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Question: Can Computer Servers Cause Cancer

Studies have examined associations of these cancers with living near power lines, with magnetic fields in the home, and with exposure of parents to high levels of magnetic fields in the workplace. No consistent evidence for an association between any source of non-ionizing EMF and cancer has been found.

Table of Contents

Is it safe to sit beside a server?

Its absolutely safe to work in IT server room if you are very sensitive to AC and temperature (16 – 18 deg). People who are allergic to cold temperatures need to take precautions of covering your ears and body with appropriate jackets while entering Server Room.

Is it bad to have laptop on stomach?

The heat from a laptop is very unlikely to increase your core body temperature to a harmful level. Being around computers in general is safe during pregnancy. Studies have found no evidence that exposure to computers is harmful to pregnant women.

Why are servers so loud?

In the case of personal computers, workstations and servers, the noise usually emanates from the disk drive and the cooling fans. Usually, greater server computing power means higher power dissipation, calling for bigger/faster fans, which produce louder fan noise.

Can servers explode?

We’re not sure who was the first person to intentionally blow up a server. But plenty of others have followed in their footsteps, including the folks at GoGrid, who recently blew up a pile of servers to draw attention to the merits of cloud computing.

Do transformers give off radiation?

Recent studies in England have shown that these transformers generate an electromagnetic field (EMF), which can cause cancer. Electrical transformers are a big source of EMF with extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields surrounding it.

What are some health and safety issues of servers?

The main health and safety issues for servers include: Exposure to cleaning products and other chemicals. Musculoskeletal injuries from standing for long hours, working in awkward positions, or performing repetitive manual tasks. Lifting or carrying heavy trays or other objects.

Do computer servers give off radiation?

Your computer data room is not producing any dangerous radiation at all. Perhaps the most dangerous radiation you encounter in normal life is the UV radiation in normal sunlight. When you are outside for any long period of time, use sunscreen on exposed skin, and perhaps cover up with clothing and a hat.

What is considered a safe EMF level?

Magnetic fields for occupational exposures should be limited to less than 0.5 mT (5 gauss or 5,000 mG). Should I be worried about my exposure to EMF? The scientific information which exists doesn’t indicate that exposure levels which are commonly encountered have any health effect which requires corrective action.

How do I secure my server room?

Take these precautions to safeguard your servers and prevent theft and tampering. Secure Your Server’s Location. Keep Your Server, Firewall, and Network Switches in a Locked Rack. Video Surveillance is Key. Backup Your Server’s Power Supply And The Data On Your Server. Beat the Heat.

What can damage a server?

These menaces include temperature, humidity, vibration, water leaks, and intrusion. These threats can damage equipment, force hardware to shutdown, and slow performance. Not recognizing all risks is a weakness many companies have when it comes to protecting their server rooms.

Is radiation from computers harmful?

The radiation emission from any computer is RF (radiofrequency) waves. There is no proof that these are harmful unless the intensity is high enough to warm tissue (like a microwave oven). You are not putting yourself at risk (from radiation) by being on your computer more than four hours a day.

Is it unhealthy to put a laptop on your lap?

Since laptops do emit a fair amount of heat, though, not putting them on your abdomen is prudent, but using them on your lap (your thighs) is fine. Consumer protection laws were passed in the 1970’s by the Food and Drug Administration limiting the amounts and types of radiation emissions from these devices.

Are computer servers harmful?

There is no established evidence that working next to a computer server room is a risk to human health. The easiest way to reduce the electric and magnetic fields, is by simply moving people away from electrical sources and facilities and by rearranging room layouts.

Does server room have radiation?

Similarly, the server rooms or data centers have a significant impact on the environment and human body. EMF radiation is also known to be as one of the major factors affecting the performance of a data center.

What happens if a server room overheats?

Servers are usually kept in a closet or small room, which allows them to overheat at a much quicker rate than other equipment out in the open. When the temperature around and within the server and networking equipment becomes too high the server will shut down and there will be a loss of data.

Is a server room a confined space?

In terms of the normal circumstances ie when the flooding is not deployed then, under the Confined Space regs, INHO this is not a confined space. However, if the flooding device deploys, it probable would be. Regardless what is needed is a SSOW with a secure isolation to prevent the deployment of the device.

What are the different issues in data servers?

6 Key Challenges Faced by Data Centers in India Ineffective Monitoring of Assets. Excessive Energy Consumption. Inefficient Capacity Planning. Poor Staff Productivity. Long Recovery Periods. Growing Security Concerns.

Computer/VDT Screens

Do computer screens emit radiation that is harmful to the eyes?

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), «there is no convincing scientific evidence that computer video display terminals (VDTs) are harmful to the eyes.»  The common complaints of eye discomfort and fatigue are associated with ergonomic factors such as distance from the person to the monitor, monitor height and brightness, etc.

I have a colleague who is pregnant and who types at a computer. How much radiation does her baby receive at a typical computer? Is there a lead shield that she could wear? Like an apron?

Regulations of the US Department of Health and Human Services require manufacturers to test computer monitor emissions for radiation and to label them attesting to the fact that they have been found to meet the standards of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. You should be able to find this label on the rear of the computer monitor or the computer processor. Health studies of pregnant women who work with VDTs have not found harmful effects on the women or on their children. Heavy lead aprons or other shields are not considered necessary for units that meet the x-ray emission standards of 21 CFR. Such shields may actually be counterproductive from an ergonomic point of view.

What amount of exposure is received from the average computer monitor?

Radiation emissions from VDTs (for example, television sets and computer monitors) are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturers are required to test and label these products.  Regulations limit radiation emissions from electronic products to levels considered safe.

I have heard a lot of answers about the ill effects of computer radiation but almost all that I have read claim no certainty in their answers. Has there been any valid and indisputable answer to this?

The consensus of the authoritative reports I have seen is that scientific studies have been unable to verify and reproduce any of the reported health effects of ambient levels of electromagnetic fields from powerlines or electric appliances.   The inability of more recent studies to reproduce the originally reported effects of electromagnetic fields indicates that those early findings may have been unique in some way, possibly due to statistical clustering, and are not generally applicable to other places and times.

This means that if there are health risks they are too small or of a kind that have not been detected by current methods. Scientists often say that they «cannot disprove a negative,» meaning that it is not logically possible to prove that something does not exist. This is because the list of things to be disproved can be endless, and the type and level of sensitivity of the tests that are used can always be improved upon.

I’m getting a computer for my child and would like to know which type of monitor/computer is safest in terms of the different types of radiation that exist. I was told years ago that the flat screens had a different, yet worse, type of radiation. Are there two types of radiation, and is this type worse?

All television receivers (including computer monitors), regardless of type, must meet a mandatory federal performance standard so any x-ray emissions, if they exist at all, must be at very low levels.   I am unaware of two types of radiation, unless you categorize the visible light which you see on the television screen as one type, which is, in fact an electromagnetic radiation; You can also consider radiowaves, which are also electromagnetic radiation. Both of these types of radiation are nonionizing and generally considered safe unless one is exposed to very intense levels.

How safe is it to work sitting right at the back of the monitor of a computer workstation?

All television receivers (including computer monitors), regardless of type, must meet a mandatory federal performance standard so any x-ray emissions, if they exist at all, must be at very low levels. The key point is that the emission standard is for «any point on the external surface» which means whether someone is in front of, to the side of, or behind the display or receiver, he/she is protected against any potential emissions of the display to the same degree.

My mom worries about the effects of computer radiation. She says that I am putting my health at risk by being on my PC more than four hours a day. Is this true?

The radiation emission from any computer is RF (radiofrequency) waves. There is no proof that these are harmful unless the intensity is high enough to warm tissue (like a microwave oven). You are not putting yourself at risk (from radiation) by being on your computer more than four hours a day.

My grandchildren often sit with their laptop computers in their laps. Is there any danger to their health and reproductive organs from low-level radiation that may be reaching them?

The only measurable radiation emission from a laptop computer is radio waves. We are constantly exposed to such radiation from all directions and multiple sources, including radio and TV signals, electronic appliances, etc. Current data indicate that these are not harmful to our health. There is, however, quite a bit of heat generated within the laptop while it is on. It is for this reason manufacturers recommend against extended periods of use with the computer on your lap.

The information posted on this web page is intended as general reference information only. Specific facts and circumstances may affect the applicability of concepts, materials, and information described herein. The information provided is not a substitute for professional advice and should not be relied upon in the absence of such professional advice. To the best of our knowledge, answers are correct at the time they are posted. Be advised that over time, requirements could change, new data could be made available, and Internet links could change, affecting the correctness of the answers. Answers are the professional opinions of the expert responding to each question; they do not necessarily represent the position of the Health Physics Society.

Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer — NCI

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  • The Secret Behind Radiation Hardened IT Equipment in Space

    The Secret Behind Radiation Hardened IT Equipment in Space

    From 1961- 1975, during the worldwide space race and when the United States was making history with successful moon landings, technology at the time was booming. However, the Apollo 11 computer had a processor which ran at 0.043 MHz; meaning the iPhone in your pocket has over 100,000 times the processing power of the computer that landed man on the moon! More than 50 years later, its no secret that technology has developed into something we’d never dreamed possible. So, you’d think we’d at least be using updated systems in space today. Right?! Wrong. The computer hardware on board spacecraft computers is far from the newest and best around.

    Until the recent Space X Flacon 9 rocket, space travel was conducted with outdated processors. Even the International Space Station (ISS) is operating with using two sets of three command and control multiplexer demultiplexer computers from 1988. Even the chips that made up the original Sony PlayStation in 1994 are faster! Well luckily for all future astronauts and space cowboys alike, the Space X Falcon 9 carrying a Dragon spacecraft sent to the ISS was the first commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) high-performance computer to orbit the earth. It just so happens to be among the first supercomputers in space.

    What is Radiation Hardening and Why is Necessary?

    Radiation hardened electronics can simply be defined as electronic components that have been designed and tested to provide some level of protection against penetrating radiation. If not protected, radiation can cause the computer components to malfunction, damage circuitry or cause the electronic device to completely shut down. Radiation hardening is essential when the electronics are used in environments where they will be exposed to high energy ionizing or space radiation.

    There are three types of space radiation concerning electronic computer components used in space: galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), high energy solar radiation, and radiation belts. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are electrons, protons or neutrons that originate outside of our solar system. High Energy Solar Radiation are emissions from the sun due to solar flares or explosions of stored magnetic energy. Radiation Belts contain trapped electrons and ions of varying energy levels. GCRs and solar radiation routinely reach the earth; therefore, they are present at all of the earth’s atmospheric levels.

    For manned spaceships and satellite, continuous and reliable operation depends on being able to withstand space radiation. If you don’t already know the answer to the question, then you’re probably asking yourself why do we use spacecraft with such outdated processors? Well, by NASA’s standards and the laws of physics, not just any computer can go into space. Computer components must be radiation hardened, especially the CPUs. Otherwise, they tend to fail due to the effects of ionizing radiation.

    There is more modern hardware in space like the laptops used on the ISS. But those laptops are not high-performance computers. They’re just ordinary laptops that are expected to fail. Actually, there are more than a hundred laptops on the ISS, and most are obsolete. In order to perform serious data mining, we want high-performance computing. Afterall these are the reasons we’re doing experiments on the space station.

    The typical way to radiation-harden a computer that will be used in space is to add redundancy to its circuits or use insulating substrates instead of the usual semiconductor wafers on chips. That’s not only very costly but laborious as well. Scientists believe that simply slowing down a system in adverse conditions can avoid glitches and keep the computer running.

    The end goal is to develop a functional supercomputer for operation in space without spending years hardening it. By using off-the-shelf servers and custom-built software, scientists are trying to harden a computer using software by throttling its speed when there’s a solar flare or other radiation hazard. If possible, astronauts will have the latest devices available, increasing their onboard capabilities.

    The Effects of Space Radiation

    There are a number of ways that computer components designers can radiation-harden their devices. One of the most common is to harden for total-ionizing-dose radiation – or the amount of radiation the device is expected to withstand for its entire life before problems occur. A typical requirement is for 100 kilorads of total-dose radiation hardness. The advancement of today’s advanced electrical components is changing the total-dose picture. Specifically, the shrinking size of circuits on today’s most modern chips is decreasing their exposure to total-dose radiation.

    This trend is a double-edge sword because the steady shrinking of chip geometries also makes these devices even more vulnerable to other kinds of radiation effects, namely single-event upset (SEU) and single-event latchup (SEL). If not protected, radiation can cause the computer components to malfunction, damage circuitry or cause the electronic device to completely shut down.

    Using PCs & Laptops — No Radiation For You

    Found this page helpful? Please like. Wants to help other and spread awareness? Please share

    Using PCs & Laptops can be fun and productive. But the side effect of using them is the EMF exposure. In this chapter, we will explain the exposures and how to reduce it

    wireless Laptop

    Using PC & laptops – In Short

    First of all – Recommendation to minimize your exposure from PCs and laptops

    1. Use only the wired network cards of PC’s(desktops) and laptops.
    2. Turn OFF the wireless options of PCs and laptops, printers, routers, and other components and devices on your working station, so it will not emit RF Radiation.
    We don’t recommend the use of wireless equipment, but If you decide to used wireless equipment, keep as much as a possible safety distance from them ( 2 meters is better than none, 5 meters are better than 2, and 10 meters are better than 5, none is better than 10, I think you got the idea by now).
    3. If you decide to use wireless equipment on your working station, or in your house, turn them OFF at least during the night.
    4. Scan the components of your working station, with a fast EMF meter, to see which of them emit RF, ELF magnetic, and electric fields. Make sure none of them emit RF, make sure all are located at a safe distance from the user, so the exposure to ELF will be minimum.
    5. If you don’t have an EMF meter, try to keep at least a safety distance of 0.5 to 1 meters away from PCs , laptops, and other devices and components of the working station (because of the ELF EMF radiation even wired computers emit).
    6. Build a working station with a wired LCD/LED screen(with external power supply), wired mouse, and wired keyboard. Keep all other parts(printers, modems, routers, power suppliers, UPS)  away from the desk and the user.
    7. The use of every wireless PC equipment exposes you to RF radiation, so use wired substitutes.
    8. If you use wireless routers keep them away as possible from the station and the user.
    9. In Laptops use an external wired keyboard and mouse.
    10. Don’t put the laptop on your lap or belly.
    11. When you must use wireless-cellular network cards and routers (which are not recommended) try to use a corded extension cable in order to keep as much distance(at least 2 meters, better 5 meters, or more) between the wireless equipment and the working station and the user. Use long cables to move the wireless-cellular card as far as possible away from the user.
    12. When there is no use of the wireless network equipment turn it OFF( network cards and routers), especially when going to sleep.
    13. The use of UPS in bedrooms or near them is not recommended. If you need your work to be saved in case of power cuts, use a laptop with an internal battery. 

    Minimized low EMF laptop environment for EHS people

    We currently recommend the use of a minimized low EMF laptop environment for EHS as a first option

    1. My recommendation is to first build a minimized laptop working station that consists of a laptop+wired internet connection+wired keyboard and mouse, and that’s all.
    2. Use only wired internet connection and don’t use any equipment that emits RF radiation
    3. Use the “device manager” to “disable” all wireless cards and options.
    4. The easiest lowest EMF/EMI/RF environment would be in most cases, a wired connected laptop, with all the wireless cards turned off from the device drivers, connected to a wired keyboard and mouse. please see –
    5. In order to reduce the ELF electric field emitted from the laptop eighter use it on battery only, or use it while charging with the power supply connected, but with extra grounding.
    5. For more protection use Laptop protection –

    The new LENOVO LEGION with a wired keyboard and mouse outside in the yardMeters behind the laptop and protection on top

    Steps for Low EMF Desktop environment for EHS people

    The second best option is to build a low EMF Desktop environment.
    1. At first try to keep your working environment as simple as possible with only the laptop/PC and with less as possible peripheral devices (Printers, screens, lights, cameras, USB hubs…).
    2. Keep a safety distance of at least 1 meter (the bigger the distance is, the better) away from the laptops, Desktop printers, a wired router & other peripheral devices.
    3. If you feel bad when sitting next to the screen (better to use one with an external power supply), consider working with an LCD TV or a Video Projector that is a few meters away from you or try using our LCD screen film –
    4. If you use wireless routers keep them away as possible from the station and the user, connect them via cables to the PC, and turn off their wireless capability.
    5. In Laptops use only an external wired keyboard and mouse (while the laptop is away from you).
    6. Limit the time you use the laptop and Desktop.
    10. In laptops, connect the USB or/& network ground to the electric ground – see this video – https://youtu. be/iAoanFL88P8

    Protection for EHS people:

    Consider the following protection methods to block EMF coming from the devices on your working station
    1. PCs and laptops still emit EMF and EMI even when wired. Use RF blocking fabric to block the EMF electric fields emitted from these devices. Laptops are easier to cover because they are smaller. Make sure you cover also the HDMI connector.
    Laptop EMF/EMI protection –
    RF Blocking Fabric –
    I usually use the S190, which is much cheaper –
    2. HDMI connectors emit EMI, Use your EMF meter next to the connector to see the emission(video below). So if you chose to use an external screen, try using pieces of RF blocking fabric to cover and fold over the connection to block the emissions.
    Video –
    3. For USB, Network, and HDMI cables use cable sleeves that are made from RF blocking cable to block the EMI and EMF electric fields emitted from them.
    Please see our store site –
    4. Laptops emit ELF electric fields while charging or working. In order to reduce this field, Try (if you don’t know anything about grounding and electricity get the help of a professional electrictineir) to ground the laptop’s body (Desktop are usually already grounded, not for apple devices) and the protection you put on the cables and laptops to reduce the electric field. See video
    5. Screen protection film – Cover the screen with RF Protection film to block the EMI and EMF electric field emitted from the screen. please see –

    Click here for more instructions regarding the use PCs’ networks.

     After reading the below page, please see our store for the following products:

    1. Wired USB keyboard and mouse
    2. USB Speakers
    4. Wired routers and switches or more switches
    5. Network Cables or more network cables

    Using your computers

    In most houses and workplaces in the modern world today you can find at least one personal computer (PC). In some cases, it is a desktop and in some cases a laptop. Many people put a lot of effort in trying to select the right model to buy, most people don’t spend enough time or effort on the placement of the computer and about the way they use it. The correct arrangement of the working station and using the right technologies may have a very big effect on the user’s health and the ability to work on the PC for long periods of time.  

    RF EMR from laptopWorking Station In the OfficeELF magnetic field from computer and PC Desktop equipment

     Guidelines for buying a new computer

    1. All parts and components of the PC should be wired and not wireless (if some are wireless they should be disabled from the “device manager”.
    2. It is recommended that the PC will be small and can be moved away from the user.
    3. Use wired Mouse and Keyboard.
    4. Use a screen that has an external power supply.

    For EHS people
    1. Move the PC as far away as possible from you
    2. Consider using LCD/LED screen protection film

    Computers emit electromagnetic radiation:

    All computers emit low-frequency electromagnetic radiation (ELF EMR) from all the electric and electronic parts. In addition, if you use a wireless communication method, the computer will emit also RF EMR. In order to limit your exposure to EMR from your computer, you need to keep a safe distance from its parts and use the wireless connectivity as least as possible and to turn it off completely when not using it.

    RF EMR from laptopELF EMR from PCELF EMR from LaptopRF From WIFI Router

    • ELF from Desktop PC
    • ELF from Laptop

    • RF EMR from a wireless laptop

    EMI emission from the HDMI connector

    In some cases the HDMI connectors, both on the PC side and the monitor side, will emit EMI electric field that can be picked up by some of the fast RF meter. In order to block this EMI , fold pieces of RF Blocking fabric over the connection.

    Video –

    EMI from HDMI connector

    Disable the wireless network card in a wireless PC

    In some of the wireless PC (mainly laptops) even if and after you turn OFF the WIFI even after turning OFF the WIFI or other wireless features, the PC will still run software that will scan the wireless networks or use the wireless features. It is possible to “see” these transmissions when using a home use RF meter. In order to stop this emission it is possible to Disable the wireless cards from the Device Manager by following the following steps:

    1. Use the mouse to point on the “Computer” icon.

    2. Press on the mouse right button

    3. Chose “Manage”

    4. It should look like this: 

    Right-click on the Computer icon and then select “manage”

    5. In the screen that will open chose “Device Manager” 

    6. Find the line with the wireless WIFI and Bluetooth cards.

    Disabled wireless cards on device manager

    7. Press on the mouse right button

    8. Select the “Disable” option.

    Disable the WIFI (and other wireless) Card

    9. Make sure that the wireless card line is now marked with a black arrow pointing down.

    10. It should look like this:

    Using wireless keyboard and mouse

    All wireless mouse and keyboards emit RF radiation. The radiation is emitted both from the keyboard or mouse and also from a device that is connected to the PC, usually a USB dongle. Some types of these wireless devices emit RF radiation all the time and some types emit it only when the mouse is moved or when a button is clicked. 

    • RF radiation from a wireless mouse 

    Using external screens

    If possible we recommend using a wired laptop without an external screen., But if you chose to have an external screen, choosing the right one, and using it in a way that will reduce the exposure is a smart move. The external screen is a must-have part of a desktop working station and is a nice add-on in a laptop working station. It allows more comfortable and longer work as it allows larger display size, better sitting ergonomics, and allows you to put the laptop farther away from you. But it has the potential to cause more ELF EMF exposure, and uncomfortability if you are an EHS person. So choosing the right screen, placing & installing it correctly is very important.

    Panel type

    The cheapest panel type for LED and LCD screens it TN. I prefer to work with better types such as IPS. I find that using IPS panels allow me to work more time on the screen with less eye stress.

    External power supply

    The screen power supply is a source of ELF magnetic and electric fields. In case the screen power supply is embedded in the screens’ body itself, this source of ELF will be located less than 50cm from the user’s face. In case you are an EHS person, this might prove to be a problem. So I make sure that the screens I am buying are equipped with external power supplies that can be moved farther away from me.
    When choosing a new screen, try to read the screen specs, watch the videos and pictures, in order to make sure that the screen has an external power supply. If possible, ask the vendor.

    Brightness setting

    In LED screens, lower brightness and backlight modes can cause higher ELF emissions.. I use the CORNET METER in LF30 and EFIELD modes while turning the screen brightness setting, in order to make sure the setting causes minimum ELF fields.
    This is how to looks –

    Bluelight reduction

    LED & LCD screens emit also blue light that can have an effect of your melatonin release, especially when used late in the night. In order to reduce this effect, you can use software that reduces the blue light component. The screen will seem to be less white and more red, but the blue light exposure will be reduced, and if you are sensitive to that, you will feel it. Today you can find the frew F.Lux software and for a small pay, the IRIS software. These softwares will allow you to reduce the blue light in the evening time or all the day.

    Use a simple screen, not high end

    Every additional feature in the screen, such as USB hub, speakers, memory cards sockets and such, will require more electronics components embedded in the screen. These extended electronics might cause more exposure to EMI and ELF radiation. So my recommendation is be on the simple and save side, and get a screen with as less as possible additions and electronics.

    Screen age

    In some cases, after several years of use, the electronics parts and components of the screen (capacitors in particular) are losing some of their characteristics and cause more ELF and EMI emissions.

    It can have a visible effect as a change in the screen colors, brightness, picture distortion, flickers, and also more ELF and EMI emissions. All these can have an effect on the user, especially in the case he/she is an EHS person.

    So If you detect that your screen have aged to much, it might be time for a new screen.

    Screen film for ELF electric fields

    After getting the right screen & installing it correctly, we might still have some low frequency electric fields emissions. I use and sell pieces of RF blocking film that can be glued to the corners of the screen and will reduce the exposure to this ELF electric field. This might help some of you EHS people that still feel the face skin tingling sensation and heat in the face while sitting for several minutes in front of your screen, even if it is a low ELF screen that is installed correctly.

    Please see our store site for more info –

    Buying a new screen

    For more info and recommendation about buying a new LCD/LED screen please see –


    PC speakers usually have a power supply, external or internal. These power supply units emit Low-Frequency EMF radiation. The safety distance from this power supply is up to 2 meters. Therefore it is not recommended to have them in or around people. Most people will put it next to the screen, or next to the user’s legs, this should be avoided. If a power supply is inside a 2.0 speaker system, it will be inside the heavier speaker. If a power supply is inside a 2.1 speaker system, it will most likely be in the subwoofer unit.
    It is more recommended to use USB-powered speakers, which do not have a built-in power supply.

    ELF EMF field near a speaker with a built-in power converter.


    Most UPS units emit high levels of ELF magnetic and electric fields. The safety distance from these units can reach to more than 2M. Therefore it is not recommended to use them next to or near to people, especially not too sleeping rooms. In the case of professional UPS units, that are usually put in or next to the server room, the safety distance may reach up to 6M, In case you need your work to be saved in the case of a power cut off, I recommend the use of laptops (with internal battery) as Desktop replacements.  

    Using the wireless network

    It is highly recommended to install a wired network in the house and workplace for all the PCs and to turn OFF the wireless options of the computers and routers. Some people prefer to use the wireless network over the wired network, for their laptops and sometimes even for their stationary desktops. This will expose the user to RF EMR which is unnecessary. When all the home network activity, downloading, file transfers and browsing is done using the wireless network, the user and all persons/pets in the house are being exposed to some constant levels of RF EMR.

    All Wifi, Bluetooth and cellular communication devices emit RF EMR all the time, even when there is no data being transferred. When a computer is downloading or streaming data, movies, files or music, the RF levels emitted by the wireless network card and the wireless router increase dramatically. If the wireless router or the wireless computer is located in a bedroom, the RF EMR emission, that will continue all night long, may interfere with the sleep of people sleeping near the PCs and routers.  Again using the wireless network is not recommended!

    RF From WIFI RouterRF EMR from laptopWireless PC with remote antenna
    Wireless PC with remote antenna

    • RF EMR from a wireless laptop.

    • RF EMR from a wireless router.

    Placing the Wi-Fi router

    WiFi wireless routers emit both some levels of low frequency (ELF) EMR, and high levels of Radiofrequency (RF) EMR. We recommend to install a wired network in your house and work and to use the WiFi option only when there is a real need.

    For example: Going in the yard with the laptop to read some emails.

    When you are not using the WIFI option turn it off ASAP.  If the WiFi wireless option on the router is turned ON the router should be placed as far as possible from the user, at least 2 meters away from any person at all times. If the WiFi wireless option is turned OFF (the wired network is still operating) you can put the router near the user, but not too close, 0.5 meters should be OK.

    RF router in a bad location

    • RF EMR from wireless router 24X7.

    • RF EMR from a wireless router at different distances.

    Placing wireless PCs

    If the wireless network card is operating the user should keep at least one meter distance away from it or from the antennas at all times. In desktops, the antenna is usually located in the wireless network card. In some wireless network cards, there is a wire connecting the antenna to the card. If possible use a long wire in order to place more distance between you and the antenna. In laptops the antennas are usually placed in the corners of the screen, therefore it will be more difficult to keep a safe distance from it since the screen needs to be in front of your eyes. It’s possible to use an external screen together with a wired set of keyboard and mouse and to place the laptop a little bit farther away from the user in a way that will expose the user to smaller levels of RF EMR.

    Emission of RF radiation from a USB wireless network card on idle mode.
    Wireless PC with remote antenna
    Wireless PC with remote antenna

    Using a Cellular modem (net-stick)

    Cellular modems emit high levels of RF EMR all the time. The levels of RF EMR that are emitted from a cellular modem or router are higher than the levels emitted from a WIFI wireless router or network card. The levels of RF EMR will increase as the data transferred over the cellular network will increase. It is not recommended to use cellular modems, but if you must, try to shorten the time of use and try placing as much distance as possible between you and the cellular modem. Some cellular modems are connected to the PC via a USB connection. If possible use an extension USB cord to place the cellular modem as far as possible from yourself and others. Using a laptop embedded with a cellular modem inside it is the worst thing you can do, especially if you put the laptop on your lap.

    Extreme meassures for EHS people

    Creating a low EMF home office/PC working station for EHS people is one of the basic steps in starting to handle EHS.

    Today my approach is to use a minimized working station that includes a wired connected laptop, with all the wireless drivers and cards turned off via the device manager, together with a wired mouse and keyboard, and then to ground the laptop. I prefer not to use a big external screen since it adds EMF and EMI radiation to the enviroemtn (via HDMI connectors and the screen electronics). As the PC environment is minimilizesed, so does the need for protection is reduced, leaving only the need to ground and protect the laptop. This approach is explained in the following video –

    In the past, my take on that was to use RF and EMF protection over the laptop/PC, use a wired network and cables, and try to reduce the exposure as much as possible. This approach can be seen on the following video

     After reading the above page, please see our store for the following products:

    1. Wired USB keyboard and mouse
    2. USB Speakers
    4. Wired routers and switches or more switches
    5. Network Cables or more network cables

    protecting supercomputers from an extraterrestrial threat – Physics World

    Taken from the July 2021 issue of Physics World. Members of the Institute of Physics can enjoy the full issue via the Physics World app.

    Fast neutrons from cosmic-ray showers can cause significant errors in supercomputers. But by measuring the scale of the problem, physicists hope not only to make such devices less prone to cosmic corruption but also protect everything from self-driving cars to quantum computers, as Rachel Brazil finds out

    (Courtesy: iStock/Vladimir_Timofeev)

    In 2013 a gamer by the name “DOTA_Teabag” was playing Nintendo’s Super Mario 64 and suddenly encountered an “impossible” glitch – Mario was teleported into the air, saving crucial time and providing an advantage in the game. The incident – which was recorded on the livestreaming platform Twitch – caught the attention of another prominent gamer “pannenkoek12”, who was determined to explain what had happened, even offering a $1000 reward to anyone who could replicate the glitch. Users tried in vain to recreate the scenario, but no-one was able to emulate that particular cosmic leap. Eight years later, “pannenkoek12” concluded that the boost likely occurred due to a flip of one specific bit in the byte that defines the player’s height at a precise moment in the game – and the source of that flipping was most likely an ionizing particle from outer space.

    The impact of cosmic radiation is not always as trivial as determining who wins a Super Mario game, or as positive in its outcome. On 7 October 2008 a Qantas flight en route from Singapore to Australia, travelling at 11,300 m, suddenly pitched down, with 12 passengers seriously injured as a result. Investigators determined that the problem was due to a “single-event upset” (SEU) causing incorrect data to reach the electronic flight instrument system. The culprit, again, was most likely cosmic radiation. An SEU bit flip was also held responsible for errors in an electronic voting machine in Belgium in 2003 that added 4096 extra votes to one candidate.

    Cosmic rays can also alter data in supercomputers, which often causes them to crash. It’s a growing concern, especially as this year could see the first “exascale” computer – able to calculate more than 1018 operations per second. How such machines will hold up to the increased threat of data corruption from cosmic rays is far from clear. As transistors get smaller, the energy needed to flip a bit decreases; and as the overall surface area of the computer increases, the chance of data corruption also goes up.

    As transistors get smaller, the energy needed to flip a bit decreases; and as the overall surface area of the computer increases, the chance of data corruption also goes up

    Fortunately, those who work in the small but crucial field of computer resilience take these threats seriously. “We are like the canary in the coal mine, we’re out in front, studying what is happening,” says Nathan DeBardeleben, senior research scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the US. At the lab’s Neutron Science Centre, he carries out “cosmic stress-tests” on electronic components, exposing them to a beam of neutrons to simulate the effect of cosmic rays.

    While not all computer errors are caused by cosmic rays (temperature, age and manufacturing errors can all cause problems too), the role they play has been apparent since the first supercomputers in the 1970s. The Cray-1, designed by Seymour Roger Cray, was tested at Los Alamos (perhaps a mistake given that its high altitude, 2300 m above sea level, makes it even more vulnerable to cosmic rays).

    Cray was initially reluctant to include error-detecting mechanisms, but eventually did so, adding what became known as parity memory – where an additional “parity” bit is added to a given set of bits. This records whether the sum of all the bits is odd or even. Any single bit corruption will therefore show up as a mismatch. Cray-1 recorded some 152 parity errors in its first six months (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 10.1109/TNS.2010.2083687). As supercomputers developed, problems caused by cosmic rays did not disappear. Indeed, in 2002 when Los Alamos installed ASCI Q, then the second fastest supercomputer in the world, initially it couldn’t run for more than an hour without crashing due to errors. The problem only eased when staff added metal side panels to the servers, allowing it to run for six hours.

    Cosmic chaos

    Cosmic rays originate from the Sun or cataclysmic events such as supernovae in our galaxy or beyond. They are largely made up of high-energy protons and helium nuclei, which move through space at nearly the speed of light. When they strike the Earth’s atmosphere they create a secondary shower of particles, including neutrons, muons, pions and alpha particles. “The ones that survive down to ground level are the neutrons, and largely they are fast neutrons,” explains instrument scientist Christopher Frost, who runs the ChipIR beamline at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. It was set up in 2009 to specifically study the effects of irradiating microelectronics with atmospheric-like neutrons.

    Millions of these neutrons strike us each second, but only occasionally do they flip a computer memory bit. When a neutron interacts with the semiconductor material, it deposits charge, which can change the binary state of the bit. “It doesn’t cause any physical damage, your hardware is not broken; it’s transient in nature, just like a blip,” explains DeBardeleben. When this happens, the results can be completely unobserved or can be catastrophic – the outcome is purely coincidental.

    1 Rapid-testing single-event effects Schematic of the components needed to produce the ChipIr atmospheric neutron beam. It has been built at the ISIS spallation source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, in collaboration with the Italian Research Council (CNR) and is used to study the effects of irradiation on microelectronics, and to rapidly test the effects of “single event upsets” caused by high-energy neutrons. (Courtesy: STFC/CNR)

    Computer scientist Leonardo Bautista-Gomez, from the Barcelona Supercomputing Center in Spain, compares these errors to the mutations radiation causes to human DNA. “Depending on where the mutation happens, these can create cancer or not, and it’s very similar in computer code.” Back at the Rutherford lab, Frost – working with computer scientist Paolo Rech from the Institute of Informatics of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sol, Brazil – has also been studying an additional source of complications, in the form of lower energy neutrons. Known as thermal neutrons, these have nine orders of magnitude less energy than those coming directly from cosmic rays. Thermal neutrons can be particularly problematic when they collide with boron-10, which is found in many semiconductor chips. The boron-10 nucleus captures a neutron, decaying to lithium and emitting an alpha particle.

    Frost and Rech tested six commercially available devices, run under normal operating conditions and found they were all impacted by thermal neutrons (J. Supercomput. 77 1612). “In principle, you can use extremely pure boron-11” to be rid of the problem, says Rech, but he adds that this increases the cost of production. Today, even supercomputers use commercial off-the-shelf components, which are likely to suffer from thermal neutron damage. Although cosmic rays are everywhere, thermal neutron formation is sensitive to the environment of the device. “Things containing hydrogen [like water], or things made from concrete, slow down fast neutrons to thermal ones,” explains Frost. The researchers even found the weather affected thermal neutron production, with levels doubling on rainy days.

    Preventative measures

    While the probability of errors is still relatively low, certain critical systems employ redundancy measures – essentially doubling or tripling each bit, so errors can be immediately detected. “You see this particularly in spacecraft and satellites, which are not allowed to fail,” says DeBardeleben. But these failsafes would be prohibitively expensive to replicate for supercomputers, which often run programmes lasting for months. The option of stopping the neutrons reaching these machines altogether is also impractical – it takes three metres of concrete to block cosmic rays – though DeBardeleben adds that “we have looked at putting data centres deep underground”.

    Today’s supercomputers do run more sophisticated versions of parity memory, known as error-correcting code (ECC). “About 12% of the size of the data [being written] is used for error-correcting codes,” adds Bautista-Gomez. Another important innovation for supercomputers has been “checkpointing” – the process of regularly saving data mid-calculation, so that if errors cause a crash, the calculation can be picked up from the last checkpoint. The question is how often to do this? Checkpointing too frequently costs a lot in terms of time and energy; but not often enough and you risk losing months of work, when it comes to larger applications. “There is a sweet spot where you find the optimal frequency,” says Bautista-Gomez.

    The fear of the system crashing and a loss of data is only half the problem. What has started to concern Bautista-Gomez and others is the risk of undetected or silent errors – ones that do not cause a crash, and so are not caught. The ECC can generally detect single or double bit flips, says Bautista-Gomez, but “beyond that, if you have a cosmic ray that changes three bits in the memory cell, then the codes that we use today will most likely be unable to detect it”.

    Until recently, there was little direct evidence of such silent data-corruption in supercomputers, except what Bautista-Gomez describes as “weird things that we don’t know how to explain”. In 2016, together with computer scientist Simon McIntosh-Smith from the University of Bristol, UK, he decided to hunt for these errors using specially designed memory-scanning software to analyse a cluster of 1000 computer nodes (data points) without any ECC. Over a year they detected 55,000 memory errors. “We observed many single-bit errors, which was expected. We also observed multiple double-digit errors, as well as several multi-bit errors that, even if we had ECC, we wouldn’t have been seen,” recalls Bautista-Gomez (SC ‘16: Proceedings of the International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis 10.1109/SC.2016.54).

    Accelerated testing

    The increasing use of commercial graphics processing units (GPUs) in high-performance computing, is another problem that worries Rech. These specialized electronic circuits have been designed to rapidly process and create images. As recently as 10 years ago they were only used for gaming, and so weren’t considered for testing says Rech. But now these same low-power, high-efficiency devices are being used in supercomputers and in self-driving cars, so “you’re moving into areas where its failure actually becomes critical” adds Frost.

    Rech, using Frost’s ChipIR beamline, devised a method to test the failure rate of GPUs produced by companies like Nvidia and AMD that are used in driverless cars. They have been doing this sort of testing for the last decade and have devised methods to expose devices to high levels of neutron irradiation while running an application with an expected outcome. In the case of driverless car systems, they would essentially show the device pre-recorded videos to see how well it responded to what they call “pedestrian incidents” – whether or not it could recognize a person.

    Safety-critical The risk of cosmic rays triggering an error in self-driving cars seems niche now, but could become a major concern in the near future. (Courtesy: iStock/metamorworks)

    Of course, in these experiments the neutron exposure is much higher than that produced by cosmic rays. In fact, it’s roughly 1.5 billion times what you would get at ground level, which is about 13 neutrons cm–2 hr–1. “So that enables us to do this accelerated testing, as if the device is in a real environment for hundreds of thousands of years,” explains Frost. Their experiments try to replicate 100 errors per hour and, from the known neutron flux, can calculate what error rate this would represent in the real world. Their conclusion: an average GPU would experience one error every 3.2 years.

    This seems low, but as Frost points out, “If you deploy them in large numbers, for example in supercomputers, there may be several thousand or if you deploy them in a safety-critical system, then they’re effectively not good enough.” At this error rate a supercomputer with 1800 devices would experience an error every 15 hours. When it comes to cars, with roughly 268 million cars in the EU and about roughly 4% – or 10 million cars – on the road at any given time, there would be 380 errors per hour, which is a concern.

    Large scale

    The continued increase in the scale of supercomputers is likely to exacerbate the problem in the next decade. “It’s all an issue of scale,” says DeBardeleben, adding that while the first supercomputer Cray-1 “was as big as a couple of rooms…our server computers today are the size of a football field”. Rech, Bautista-Gomez and many others are working on additional error-checking methods that can be deployed as supercomputers grow. For self-driving cars, Rech has started to analyse where the critical faults arise within GPU chips that could cause accidents, with a view to error correcting only these elements.

    Another method used to check the accuracy of supercomputer simulations is to use physics itself. “In most scientific applications you have some constants, for example, the total energy [of a system] should be constant,” explains Bautista-Gomez. So every now and then, we check the application to see whether the system is losing energy or gaining energy. “And if that happens, then there is a clear indication that something is going wrong.”

    Both Rech and Bautista-Gomez are making use of artificial intelligence (AI), creating systems that can learn to detect errors. Rech has been working with hardware companies to redesign the software used in object detection in autonomous vehicles, so that it can compare consecutive images and do its own “sense check”. So far, this method has picked up 90% of errors (IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design 10.1109/IOLTS.2019.8854431). Bautista-Gomez is also developing machine-learning strategies to constantly analyse data outputs in real-time. “For example, if you’re doing a climate simulation, this machine-learning [system] could be analysing the pressure and temperature of the simulation all the time. By looking at this data it will learn the normal variations, and when you have a corruption of data that causes a big change, it can signal something is wrong. ” Such systems are not yet commonly used, but Bautista-Gomez expects they will be needed in the future.

    Quantum conundrum

    Looking even further into the future, where computing is likely to be quantum, cosmic rays may pose an even bigger challenge. The basic unit of quantum information – the qubit – is able to exist in three states, 0, 1 and a mixed state that enables parallel computation and the ability to handle calculations too complex for even today’s supercomputers. It’s still early days in their development, but IBM announced it plans to launch the 127-qubit IBM Quantum Eagle processor sometime this year.

    For quantum computers to function, the qubits must be coherent – that means they act together with other bits in a quantum state. Today the longest period of coherence for a quantum computer is around 200 microseconds. But, says neutrino physicist Joe Formaggio at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), “No matter where you are in the world, or how you construct your qubit [and] how careful you are in your set up, everybody seems to be petering out in terms of how long they can last. ” William Oliver, part of the Engineering Quantum Systems Group at MIT, believes that radiation from cosmic rays is one of the problems, and with Formaggio’s help he decided to test their impact.

    Future obstacle Scientists have been looking at how cosmic rays can cause decoherence in qubits, a serious problem for quantum computing. (Courtesy: Christine Daniloff, MIT)

    Formaggio and Oliver designed an experiment using radioactive copper foil, producing the isotope copper-64, which decays with a half-life of just over 12 hours. They placed it in the low-temperature 3He/4He dilution refrigerator with Oliver’s superconducting qubits. “At first he would turn on his apparatus and nothing worked,” describes Formaggio, “but then after a few days, they started to be able to lock in [to quantum coherence] because the radioactivity was going down. We did this for several weeks and we could watch the qubit slowly get back to baseline.” The researchers also demonstrated the effect by creating a massive two-tonne wall of lead bricks, which they raised and lowered to shield the qubits every 10 minutes, and saw the cycling of the qubits’ stability.

    From these experiments they have predicted that without interventions, cosmic and other ambient radiation will limit qubit coherence to a maximum of 4 milliseconds (Nature 584 551). As current coherence times are still lower than this limit, the issue is not yet a major problem. But Formaggio says as coherence times increase, radiation effects will become more significant. “We are maybe two years away from hitting this obstacle.”

    Of course, as with supercomputers, the quantum-computing community is working to find a way around this problem. Google has suggested adding aluminium film islands to its 53-qubit Sycamore quantum processor. The qubits are made from granular aluminium, a superconducting material containing a mixture of nanoscale aluminium grains and amorphous aluminium oxide. They sit on a silicon substrate and when this is hit by radiation, photons exchange between the qubit and substrate, leading to decoherence. The hope is that aluminium islands would preferentially trap any photons produced (Appl. Phys. Lett. 115 212601).

    Another solution Google has proposed is a specific quantum error-correction code called “surface code”. Google has developed a chessboard arrangement of qubits, with “white squares” representing data qubits that perform operations and “black squares” detecting errors in neighbouring qubits. The arrangement avoids decoherence by relying on the quantum entanglement of the squares.

    In the next few years, the challenge is to further improve the resilience of our current supercomputer technologies. It’s possible that errors caused by cosmic rays could become an impediment to faster supercomputers, even if the size of components continues to drop. “If technologies don’t improve, there certainly are limits,” says DeBardeleben. But he thinks it’s likely new error-correcting methods will provide solutions: “I wouldn’t bet against the community finding ways out of this.” Frost agrees: “We’re not pessimistic at all; we can find solutions to these problems.

    Cosmic rays cause random computer crashes? / Sudo Null IT News

    If your computer suddenly freezes, gives a «blue screen of death» or fails to copy a file, do not rush to blame the manufacturer of computer equipment or buggy memory. Perhaps the cause of the failure is cosmic radiation. Such events are called «single-event upset» (SEU).

    A single event disturbance is a change in the state of an electronic component caused by a single particle of ionizing radiation (ion, photon, proton, neutron, etc.) that collides with a sensitive system node such as a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistor . The change of state is due to the appearance of a free charge, which appears as a result of ionization in or near the sensitive node of the system or a logical element, such as a memory bit. As a result, the device gives an error. This single error is called a «single event violation», SEU, or simply a soft error.

    Random failures due to cosmic radiation do occur periodically even on earth, and the probability of their occurrence in aircraft at altitude and in near-Earth orbit is hundreds of times greater. The higher, the more likely, because there is a more rarefied atmosphere and weaker protection from cosmic radiation.

    The consequences of an SEU can vary. For example, in a digital photograph, one pixel may fall out. It’s OK. Another thing is if the computer system of the aircraft is buggy due to a cosmic neutron — and it has to make an emergency landing. This actually happened once to a C-141B Starlifter military transport aircraft, which experienced an accidental malfunction while flying over the Sea of ​​Japan with over 100 passengers on board. During the flight, the plane suddenly fell on the right wing. The crew managed to correct the bank and land the plane. Subsequent investigation showed that a microchip in the automatic control system suddenly gave a false reading with the wrong bit, probably due to a collision with a neutron.

    Statistically, at high altitude, about 1600 cosmic particles per second pass through every square meter of the surface. That is, approximately 600 cosmic particles per hour pass through each square centimeter. Based on such premises, random failures may not be as rare events as some people think.

    At an altitude of more than 9000 meters, the intensity of the neutron flux is 300 times higher than at sea level. The probability of violation as a result of a single event also increases. Unfortunately, there is no real protection against cosmic rays, so it remains only to rely on luck.

    On October 7, 2008, an Airbus A330-303 operated by Qantas Airways was en route from Perth, Australia to Singapore. At an altitude of 11,300 meters, a failure occurred in one of the three inertial reference blocks, as a result of which incorrect data was sent to the computer control system. For this reason, the plane went down sharply, throwing up passengers who were not wearing seat belts. 110 out of 303 passengers were injured, as well as 9 out of 12 crew members. Among the passengers, 12 people were seriously injured, and another 39people went to the hospital. Among all the possible causes of the failure of the inertial unit, only the SEU remained unexcluded, the rest were recognized as «unlikely» or «very unlikely». However, the Australian Transport Safety Board deemed «insufficient evidence to assess the likelihood» that the SEU was the cause of the failure.

    Although the probability of a single failure due to cosmic radiation on Earth is 300 times lower than at an altitude of 9000 meters, sometimes the most inexplicable events that occur with computer technology are attributed to this phenomenon. For example, in 2003, an electronic voting machine in Schaarbeek (Belgium) added 4096 votes to one of the candidates in the elections. The investigation showed that this failure was caused by a change in one bit in the device’s memory. The cause was called cosmic radiation. Tellingly, the error was discovered only because the candidate received more votes than was possible. Otherwise, the failure would have gone unnoticed.

    «It’s a really big problem, but it’s largely invisible to society,» says Bharat Bhuva, member of the Radiation Effects Research Group and Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Vanderbilt (USA). This research group was formed in 1987, including to study the effect of cosmic radiation on electronic systems. Initially, the group was engaged in military and space systems, but since 2001 has expanded its scope of interest to consumer electronics.

    While there are some fairly glaring examples of technical failures, SEUs remain an exceptionally rare phenomenon. But experts note that electronic microcircuits are increasingly used in various household appliances. The density of transistors on chips is increasing, as is their number. Because of this, the likelihood of meeting with a «cosmic failure» is growing every year. Electrical manufacturers are looking into the problem. For example, in 2008, Fujitsu engineers climbed a Hawaiian volcano to measure cosmic radiation at an altitude of 4,200 meters. There it is about 16 times higher than at sea level.

    To protect against cosmic radiation, consumer electronics manufacturers are trying to use less sensitive materials and error-correction codes. In more expensive devices, duplication systems can be used.

    Engineers, system administrators, and programmers now have a great excuse to explain strange computer glitches.

    Why not build a server in space? / Habr

    The idea to launch and test a data center in space is not new. Actually, many spacecraft process data on board in one way or another, but projects for placing full-fledged servers in space have been appearing in the world for more than a year.

    For starters, why launch data centers into space at all? On the one hand, this is not at all cost-effective, because even the launch of an ordinary rack of 700 kg will cost several million dollars. On the other hand, in space there is an unlimited source of energy — sunlight, and in the shade you can dump heat by radiation. However, the cold of space can not be compared with Siberia or Antarctica where there is a cold wind and water, and solar panels can only dream of the efficiency of a coal-fired thermal power plant. Therefore, even Starlink and OneWeb global satellite Internet projects do without space data centers, and satellites act only as repeaters.

    However, the lack of visible commercial prospects for space servers does not stop some startups and large investors. representatives of Sber spoke about the possibility of placing data centers in space, and Amazon Web Services is already actively offering ground-based servers to satellite operators. Several projects have already appeared in the world, which in their advantages are called information security and environmental friendliness.

    Lack of direct access to a server in space increases the security of stored and processed information. Of course, there is no absolutely impregnable fortress, but a rack flying in space is not threatened by either a water pipe break, or a cable gnawed by mice, or a diligent cleaner’s mop, or a sudden visit of non-ferrous metal collectors.

    Cloud Constellation develops the Space Belt program — the placement of low-orbit satellites for storage, data processing and transmission through relays in high geostationary orbit. The company has raised over $100,036 million in investments and has already ordered 12 satellites from Virgin Orbit this year.

    Project ConnectX is less ambitious in its plans, but the idea is the same — to store data in places that are safer from external penetration — in orbit. It is planned to use nanosatellites weighing less than 10 kg to store the keys of cryptocurrency wallets. Despite the earlier start of the project, so far not a single ConnectX satellite has been launched into space.

    In fact, today only the International Space Station can be considered the only space data center. It is almost constantly connected with the Earth through geostationary satellites NASA TDRS and Roskosmos — Luch.

    A few years ago, NASA used the ISS to test the DTN space communication protocol, which is tolerant of communication failures and delays.

    Structure of the DTN network of the International Space Station and its ground segment. Image: NASA

    Perhaps the future interplanetary Internet will be built on the basis of this protocol.

    A more global view of the development of data centers allows us to raise the topic of ecology. It becomes more relevant every year, numerous tweets about global warming, YouTube videos with fiery speeches by eco-activists, Tiktok videos about separate waste collection… All this requires constantly growing computing power of ground-based data centers around the world. Servers need energy and cooling, which burns fossil fuels, emits carbon dioxide and increases the heating of the atmosphere. According to some estimates, maintaining the planet’s Internet infrastructure requires from 1% to 10% of all mankind’s energy, and no one plans to stop.

    However, so far no one has suggested moving all the Earth’s servers into space. this will require so many rockets that the fuel they burn will exceed all conceivable limits. The price of launching all the computing power of the Earth will be such that it will probably help solve all the environmental problems of the planet. But this is today. In the future, environmental problems will worsen, and the cost of launching into space will decrease thanks to reusable rockets, and data processing performance will increase. This is where the cosmos will be able, if not to solve all the problems, then at least to take some of them away from the Earth.

    One of these problems is cryptocurrency mining. Today it is useless to deny the value of crypto, but physically it is still the result of idle computers. This work also requires energy and contributes to global warming. Hopefully, sometime in the future, these factors will lead to the possibility of building mining farms in the dark polar craters of the Moon. And this, finally, will give at least some new goal for flights to the natural satellite of the Earth, in addition to political priorities.

    Map of the distribution of illumination and shadow during a full lunar day at the lunar poles. ill. NASA

    We decided to take the first step towards digital space exploration and launch an experimental small server into orbit. Based on the results of the experiment, the accumulated experience will allow us to better assess all the complexities, needs and prospects for deploying a data center — data center — in space.

    Who is «we»? On the one hand, RuVDS is one of the leading Russian VPS/VDS server hosting providers, whose main activity is the provision of enterprise-class IAAS services.

    On the other hand, Orbital Express is a Russian private company founded by a group of engineers who previously worked at NPO. S.A. Lavochkin, and later in the Dauria Aerospace company, and participants in the lunar microsatellite project. With the participation of blogger @Zelenyikot

    The essence of the experiment is the launch of a nanosatellite of the CubeSat class (10x10x30 cm), on board of which a small data processing center will be deployed. Communication with it will be maintained via a radio channel, lasting about 7 minutes a day at a speed of 9.6 Kbps. The experiment is planned to be carried out for three months, and, if necessary, it will be extended to obtain more information.

    3U CubeSat satellite. Photo: Sputniks

    If the launch succeeds in a short time, and competitors from Cloud Constellation experience delays, then we will have a chance to deploy the first unmanned satellite server in the world. The launch is supposed to be associated, on one of the Roscosmos rockets.

    For RuVDS, this is an opportunity to comprehend and emphasize the space perspectives of services at their data centers. The company has already launched a small server at stratosphere to test access to the global network for hard-to-reach areas using high-altitude probes. You can read about this experiment separately on Habré. For Orbital Express, this is the first contract for a new company, and a means to show potential clients and investors the team’s capabilities. The main project of the company is an ultra-small upper stage for small spacecraft.

    We will try to tell and show readers the whole way from the idea of ​​the experiment to its results. Details are waiting for you on how to create a spacecraft and place a space data center on board, how to prepare it for launch, get all the necessary approvals, pass tests, install it on a rocket, send it into space, keep in touch and get flight test results.

    Let’s go!

    How to reduce radiation in Rust and make an anti-radiation suit? [Easy]

    This time we will analyze what to do to learn How to reduce the radiation in rust? Rust is one of the most popular survival games in early 2021. It was played by the best computer game players in the world. This is a game in which we are in a post-apocalyptic society where various characters find themselves in a completely hostile and infected world.

    In this pollution, we can find various factors that can complicate the game, including radiation. As in real life, Rust’s in-game radiation can be a factor in determining our character’s life.

    In addition to the polluted water and various debris that we can find in the game, we also have to worry about the radiation zone. They can be avoided due to the large amount of resources that we can get in these areas in the game.

    And just like in real life we ​​can avoid radiation using equipment and technology suits to do this, we can also do it in Rust. We must also take various measures during the game so as not to be constantly exposed to radiation and not get into a negative situation because of this.

    Learn: How to get stone and use the quarry in Rust?

    What is radiation in Rust and how to lower it?

    Rust’s in-game radiation is a factor that can be critical to our playable characters’ life counters. The longer we are without protection in places with intense radiation, the more harm to our lives will be due to the fact that we are in this place.

    It should be noted that these areas of extreme radiation are reference points for all players. Hence, they are also a common war zone. This is due to the large number of strategic materials that we can find in these areas.

    This is where we can get the best tools and the best resources we need. Although it’s a little strange, we can even get food in these radiation zones and water bottles, which will be much easier for us to use than getting food and water in other places.

    In addition to the fact that during game development there are other factors that we need to understand that make us go into the radiation zone. Therefore, not visiting radiation areas is not an option, but a necessity that we must face, whether we like it or not.

    How to avoid radiation in Rust?

    Clearly, if we have to go to the radiation zone in Rust they are not strong enough to stay there for long, then we will have no problem with a quick transition back and forth. But in the event that we are in a situation where we urgently need to stay for some time in the radiation zone, the most logical thing would be to use an anti-radiation suit, which is one of the methods to reduce radiation. in Rust.

    Like all elements of the game, we can create this anti-radiation suit. To do this, we must obtain the various materials available in the game in order to cope with its radiation. As for the radiation suit, we will need the following items, which we can get in different places in the game.

    Among these elements that we have to make for our anti-radiation suit, there is : 5 canvases, 2 sewing kits and 8 metal parts. Having achieved this, we can create our anti-radiation suit. There is also an anti-radiation suit that we can get if we are the administrator of the game server. This radiation suit is available to those who own these game servers. Rust provides radiation protection indefinitely.

    Mira Esto: How to store water in Rust?

    Anti-radiation pills and how to reduce radiation in Rust with them

    On the other hand, there is a very important element in the game. Rust which are radiation pills. These pills are one of the simplest ways to reduce radiation in Rust. It is clear that if we do not have a radiation suit, it will be very useful for us to stay longer in the radiation zone.

    These pills can be found throughout the game, especially in rooms and hidden crates. We can get it by moving forward, and we usually have the ability to find it in radiation zones. Although it is important to understand that when we are in a dangerous situation, it is likely that we will pass the exam without noticing the possibility of getting any of these pills.

    For this reason, the most experienced players are always on the lookout for places to know when we can find an opportunity to get these types of items. It should be noted that although we have anti-radiation pills in Rust, it is important to stay long enough to have a suit despite the pills we have. Because even though we have the pills, they are a finite resource, and when the last one is finished, we will be forced to leave the radiation zones.


    Top Rust players understand the importance of resources in the radiation zone and how to reduce radiation in rust. Knowing this, they know that it is impossible not to face the hardships that can be found in these zones. For the same reason, they always collect more resources than they need to counter the radiation.

    Especially resources for radiation suits, we will always need resources from our storage for radiation. Many people try to make sure that they have the opportunity to sew various radiation suits and have as many anti-radiation pills as possible.

    So at the moment when we are exposed to extremely high levels of radiation, you have no problem with it, and we have the necessary resources to exist in these areas. In case you don’t have the materials, it’s always best to wait until enough is collected to have a radiation protection suit and various radiation pills.

    This way, you will be sure that you can leave the radiation zone in rust without damage. You can join our Discord Community for the latest Rust details and news. You can also play it with other players in our community.


    Atomic shield: how the Novovoronezh plant monitors the safety of the environment

    Alexander Prytkov, Deputy Chief Engineer for Safety and Reliability of the NVNPP

    In early February, an explosion occurred at the Flamanville nuclear power plant in northwestern France. The incident happened in the engine room — there was no threat of radiation release into the environment. The state corporation Rosatom immediately reacted to the news about the incident. Almost immediately, the company tweeted a soothing entry: “We know for sure that there is no threat of radiation spread.” For Russian nuclear scientists, the issue of safety always comes first. A country that provides almost a fifth of its electricity from nuclear power cannot afford to question the existence of this industry. How the Novoronezh Nuclear Power Plant (NVNPP) ensures the safety of the environment, the correspondent of RBC + found out.

    Red numbers

    A small screen with red numbers hangs above the entrance to a small building at the intersection of Kurchatov and Kosmonavtov streets in the center of Novovoronezh. As a rule, this figure is 7.6, 8 or 9. From time to time it becomes two-digit, but rarely gets beyond the «ten». This is the radiation background according to the sensor at the external radiation monitoring laboratory. The laboratory acts as a «headquarters» where information on the impact of NVNPP on the environment is collected and studied.

    By the way, 10 microroentgen per hour is a standard figure for Novovoronezh. In the Voronezh Region in January 2017, according to the Voronezh Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the background in the region was between 8 and 13 μR/h. By the way, the regulatory documents of the Ministry of Emergency Situations oblige rescuers to additionally check areas where changes in the gamma background revealed an excess of 20 μR / h by more than one and a half times. But this is not a universal meaning. The natural gamma background in each area is different. It is clarified by constant monitoring of the state of the environment. By the way, in the regional center of Voronezh, the background is usually slightly higher than in the vicinity of the NVNPP (11-13 μR / h) — there are more factors that can affect it in a big city than in the 30,000-strong Novovoronezh.

    From nuclear submarines to computer servers

    Observations near Novovoronezh began in the late 50s of the XX century, simultaneously with the construction of the first NVNPP power unit and the village itself, and then the city that arose around the station. The station’s external radiation monitoring laboratory still stores the first devices for measuring the radiation background — analog devices from the early sixties. Initially, they were intended for the first Soviet nuclear submarines, but with the beginning of the development of «peaceful» nuclear energy, they switched to civilian service. You can still use them today — the military of the USSR put such a margin of safety and accuracy into these devices. However, for laboratory experts, they serve as talismans and a reminder of the path that the radiation monitoring service has traveled over the past half century. In everyday work, scientists use much more accurate instruments.

    The external radiation control laboratory’s own server collects and processes information from three dozen dosimetric control posts located in Novovoronezh itself, its environs and in Voronezh. All together they form an automated system for monitoring the radiation situation — ARMS.

    Accuracy and a large archive of collected observations allow the laboratory experts to conduct an informed dialogue with members of the public — from anti-nuclear alarmists to serious environmental organizations. In the summer of 2016, activists of the Oka environmental movement carried out more than 1.5 thousand independent dosimetric measurements in the 30-kilometer zone around the NVNPP. Their data matched those of the laboratory.

    “Our research has confirmed that there is no alternative to nuclear energy in the Voronezh Region, and it is the Novovoronezh NPP that is able to ensure the energy security of the region,” said Alan Khasiev, Chairman of Oka.

    Laboratory staff do not like to talk about what will happen if the numbers on the ARMS monitor suddenly go beyond the normative values.

    However, there is an action protocol for this case, and it is clearly known in the laboratory. It does not look like a civilian, but a military instruction: report to your immediate supervisor, notify the plant management and the Rosatom situation and crisis center, and then act in strict accordance with the orders received.

    The work of the laboratory is not limited to measurements of background radiation. Its specialists take more than 50,000 samples per year: ventilation emissions, water from the cooling pond of the fifth power unit, air and atmospheric precipitation, artesian water, soil, food (they are bought from local farmers) and much more.

    Each goes through a long cycle of research — from the simplest analyzes to complex manipulations. For example, water has to be evaporated to a solid residue, and foodstuffs have to be burned to ash to make sure that they do not contain hazardous substances.

    With the help of these studies, NVNPP specialists can even detect traces of incidents that have nothing to do with the operation of the station itself near Voronezh. For example, in 2011, Novovoronezh nuclear scientists recorded the appearance of iodine-131 (a radioactive isotope of iodine) in the atmosphere. The release of radioactive particles occurred during the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The traces of the Japanese catastrophe that reached Voronezh did not pose any threat either to humans or to the environment — their concentration was so low. But they still remained in the archives of the control station. Here, nothing is considered a trifle that does not deserve attention.

    Philosophy of Protection

    Incidents at other nuclear power plants, be it the Fukushima accident or the recent incident at the French Flamanville, are closely monitored by specialists from the Novovoronezh plant. After the Chernobyl disaster in Russia, they prefer to learn from the mistakes of others. But even more in Novovoronezh they want there to be no mistakes at all.

    The project of the same type power units No. 6 and 7 of the NVNPP belongs to the so-called “3+ generation”. Although the construction of new power units began in 2007, they are called «post-Fukushima» — their safety systems fully comply with the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), developed after the Japanese accident and designed to prevent such — extremely rare — incidents.

    According to him, Russian nuclear projects include solutions that ensure that the probability of a large accidental radioactive release does not exceed 10 -7 (one in ten million!) per year.

    In November 2016, the power generator of the sixth power unit failed at the NVNPP during testing. The protection system worked in normal mode, the power unit was disconnected from the network. The expert commission found that the most likely cause of the incident was a short circuit in electrical equipment. The danger for the reactor could not even arise. This is how passive safety systems work — no human intervention is needed to start them. But nothing works in nuclear energy without a person.

    Dmitry Popov — National Research University Higher School of Economics

    • A.N. Tikhonova / Department of Computer Engineering
    • Started working at HSE in 2016.
    • Scientific and pedagogical experience: 6 years.

    Education, academic degrees

    Additional education / Advanced training / Internships

    2022 03 — 09February (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow). Organization of the teacher’s work in the HSE Smart LMS educational process support system: a basic course.

    Scan of ID LMS7_PopovDA (PDF, 124 Kb)

    March 14 — 16, 2020 (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow). Features of the organization of the educational process at the Higher School of Economics: rules and principles, regulatory and methodological issues, the use of information and communication technologies

    Scan of ID OU42_Popov. pdf (PDF, 143 Kb)

    2018 September 5 — October 31 (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow). Python programming for data collection and analysis.

    Advanced training «Python programming for data collection and analysis» (JPG, 275 Kb)

    2017 October 6-8 (Voronovo, Moscow). Field seminar of the HSE personnel reserve «Collaborative technologies as a means of increasing the efficiency of teaching and research.»

    2017 June 14 — 15 (Yandex, Moscow). Intensive (lecture course) to prepare teachers for participation in the Data Culture project.

    2017 April 21 — 23 (Voronovo, Moscow). Field seminar of the HSE personnel reserve «Implementation of Academic Projects: New Opportunities for the Professional Development of Young University Teachers and Researchers».

    2016 December 5 — 22 (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow) Certificate of professional development «Project management in higher education».

    Advanced training «Project management of the university development program» (JPG, 3.41 Mb)

    October 26, 2016 (National Research University «Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology» (MIET), Zelenograd). Seminar «MIPSfpga and Connected MCU» (Imagination Technologies Group plc).

    Professional interests

    instrument and process modelingcircuit modelingelectronic componentsmicroelectronics

    Achievements and encouragement

    • Best teacher-2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

    • Bench for academic work (2017-2018)

    Group of high professional potential (personnel reserve for NRU VSHE)
    «New teachers under 30» (2017)

    Powers / responsibilities

    Training courses (2022/2023 academic year)

    • Design and modeling of the element base of microelectronics (Master’s degree; where it reads: A Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics N. Tikhonova, 1 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Project Seminar «Fundamentals of Designing Computing Devices and Systems» (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Circuit Engineering (Bachelor’s programme); : Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 3 year, 1, 2 module)Rus
    • Course Archive

    Courses (2021/2022 academic year)

    • Bases of Microelectronics (Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 1 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Project Seminar «Fundamentals of Designing Computer Devices and Systems» (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Computer-aided design systems for micro- and Nanoelectronics (Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 1, 2 module)Rus
    • Circuit Engineering (Bachelor’s programme; A. N. N. Tikhonova, 3 year, 1, 2 module)Rus

    Training courses (2020/2021 academic year)

    • Methodology of innovative engineering design (Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 1 year, 1-4 module)Rus
    • Project Seminar «Fundamentals of Designing Computing Devices and Systems» (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 3, 4 module)Rus Master’s Courses at: A. N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 1 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Systems for Computer-Aided Design of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Products (Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 1, 2 module)Rus
    • Circuit Engineering (Bachelor’s programme; Moscow Tikhonov Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 3 year, 1, 2 module)Rus

    Courses (2019/2020 academic year)

    • Methodology of Innovative Engineering Design (Master’s programme; where reading: Moscow Tikhonov Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 1 year, 1-4 module)Rus
    • Project Seminar «Fundamentals of Designing Computing Devices and Systems» (Bachelor’s programme; A. N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Computer-Aided Design Systems ( Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 1 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • named after A.N. Tikhonov, 2 year, 1, 2 module)Rus

    • Circuit Engineering (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 3 year, 1, 2 module)Rus

    Courses (2018/2019 academic year) Seminar «Fundamentals of Designing Computing Devices and Systems» (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 2-4 module)Rus

  • Development of Computer Systems (Bachelor’s programme); A. N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 3 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
  • Systems for Computer-Aided Design of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Products (Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 1, 2 module)Rus
  • Circuit Engineering (Bachelor’s programme; Moscow AN Tikhonov Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 3 year, 1, 2 module)Rus
  • Technology and Design of Electronic Component Base (Master’s programme; AN Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 1 year, 1-3 module)Rus
  • Training courses (2017/2018 academic year)

    • Design and technology of electronic component base (Master’s programme; A. N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 1 year, 1-3 module )Rus
    • Project Seminar «Fundamentals of Designing Computing Devices and Systems» (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 2-4 module)Rus
    • Automated Product Design Systems Micro- and Nanoelectronics (Master’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 2 year, 1, 2 module)Rus
    • Circuit Engineering (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 3 year, 1, 2 module)Rus and Mathematics named after A.N. Tikhonov; 3 year, 3, 4 module)Rus
    • Digital Signal Processing (Bachelor’s programme; A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics; 3rd year, 3, 4 module)Rus

    Dissertation for the degree of candidate of sciences

    2020 9,0003

    Popov D.A. Dryb also technological modeling of submicron mop transistors with a silicon structure, taking into account the temperature and radiation effects



    • The head of the book K. O. Petrosyants, D.S. Silkin, D.A. Popov, M.R. Ismail-zade. Analysis of SEU effects in MOSFET and FinFET based 6T SRAM Cells, in: Proceedings of 2022 IEEE Moscow Workshop on Electronic and Networking Technologies (MWENT) / Comp.: I. A. Ivanov, O. Stukach.; Ed. by O. Stukach. M. : IEEE, 2022. doi P. 1-4. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Ismail-Zade M. R., Kozhukhov M. V., Popov D. A., Pugachev A. A., Sambursky L. M., Silkin D. S., Kharitonov I. A. Subsystem for TCAD and SPICE modeling of silicon LSI elements taking into account the influence of temperature, radiation and aging // Nanoindustry. 2022. Vol. 15. No. S8-1(113). pp. 183-194. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Silkin D. S., Popov D. A., Li B., Zhang S. TCAD modeling of nanometer FinFET structures on bulk silicon with allowance for radiation exposure // Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii . Electronics. 2021. V. 26. No. 5. S. 374-386. doi

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Silkin D. S., Popov D. A. Evaluation of the influence of FinFET structure parameters on electrical characteristics by means of TCAD-modeling // In the book: Mathematical modeling in materials science of electronic components MMMEK-2021 . M. : MAKS Press, 2021. doi pp. 120-123. doi

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Silkin D. S., Popov D. A. Problems of TCAD-modeling of FinFET structures with allowance for radiation effects // In the book: Nanoindustry Special Issue. Russian forum «Microelectronics-2021». 7th Scientific Conference «Electronic Component Base and Microelectronic Modules» Collection of Abstracts Vol. 14. Issue. 7s. M. : Advertising and publishing center «TECHNOSPHERE», 2021. doi P. 286-288. doi

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Silkin D. S., Popov D. A. Comparison of the thermal characteristics of MOSFET and FinFET // In the book: Problems of development of advanced micro- and nanoelectronic systems — 2021 (MES-2021) Issue. 4. M. : IPPM RAN, 2021. Ch. 86. S. 2-6. doi

    • Book Chapter Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. Self-Heating Investigation in SOI MOSFET Structures with High Thermal Conductivity Buried Insulator Layers, in: 2020 36th Semiconductor Thermal Measurement, Modeling & Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM) . San Jose, CA USA: IEEE, 2020. P. 56-60. doi

    • Chapter of the book K. O. Petrosyants, D. A. Popov, M. R. Ismail-Zade, L. M. Sambursky, Li B., Wang Y. C. TCAD and SPICE Models for Account of Radiation Effects in Nanoscale MOSFET Structures, in: Problems of developing advanced micro- and nanoelectronic systems (MES-2020). / Under the total. Ed.: A. L. Stempkovsky. Issue. 4. IPPM RAS, 2020. P. 2-8. doi

    • Chapter of the book Popov D. A. TCAD modeling of fault tolerance of SELBOX and DSOI CMOS SOI memory cells // In the book: International Forum «Microelectronics-2020». School of young scientists. Collection of abstracts. Republic of Crimea, Yalta, September 21-25, 2020. M. : MAKS Press, 2020. P. 227-229. doi

    • Chapter of Petrosyants K., D.A. Popov, Li B., Wang Y. TCAD-SPICE Investigation of SEU Sensitivity for SOI and DSOI CMOS SRAM Cells in Temperature Range up to 300 °C, in: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Microelectronic Devices and Technologies (MicDAT 2020) . Barcelona : International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA), 2020. Ch. 15. P. 31-34.

    • Article Kharitonov I. A., Popov D. A., Rakhmatullin B. A. A method for determining the parameters of SPICE models for analyzing the effect of NF on CMOS circuits with a decrease in the size of transistors // Nanoindustry. 2020. Vol. 13. No. S5-2. S. 379-385. doi

    • Book chapter Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. Comparison of Self-heating Effect in SOI MOSFETs with Various Configuration of Buried Oxide, in: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Microelectronic Devices and Technologies (MicDAT ‘2019) . Barcelona : International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA), 2019. P. 24-28.

    • Book chapter Adonin A. S., Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. Modeling of the Submicron MOSFETs Characteristics for UTSi Technology, in: Proceedings of SPIE 11022. International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Electronics 2018 Vol. 11022G. SPIE, 2019. P. 1-6. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Popov D., Bykov D. Quasi-3D TCAD modeling of STI radiation-induced leakage currents in SOI MOSFET structure // Journal of Physics: Conference Series . 2019 Vol. 1163. P. 1-6. doi

    • Book chapter Petrosyants K. O., Kozhukhov M., Popov D. Radiation- and Temperature-Induced Fault Modeling and Simulation in BiCMOS LSI’s Components using RAD-THERM TCAD Subsystem, in: 2019 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits & Systems (DDECS) . Cluj: IEEE, 2019. P. 1-4. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. Simulating the Self-Heating Effect for MOSFETs with Various Configurations of Buried Oxide / Per. from Russian // Russian Microelectronics . 2019 Vol. 48. No. 7. P. 467-469. doi

    • Chapter of the book Popov D. A. TCAD modeling of submicron and nanometer MOSFET SOI structures taking into account temperature and radiation // In the book: International Forum «Microelectronics-2019″». School of young scientists. Collection of abstracts. Republic of Crimea, September 23-25, 2019. M. : Spektr LLC, 2019. P. 270-277.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K.O., Popov D.A. Study of the speed of submicron MOS structures with uneven channel doping using TCAD // In the book: XVIII Scientific and Technical Conference «Electronics, Micro- and Nanoelectronics»: June 24 — 27, 2019, Suzdal, Russia. NIISI RAS, 2019. S. 27-28.

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Kozhukhov M., Popov D. Effective Radiation Damage Models for TCAD Simulation of Silicon Bipolar and MOS Transistor and Sensor Structures // Sensors and Transducers . 2018 Vol. 227. No. 11. P. 42-50.

    • Article Petrosyants K., Popov D., Bykov D. TCAD Simulation of Dose Radiation Effects in Sub-100 nm High-k MOSFET Structures / Per. from Russian // Russian Microelectronics . 2018 Vol. 47. No. 7. P. 487-493. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K.O., Popov D.A. Modeling the self-heating effect of SOI MOS transistors with different hidden oxide configurations // Izv. Electronics. 2018. V. 23. No. 5. S. 521-525. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Kozhukhov M. V., Popov D. A. Generalized TCAD model for taking into account radiation effects in MOS structures and bipolar transistors // Nanoindustry. 2018. No. 82. P. 404-405. doi

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. A., Sambursky L. M., Ismail-Zade M. R., Kharitonov I. A. Experimental study and modeling of the CVC of submicron MOS transistors in the temperature range -200…+300°C // In: XVII All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference «Electronics, Micro- and Nanoelectronics»: May 14 — 18, 2018, Suzdal, Russia. M. : NIISI RAN, 2018. S. 67-68.

    • Book chapter Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. 45nm High-k MOSFETs on Bulk Silicon and SOI Substrates Modeling to Account for Total Dose Effects, in: 2017 International Workshop on Reliability of Micro- and Nano-Electronic Devices in Harsh Environment ” (IWRMN-EDHE 2017) . Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2017. P. 1-3.

    • Book chapter Petrosyants K. O., Popov D., Kozhukhov M. General Approach to TCAD Simulation of BJT/HBT and MOSFET Structures after Proton Irradiation, in: 2017 International Workshop on Reliability of Micro- and Nano-Electronic Devices in Harsh Environment” (IWRMN-EDHE 2017) . Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2017. P. 1-3.

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. A., Bykov D. V. TCAD modeling of radiation dose effects in sub-100 nm high-k MOS transistor structures // Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Electronics. 2017. V. 22. No. 6. S. 569-581. doi

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Kharitonov I. A., Popov D. A. TCAD modeling of radiation-induced drain leakage currents in SOI MOSFETs at elevated temperatures // In the book: Solid state electronics. Complex functional blocks of REA: Proceedings of the XV Scientific and Technical Conference, 27-29September 2017. M., Dubna: OJSC NPP PULSAR, 2017. P. 224-226.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K.O., Kozhukhov M.V., Popov D.A. 3rd International Scientific Conference «Electronic Component Base and Electronic Modules». Republic of Crimea, Alushta, October 02-07, 2017. M.: Technosfera, 2017. P. 344-347.

    • Article Petrosyants K., Popov D., L. M. Sambursky, I. A. Kharitonov. TCAD Leakage Current Analysis of a 45 nm MOSFET Structure with a High-k Dielectric / Per. from Russian // Russian Microelectronics . 2016. Vol. 45. No. 7. P. 460-463. doi

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. A. Modeling of structural and technological varieties of SOI MOS transistors with increased radiation and temperature resistance // In the book: International Forum «Microelectronics-2016». 2nd Scientific Conference «Integrated Circuits and Microelectronic Modules». M. : Technosfera, 2016. S. 303-308.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Kharitonov I. A., Sambursky L. M., Popov D. A., Ikhsanov R. Sh. / In book: 19-th All-Russian scientific and technical conference «Radiation resistance of electronic systems» «RESISTANCE-2016». FSUE «NIIP», 2016. S. 97-98.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Kharitonov I. A., Popov D. A., Stakhin V. G., Lebedev S. V. Simulation of fault tolerance of CMOS SOI memory cells under the influence of individual heavy particles at elevated temperature ( up to 300oC) // In the book: 19th All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference «Radiation resistance of electronic systems» «RESISTANCE-2016». FSUE «NIIP», 2016. S. 56-57.

    • Book chapter Konstantin O. Petrosyants, Popov D. High-k Gate Stacks Influence on Characteristics of Nano-scale MOSFET Structures, in: 2nd International Conference on Modeling Identification and Control. MIC 2015 Vol. 119. P. : Atlantis Press, 2015. P. 174-176. doi

    • Book chapter Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. TCAD Simulation of Total Ionization Dose Response of 45nm High-K MOSFETs on Bulk Silicon and SOI Substrate, in: Proceedings of the 24th European conference on radiation and its effects on components and systems -2015 (RADECS 2015), Moscow, Russia, 14-18 September . Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2015. P. 27-30. doi

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. A., Sambursky L. M., Kharitonov I. A. Analysis of the leakage currents of a 45 nm MOS transistor structure with a high-k dielectric using the TCAD system // Izvestiya Vysshikh educational institutions. Electronics. 2015. V. 20. No. 1. S. 38-43.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Kharitonov I. A., Sambursky L. M., Popov D. A., Stakhin V. G., Lebedev S. V. Simulation of SOI MOS transistors for high-temperature CMOS integral schemes (up to 300°C) // In the book: International Conference «Microelectronics 2015». Collection of abstracts. Alushta, Crimea, September 28 — October 3, 2015. Moscow: Technosfera, 2015. P. 239-240.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. A. Device-technological modeling of 45nm high-k MOSFETs taking into account the effects of gamma radiation // In the book: Proceedings of the XXV International Conference «Radiation Solid State Physics» (Sevastopol, July 6-11, 2015) / Ed. editor: G. G. Bondarenko; scientific Ed.: G. G. Bondarenko. M. : FGBNU «NII PMT», 2015. P. 424-431.

    • Chapter of the book Popov D. A., Kharitonov I. A. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the resistance of CMOS SOI memory cells to the effects of single heavy particles // In the book: Fundamental science and technology — promising developments / Fundamental science and technology — promising developments III Vol. 3. Issue. III. CreateSpace, 2014, pp. 4-6.

    • Book L. M. Sambursky, M. V. Kozhukhov, D. A. Popov Designing a logical circuit based on the BMC «Melissa»: Methodological instructions for doing homework in the discipline «Microcircuitry». Moscow: MIEM NRU HSE, 2014.

    • Book chapter Petrosyants K. O., Kharitonov I. A., Popov D. Coupled TCAD-SPICE Simulation of Parasitic BJT Effect on SOI CMOS SRAM SEU, in: Proceedings of IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS’13) . Kharkov: Kharkov national university of radioelectronics, 2013. P. 312-315.

    • Chapter of the book Popov DA Modeling of thermal processes in the structure of a CMOS SOI inverter // In the book: Microelectronics and Informatics — 2013. Abstracts. Zelenograd: MIET, 2013. S. 108-108.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. O., Kharitonov I. A., Popov D. A. Application of TCAD and HSPICE software packages for the analysis of transient processes in CMOS IC cells taking into account the influence of the self-heating effect // In the book: Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference «International Scientific — Practical Conference» INNOVATIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES», Prague, 2013, April 22-26 / Editor-in-chief: I. A. Ivanov; under the general editorship: S. U. Uvaisov; scientific. 3. Moscow: MIEM NRU HSE, 2013. P. 451-458.

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Popov D. A. Accounting for the effect of temperature on the radiative shift of the MOS transistor threshold voltage in the TCAD system // Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Electronics. 2013. No. 4. S. 96-97. Book of abstracts. . M. : FTIAN, 2012. P. P1-08.

    • Article K. Petrosyants, E. Orekhov, I. Kharitonov, Popov D. TCAD analysis of self-heating effects in bulk silicon and SOI n-MOSFETs // Proceedings of SPIE . 2012. Vol. 8700. P. 16.1-16.6.

    • Article Petrosyants K. O., Kozhukhov M. V., Popov D. A., Orekhov E. V. Mathematical models built into the TCAD system to take into account the effect of gamma and neutron radiation on semiconductor devices // Izvestiya Southern Federal University. Technical science. 2012. No. 6(131). pp. 77-82.

    • Chapter of the book Petrosyants K. , Orekhov E. V., Popov D., Kharitonov I. A., Sambursky L. M., Yatmanov A., Voevodin A., Mansurov A. TCAD-SPICE simulation of MOSFET switch delay time for different CMOS technologies, in: Proceedings of IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS’11) / Rev. editors: S. Chumachenko, E. Litvinova.; Ed. by V. Khakhanov. Kharkov: Kharkov national university of radioelectronics, 2011. P. 188-190.


    • 2018

      XVIII Scientific and practical seminar «Problems of creating specialized radiation-resistant VLSI based on heterostructures» (Nizhny Novgorod). Report: Domestic Library of MOSFET Models for CMOS LSI Calculations with Radiation and Temperature

    • XVII All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference «Electronics, Micro- and Nanoelectronics» (Vladimir Region, Suzdal). Report: Experimental study and modeling of IV characteristics of submicron MOSFETs in the temperature range -200…+300°C
    • 2017

      2017 International Workshop on Reliability of Micro- and Nano-Electronic Devices in Harsh Environment (Chengdu). Report: 45nm High-k MOSFETs on Bulk Silicon and SOI Substrates Modeling to Account for Total Dose Effects

    • 2016

      Report: Simulation of the fault tolerance of CMOS SOI memory cells under the influence of individual heavy particles at elevated temperatures (up to 300oC)

    • 19th All-Russian scientific and technical conference «Radiation resistance of electronic systems» «RESISTANCE-2016» (Lytkarino). Report: Simulation of the radiation-stimulated thyristor effect in an inverter made using CMOS technology

    • 2015

      XXV International Conference «Radiation Solid State Physics» (Sevastopol). Presentation: Device-technological simulation of 45nm High-k MOSFETs taking into account the effects of gamma radiation


    2021-present Associate Professor of the Department of Computer Engineering MIEM HSE

    2019-2021 Senior Lecturer of the Computer Engineering Department MIEM HSE

    -2019 Assistant of the Computer Engineering Department of the NIU HSE

            years — teaching experience: 6 years
          • Teaching experience: 6 years


          Schedule for today




          The whole truth about the visiograph in dentistry

          Radiovisiographs came into the practice of Russian dentists more than 10 years ago, but still raise questions. The most popular is “Is this the same as an x-ray?”. We immediately answer: not really. We offer together to deal with the main features of the device and debunk the myths that worry doctors and patients.

          How much safer is a visiograph than a conventional x-ray

          The device itself is not an emitter, but only receives rays. Consists of a sensor, an analog-to-digital converter and a wire. Now most models are lightweight and are produced without a separate digitizing unit, that is, they are connected directly to a computer. There are also wireless visiographs that are placed in a special scanner to read the image.

          Visiographic complex includes:

          • x-ray machine;
          • visiograph with software;
          • computer.

          Yes, the visiograph will not work without an X-ray machine. So what is it for then? Wouldn’t it be easier to do a regular x-ray?

          First, modern equipment is superior to previous generations in terms of safety. If earlier the installations gave out wide radiation, now a thin and aimed beam is captured by a sensitive sensor.

          Secondly, the sensor recognizes even the smallest particles of radiation in less than half a second and even faster.

          I would also like to note the advantage of digital visiography over film devices. Even if you take high-quality film and a good new generation dental x-ray, a shutter speed of about 0.6 seconds is required to produce a high-quality image. The same with digital radiography with a sensor is performed in 0.06 seconds. The sensor adequately perceives the signal at exposure from 0.3 ta/sec to 1.8 mA/sec.

          So we have the answer to the first question. Radiovisiography is based on the same principles as conventional radiography. At the same time, the level of X-ray radiation during the operation of the radiovisiograph is much lower.

          How much radiation do patients receive

          We believe you have heard this question from your patients more than once. When X-raying the teeth of the lower jaw using a visiograph, this value is 2 microsieverts, for the upper jaw — 5 μSv.

          If film radiography is performed using a high-speed film and a low-dose apparatus, the same figure will be 7 and 13 µSv. When working with old domestic equipment and low-quality film — up to 80 μSv.

          How many pictures can I take? It is difficult to regulate exactly the number of X-ray examinations, since not all devices are equipped with a dose counter. Accordingly, you will need to calculate it for each type of apparatus and for each tooth. It is logical to focus on the maximum permissible effective equivalent dose for a person per year, excluding its excess.

          According to SanPiN, when conducting preventive medical radiological procedures and scientific research, this dose should not exceed 0.001 sievert per year (1 millisievert, 1000 microsievert). The load is equivalent to three chest X-rays.

          Is it possible to take pictures of the teeth of pregnant and lactating women

          Radiovisiography is allowed only for clinical indications, when it comes to a threat to life. We recommend that private doctors take this with particular care: for example, the patient’s signature on the card has no legal force, and the dentist is solely responsible.

          Breastfeeding mothers can take pictures, as ionizing radiation scatters when passing through soft tissues and body fluids. Thus, it will not affect the child in any way. To make the patient calmer, you can skip the next feeding after the picture.

          Where can the visiograph be placed? In the standard set for obtaining a document, there is a planned scheme of an office for the use of a visiograph.

          Depending on the characteristics of a particular equipment, the regulatory authorities perform the calculation of biological protection. They also study the area of ​​the office, the lead equivalent of the wall materials, the location of the office in the building, the average workload on the imaging unit.

          We talked more about the organization of an X-ray room in our guide “How to open an X-ray room in a clinic”.