used here. All keywords are placed on branches, and it is recommended to use one word for each branch, rather than whole phrases. The person who keeps such a record only needs to choose the most vivid and memorable concepts that he will use as reference points.

    Expert advice

    When creating mind maps, it is important to remember that keeping such records is more than just taking notes. Mind mapping can be attributed more to creativity than to the dry presentation of lectures on paper. Over time, each person who works with the mind map develops his own style of keeping records. And at the first stages it is worth following simple recommendations.

    One line — one word. On each of the lines from the center, as well as on the branches that go from the main lines, Tony Buzan recommends placing only one word. According to him, it is this method that helps to focus on remembering information. One word provides an opportunity for additional images and associations.

    The map is not a diagram. Experts repeat after Tony Buzan that a mind map should not resemble a traditional diagram. Words should be placed directly on the branches, without placing them in different rectangles and other graphic shapes. No need to take a ruler and draw a strict scheme, the branches of the mind map must be alive.

    Print font preferred. When compiling a mind map, it is better to use block letters. A map written in block letters looks more accurate. In addition, regular writing may be illegible. This will affect the perception of information.

    Horizontal cards are more convenient . To create a mind map, it is better to place a piece of paper horizontally rather than vertically. Some «creatives» even try to write by placing the sheet in some bizarre way. It’s extra work that doesn’t pay off. A mind map is a creative thing, but it has a purely practical function.

    Working with color and size. In a mind map, you can highlight more and less important anchor points by simply changing the color when writing a word, using a different font size, or making some words more visible. This is one of the important benefits of mind mapping. Here, the recording possibilities are unlimited.

    Letters or graphics? Drawings and graphics can be actively used in mind maps. Moreover, for the central concept, which is located in the very heart of the map, a picture is always needed. It can be an image printed from a computer or a freehand drawing. How much the author has drawing skills does not matter, you do not need to be the second Salvador Dali. Tony Buzan even claims that an entire mind map can be made entirely of drawings. For educational purposes, it is desirable for students to use both capacious concepts in the form of words and graphics.

    Color play. Different colors must be used for different branches of the mind map. You will definitely need a set of felt-tip pens, colored pens or markers. It all depends on the size of your card and paper weight.

    Optimum format. A mental map, done correctly, does not contain voids. At the same time, the branches and words on it are not compressed in a limited space. To create a mind map, you should choose a sheet of paper of a suitable size. Traditionally, for a small map, the popular A4 format is used. For a large mental map, an A3 sheet is suitable.

    Where to use the mind map

    Mind mapping is very convenient:

    — when teaching, creating lecture notes and books;
    — when solving various problems of a creative nature;
    — during brainstorming sessions;
    — in the process of preparing materials on complex topics;
    — in planning;
    — for generalization and structuring of existing knowledge;
    — in preparation for presentations.

    It is also believed that working with cards enhances intellectual abilities. The mind map also has a drawback: mental maps are focused on a single concept, which is located in the middle of the scheme.

    Mind map and learning foreign languages ​​

    Mind maps will help you understand not only philosophy lectures, but also foreign languages. Today, not many people use this method to work with the language, but the popularity of the technology itself is gradually growing. Mind maps can be used, for example, to parse text. There are two approaches to parsing foreign text using a mind map, one is designed for a beginner, the other for advanced users.

    Method for beginners

    Starting to work with a foreign text, you can penetrate deeper into the essence of the language using mental maps. The essence of the method is very simple:

    1. First, it is recommended to divide the entire text into paragraphs.
    2. When compiling a map, the paragraph number should be placed as the main concept in its center.
    3. Branches denoting sentences will go from this number.
    4. There is no need to write anything on the branch itself, which denotes the sentence. Words and their translation are placed on additional branches.

    Looking at such a mental map of a paragraph, you can see additional meanings in it.

    Method for advanced students

    For advanced people, there is another scheme for compiling mind maps. Experienced users need to break the text into paragraphs, focusing on the meaning and content. Each passage should have some central theme.

    1. The central theme of the passage is placed in the very center when compiling the mind map. To designate the topic, you need to choose one bright keyword.
    2. From the central theme, you must draw branches that will indicate the main thoughts contained in the passage.
    3. Additional branches with keywords (reference points) are created on branches.
    4. Only new words or incomprehensible expressions are accompanied by translation here.

    Why is this method beneficial? It would seem that it is much easier to learn a text in a foreign language by simply working with a dictionary and rewriting all new expressions or words. In fact, the traditional vocabulary keeping technique is not that effective. After all, we remember foreign words and expressions only in context. The more we work with contexts, the better we understand the nuances of a foreign language. That is why mind maps are so useful in learning a foreign language.

    The theoretical basis of a foreign language can also be visualized in the form of mind maps. Many students use simple traditional notes, but they are of little use. There is too much text in such notes and the central concepts are not visible at all.

    Visualization as the basis of mind mapping

    Mind maps are effective, if only because they involve both hemispheres of the brain. If, when studying standard and already familiar notes, a student includes the left hemisphere in work, then when working with mind maps, the right hemisphere also begins to function intensively.

    Moreover, the brain does not tense up during the preparation and study of mental maps, but rather relaxes. The material is not intensively studied and memorized, as in reading notes. Something close to visualization happens.

    When studying any topic, we strive to cover as much material as possible in the shortest possible time. When we no longer have a summary or a book in front of us, but a mind map, the speed of perception slows down somewhat, but there is an expansion of meanings, immersion in the essence. This is very useful when studying a topic in depth. Sometimes new meanings open up before students and fresh thoughts appear.

    How mind maps are created

    Mind maps can be drawn by hand or with the help of special programs available on the Internet. For starters, it’s worth experimenting with hand-drawn maps. Later it already makes sense to switch to applications, if there is such a desire. Mind maps that are made by hand differ from those created in programs only aesthetically. They are not that perfect. But the schemes should not differ in the accuracy of each line.

    So, to create a map you need:

    — take a sheet of paper A 4 or A3;
    — in the center of the sheet place the main concept, concept, problem and a picture that would symbolize the issue under consideration;
    — the central concept is in a circle or frame;
    — several branches should be made from the main idea;
    — new branches can be drawn from each branch.

    In this way, step by step, you will break down the problem into its components. Some people create mind maps with a pencil, because such records can be corrected by erasing the excess. However, the founder of the system does not recommend doing so. It is better to leave the «history of the development of thought» without removing the errors. They can be marked as unimportant by using a special marker or simply by crossing them out.

    Write one keyword per branch. If Russian words do not fit, then there will always be analogues in English. Russian words are sometimes too long to display individual concepts.

    When drawing up mental maps, one should not overly confuse the scheme. Multilevel branches will only prevent you from seeing the main thing. Sometimes it is easier to make several mental maps at once than to squeeze all the concepts into one sheet.

    Mind map software should be used by experienced users partly because the beginner needs to master mind mapping and its basic principles. And only then he can already use graphic tools for work.