Displayport speeds: DisplayPort Cables: Types and Specifications Explained

DisplayPort Cables: Types and Specifications Explained

Choosing the right DisplayPort cable for high-resolution video

What is DisplayPort?

DisplayPort, or DP for short, is an audio and video interface standard administered by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). Originally intended to replace older video interfaces like DVI and VGA, DisplayPort is primarily used by desktop computers, laptops and projectors.

Buying a DisplayPort Cable

Transmission Speed

All DisplayPort cables support the same features. The primary difference between them is transmission speed. Resolution, color depth, number of monitors, refresh rate are all dependent on how much data the cable can transmit.

Updates to the DisplayPort standard typically include a boost in transmission speed (also referred to as bandwidth). To make it easier to find the cable you need, the VESA DisplayPort Task Group gives transmission speed a name.

For more detail, see DisplayPort Cables and DisplayPort 2. 0 Monitor Configurations below.

Cable Length

Passive cables transmit signals. That’s all they do. The longer the cable or the more data (higher resolution) you try to push through it, the more likely the signal will weaken and suffer from errors and interference.

The maximum length of a passive DisplayPort cable is at least 15 meters/33 feet. Depending on the quality of the cable and other factors, you may be able to transmit video and audio over greater distances.

Passive vs. Active Cables

If you need greater distance, you have two choices: a signal booster or an active cable. Both do essentially the same thing. They regenerate or increase the strength of the signal so it can be transmitted further. Depending on the resolution, active cables can easily reach 150-ft or more.

Choosing a DisplayPort Cable FAQ

What is Display Stream Compression (DSC)?

High resolutions of 8K and beyond, greater color depths and increasing frame rates push the limits of video cables, even high bandwidth cables like DisplayPort. The only way to transmit more bits is to add more lanes to the cable or compress the signal. Display Stream Compression (DSC) is a new standard first introduced in DisplayPort 1.4 that enables visually lossless compression of 2:1 or 3:1. This «light compression» allows video to be encoded and decoded in real time with very low latency, making it ideal for high performance applications like gaming. Compared to video transmission without compression, DSC saves power and can allows for resolutions up to 16K (15360 x 8460). However, for the best image quality, it is best to avoid compression of any kind.

How do I check my DisplayPort version?

Graphics cards and port drivers do not usually indicate the version of DisplayPort they support but they will show maximum resolution and refresh rate (e.g. 4096 x 2304 @ 60 Hz). Identify the processor used by your computer, then refer to the graphics specifications on the manufacturer’s website.

How do I daisy chain multiple monitors?

Multi-Stream Transport (MST) allows multiple displays to be driven by a single DP port. For more on the MST feature, see DisplayPort Multi-Stream Transport (MST) Explained.

What is Dual Mode DisplayPort?

Devices that support DisplayPort Dual-Mode will detect when an HDMI and DVI Single-Link monitors is connected and will send HDMI/DVI signals instead of DisplayPort. It is an optional feature that some device manufacturers implement but it is not required. How do you know if your laptop or dock supports DisplayPort Dual-Mode? The port is sometimes labeled with the DP++ logo but not always. Refer to the documentation that came with your device.

DisplayPort vs HDMI. What’s the difference?

DisplayPort and HDMI are often compared because they have many of the same features. Aside from the fact that DP and HDMI use different connectors, DisplayPort has more of a computer focus whereas HDMI has become the de facto standard for connecting televisions and consumer AV products. By virtue of its higher bandwidth, DisplayPort supports higher display resolutions and refresh rates, making it a popular choice for gamers and professional video editors.

Does DisplayPort Support Audio?

Yes, DisplayPort can carry multi-channel digital audio and video signals simultaneously although it isn’t always implemented by device manufacturers. If DP audio is supported by your PC graphics card or laptop, you will be able to stream audio to speakers built into your monitor or connect speakers to your monitor instead of your computer.

Evolution of the DisplayPort Standard

With each update of the DisplayPort standard, more bandwidth is required to support higher video resolutions, refresh rates and color depths. The effective data rate of DP 1.3 and 1.4 is sufficient to support a 4K, 24-bit color monitor at a refresh rate of up to 120 Hz, but it is not able to support the new generation of higher resolution 6K and 8K displays without resorting to compression.

* Effective bandwidth after allowing for signal encoding overhead. DP 1.x uses 8/10b encoding, which results in a 20% overhead. DP 2.0 uses the more efficient 128/132b with a 3% overhead.

DisplayPort 1.0 (2006)

  • High Bitrate (HBR) 2.70 Gbps per lane
  • Data Encoding Scheme: 8b/10b
  • DPCP 1.0

DisplayPort 1.1 (2007)

  • HDCP (High Definition Copy Protection) 1.3
  • Dual Mode (DP++)
  • 3D Video

DisplayPort 1.2 (2009)

  • Multi-Stream Transport (MST)

DisplayPort 1.3 (2015)

  • Compatibility with HDMI 2.0
  • HDCP 2.2

DisplayPort 1.4 (2016)

  • HDR
  • HBR3
  • DSC 1.2

DisplayPort 1.4a (2018)

  • DSC 1.2a

DisplayPort 2.0 (2019)

  • Video resolutions:
  • HDR
  • 77. 37 Gbps transfer speed (UHBR 10)
  • Data encoding: 128b/132b
  • Display Signal Compression (DSC)
  • Forward Error Compression (previously optional)
  • Panel Replay (previously optional)
  • Adaptive-Sync (optional)
Raw Bandwidth vs. Effective Bandwidth

In the latest DisplayPort specification, DP 2.0, you will see a maximum bandwidth of 80 Gbps and an effective bandwidth of 77.4 Gbps. What is the difference between the two?

DP 2.0 is built on the Thunderbolt 3 standard, which provides four 20 Gbps lanes for data transmission. While Thunderbolt utilizes two lanes (2 x 20 Gbps) in each direction, video transmission is outbound only so DisplayPort can devote all four lanes (a total of 80 Gbps) to video.

Raw video signals are transmitted with additional encoding that allows them to be reconstituted by the receiving device. Under the DP 1.x standards, a video signal was transmitted using the relatively inefficient 8b/10b encoding scheme (an 8-bit payload plus 2 encoding bits translates to a 25% overhead). DP 2.0 employs 128b/132b encoding and requires only 3.125% overhead (4 encoding bits for every 128 bits of video).

DP 2.0’s effective bandwidth is calculated as follows:

Maximum Bandwidth: 4 lanes x 20 Gbps per lane = 80 Gbps

Effective Bandwidth: 80 Gbps minus 3.125% encoding overhead = 77.4 Gbps

What is a Color Space?

A color space is a defined range of colors that can be represented in an image. The two primary color spaces used to represent digital video are RGB and YCbCr. Two important characteristics of a color space are Color Depth and Gamut.

  • Color Depth is the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel and determines the amount of shading or gradation.
  • Gamut refers to the number of colors available.

The initial HDMI specification provided support for 24-bit Color Depth (8-bits per color x 3 colors RGB). HDMI 1.3 introduced Deep Color, which added support for 30-bit, 36-bit and 48-bit color depths. It’s worth keeping in mind that the human eye can only distinguish around 10 million different color, so 24-bit color is adequate for most situations.

Color Depths

What is Chroma Subsampling?

Chroma subsampling is a form of video data compression. It reduces the amount of color data in a video signal in such a way that there is little or no visible impact on image quality.

Each pixel in a video image includes information on brightness (luma) and color (chroma). Since human eyes are more sensitive to differences in brightness than color, chroma subsampling reduces the amount of data transmitted by allowing pixels to share color data with adjacent pixels.

Chroma Subsampling is represented as three digits. The first number is the number of pixels in each row of the sample. The second number indicates the number of pixels in the TOP row that have color information. The third number indicates the number of pixels in the BOTTOM row that have color information.

  • 4:4:4 means no subsampling. Each pixel has its own color information.
  • 4:2:2 indicates that two adjacent pixels on each row share color information, representing a 50% reduction in color data.
  • 4:2:0 means the bottom row has no color information and uses the information provided for the top row. This approach reduces the color data by 75%.

DisplayPort 2.0 Monitor Configurations

With the greater bandwidth of DP 2.0, it is possible to connect two 4K monitors running at 144 Hz using a single cable and no compression. This should be good news for gamers and virtual reality (VR) enthusiasts, who look for ultra-high resolutions and refresh rates.

The tables below illustrate the versatility of the latest DP standard.

DisplayPort Port/Cable

Source: Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) DisplayPort Task Group

USB-C Port/Cable (DisplayPort Alt-Mode)

Source: Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) DisplayPort Task Group

DisplayPort Cables

All DisplayPort cables have the same capabilities with the exception of transmission speed.

Four transmission modes are supported by DisplayPort 1.x cables: RBR, HBR, HBR2 and HBR3.

DisplayPort 2.0 introduced a fifth transmission mode, Ultra High Bit Rate (UHBR), which supports three new data rates per lane: 10 Gbps, 13.5 Gbps, and 20 Gbps. The maximum total bandwidth on a standard 4 lane connection is 4 x 20 Gbps or 80.00 Gbps.

8K DisplayPort to DisplayPort Cable

When a DisplayPort connection is made, the transmission mode is determined through a process called Link Training. This process determines the maximum speed of the connection. If the DisplayPort cable is not capable of maintaining a stable connection at a particular speed, the connected devices will «fallback» to a lower speed. The connected devices can agree on a new higher or lower speed at any time if signal errors are detected.

DisplayPort Connectors

Native DisplayPort Connectors

DisplayPort connectors come in two sizes: Standard DisplayPort and Mini DisplayPort (mDP). While these connectors differ in shape, they both have 20-pins and support the same features.

The Standard DP connector is typically used by PCs, laptop and displays. The smaller mDP connector was originally developed by Apple in 2008 and merged into the DisplayPort 1.2 specification in 2010.

mDP was also used as the connector for the Thunderbolt interface until it switched to the USB-C connector in Thunderbolt 3.

Both DP connectors use a friction lock. An optional latching mechanism is available on the larger version.

DisplayPort keystone jacks are also available with optional panel mount brackets. These can be used with standard faceplates in a variety of settings, including conference room podiums, classrooms and retail kiosks.

Gripping or Latching Connectors

Some Standard DisplayPort connectors have a latching mechanism that prevents it from being accidentally disconnected. All DisplayPort receptacles have slots for the latches to lock into but the latches on the connector itself are optional.

DisplayPort Alt Mode Using USB-C

In Alt Mode, some of the pins in a USB-C connector are used to transmit other protocols. This allows the widely adopted USB-C port/connector to be used for more than just data or power. To date, there are four Alternate Modes: DisplayPort, Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL), Thunderbolt and HDMI.

The latest version, DisplayPort Alt Mode 2.0, can transmit uncompressed 8K (7680 × 4320) video at 60 Hz or 16K (15360 x 8640) 60 Hz when using Display Stream Compression (DSC). Check the specs of your PC graphics card or laptop to see which version of DisplayPort is supported.

Is a USB4 port capable of transmitting a DisplayPort signal?

USB4 can transmit a DP 2.0 signal using Alt-Mode or USB4 protocol tunneling. When devices talk to one another, they do so using a protocol. If both devices can understand the same protocol, a connection can be established. Conceptually, Protocol Tunneling creates a «pipe» with one protocol and uses it to send data in another protocol. USB4 Protocol Tunneling creates a USB-C tunnel through which DisplayPort data can be sent. USB4 Protocol Tunneling is similar to Alt Mode but doesn’t require a DP or PCIe controller.

Transmitting DisplayPort Signals

DisplayPort Cable Length

According to VESA, the maximum length of a DisplayPort cable is 15 meters (49 feet) but distances of over 15 m are possible depending on resolution. A 15 m cable like Tripp Lite’s P580-050 can transmit a DP signal at 1080p. A good practical approach is to test transmission over the required distance with a good quality cable. If you see problems in the strength of the signal (e.g. sparkles or other artifacts), add a signal booster like Tripp Lite’s B121-000.

DisplayPort Extenders

When transmission distance requirements exceed the limits of passive and active cables, it’s time to consider the various forms of signal extension.

DisplayPort over CATx Extender

DisplayPort over CATx – A DP over CATx extender will convert the DisplayPort signal into a proprietary form that can be transmitted over the category cable and reconverted at the other end with no loss of signal strength or fidelity. Using this approach, a DisplayPort signal can be transmitted about three times further than an active DisplayPort cable–approximately 100 meters (328 ft.). Shielded (STP) Cat6 cable is recommended for its ability to reduce EMI interference from power lines and crosstalk within the cable.

DisplayPort over Fiber (Active Optical Cable) – The connectors on fiber DisplayPort convert conventional electrical inputs to pulses of light that are transmitted at high speed through optical fiber, then converted back to electricity on the receiving end. Since signal transmission is optical, it isn’t subject to EMI/RFI line noise. Fiber DisplayPort is subject to the same 100 meter/328-foot limitation as copper Ethernet cable.

Wireless DisplayPort Extenders – A hardwired extender uses an Ethernet or Active Optical Cable to pass data between a transmitter and receiver. A wireless extender sends the DisplayPort signal using one of the WiFi protocols (e.g. 802. 11ac or 802.11n). Wireless is generally slower than hardwire so make sure the video resolution and frequency is sufficient for your needs. For example, Tripp Lite’s B126-1D1-WHD1 can extend a 4K/30 Hz signal up to 98-ft.

For more on DisplayPort Video Extenders and how they work, see our Video Extenders Technology page.

Switching and Splitting DisplayPort Signals

Switches and splitters are often confused and for good reason. They perform similar functions. A switch takes multiple inputs and lets you choose which one to display on your TV or computer monitor. A splitter does exactly the opposite. It takes a single video signal and replicates it to multiple displays.

DisplayPort Splitters

A DisplayPort splitter takes one DisplayPort video signal and sends it to multiple displays. Each display will show the same image. Splitters are often classified according to their inputs and outputs. For example, a 2-port splitter might be referred to as «1×2» because it has one input and two outputs.

When choosing a splitter, make sure the output is at the resolution and frequency you want. A video splitter may also perform protocol conversion, for example, converting DisplayPort to HDMI.

DisplayPort Switches

A DisplayPort switch, also called a presentation switcher, outputs audio and video from multiple sources but only one at a time. For example, a boardroom presentation might include Powerpoint slides and video from a streaming service like YouTube or Vimeo.

A matrix switch has multiple inputs AND outputs. For example, a 9×2 matrix switch has 9 inputs and 2 outputs.

Another variation on the many-to-one theme is the Multiviewer, which consolidates a number of video inputs on a single monitor. Multiviewers are found in broadcast control rooms and video surveillance systems.

Products Mentioned in this Article

DisplayPort Cables

DisplayPort Adapters

DisplayPort Adapter Cables

DisplayPort Extenders & Signal Boosters

Video Splitters & Multiviewers


Why Buy from Tripp Lite by Eaton?

We know you have many brands to choose from. On the surface, they may all seem alike. It’s what you don’t see that makes the difference. With Tripp Lite by Eaton, you get solid engineering, proven reliability and exceptional customer service. All our products undergo rigorous quality control before they are offered for sale, and independent testing agencies verify our products meet or exceed the latest safety and performance standards. Our commitment to quality allows us to back our products with industry-leading warranties and responsive customer service. It’s the Tripp Lite by Eaton difference.

Bandwidth For 8K Monitors & Beyond

While display interface standards are slow to move, at the same time their movement is inexorable: monitor resolutions continue to increase, as do refresh rates and color depths, requiring more and more bandwidth to carry signals for the next generation of monitors. Keeping pace with the demand for bandwidth, the DisplayPort standard, the cornerstone of PC display standards, has now been through several revisions since it was first launched over a decade ago. And now this morning the standard is taking its biggest leap yet with the release of the DisplayPort 2.0 specification. Set to offer nearly triple the available bandwidth of DisplayPort 1.4, the new revision of DisplayPort is almost moving a number of previously optional features into the core standard, creating what’s in many ways a new baseline for the interface.

The big news here, of course, is raw bandwidth. The current versions of DisplayPort – 1.3 & 1.4 –  offer up to 32.4 Gbps of bandwidth – or 25.9 Gbps after overhead – which is enough for a standard 16.7 million color (24-bit) 4K monitor at up to 120Hz, or up to 98Hz for 1 billion+ color (30-bit) monitors. This is a lot of bandwidth, but it still isn’t enough for the coming generation of monitors, including the likes of Apple’s new 6K Pro Display XDR monitor, and of course, 8K monitors. As a result, the need for more display interface bandwidth continues to grow, with these next-generation monitors set to be the tipping point. And all of this is something that the rival HDMI Forum has already prepared for with their own HDMI 2.1 standard.

DisplayPort Signaling Standards
Standard Raw Bandwidth

(4 Lanes)
Effective Bandwidth

(4 Lanes)
Target Monitor Resolutions
DP 1.0/1.1 (HBR1) 10.8 Gbps 8.64 Gbps [email protected]
DP 1.2

(HBR 2)
21.6 Gbps 17.28 Gbps [email protected]
DP 1. 3/1.4

32.4 Gbps 25.92 Gbps [email protected]

[email protected] (w/DSC)
DP 2.0

(UHBR 20)
80 Gbps 77.37 Gbps [email protected] HDR >[email protected] SDR

[email protected] HDR

2x [email protected]

DisplayPort 2.0, in turn, is shooting for 8K and above. Introducing not just one but a few different bitrate modes, the fastest mode in DisplayPort 2.0 will top out at 80 Gbps of raw bandwidth, about 2.5 times that of DisplayPort 1.3/1.4. Layered on that, DisplayPort 2.0 also introduces a more efficient coding scheme, resulting in much less coding overhead. As a result, the effective bandwidth of the new standard will peak at 77.4 Gbps, with at 2. 98x the bandwidth of the previous standard is just a hair under a full trebling of available bandwidth.

Putting all of this in practical terms for a moment, for VESA and its member manufacturers then, the new standard opens the door to higher resolution, higher refresh rate, and wider color gamut monitors. DisplayPort 2.0 is fast enough to not just support an 8K monitor without any kind of compression (including chroma subsampling), but it’s enough to do so at 30-bit color, allowing for HDR support even at that high of a resolution. Similarly, 10K monitors at 24-bit color are now possible without compression, and 16K monitors with compression. Overall the applications are about as varied as manufacturers want to go, with options ranging from ensuring there’s sufficient bandwidth for next-gen VR to enabling new daisy chaining setups (daisy chained 5K monitors, anyone?), not to mention even more interesting setups such as mixing USB data with high resolution DisplayPort monitors. Many things which VESA is happy to point out that even HDMI 2.1 can’t do, due to the former’s significant bandwidth advantage (all of this solidly putting DisplayPort back on top in terms of total bandwidth).

DisplayPort 2.0 Under the Hood: Thunderbolt 3, UHBR, & Passive Cables

Diving a bit deeper into today’s announcement, let’s talk about the DisplayPort 2.0 physical layer. For the last half decade or so, VESA members have commented here and there about where the standard might go in the future, and what direction the physical ports would take. Developing the next generation of high bandwidth external interfaces only gets harder and more expensive with each generation, which has increasingly caused the various standard bodies to coalesce around a handful of physical layers and data transmission technologies. At the same time, the physical DisplayPort, which was designed over a decade ago, wasn’t originally designed to scale up to the amount of bandwidth DisplayPort 2. 0 will be pushing. As a result every option has been on the table to some degree, including disregarding most of the DisplayPort standard, DisplayPort and all.

The end result then is an interesting compromise, and importantly, one that delivers more bandwidth while retaining backwards compatibility with existing DisplayPort gear. The DisplayPort itself is staying: it and the USB-C connector (via DP alt mode) are both official ports for the new DisplayPort 2.0 standard. And because of this, the number of pins and resulting high speed data lanes is remaining unchanged as well, with DisplayPort continuing to operate over 4 lanes. Finally, the DisplayPort 2.0 standard also retains the technology’s packet-based approach to communications, which means that image data continues to be sent as packets over a fixed bandwidth link, as opposed to pixel-centric pixel clock approaches.

So what has changed to enable DisplayPort 2.0? While the titular DisplayPort itself has stayed, the rest of the physical layer has been almost entirely replaced… with Thunderbolt 3.

Rather than attempting to reinvent the wheel, for DisplayPort 2.0 VESA decided to take advantage of Intel’s existing Thunderbolt 3 technology, which already hits the data rates that VESA was looking for. While initially a proprietary Intel technology, Intel released the technology to the wider industry as a royalty-free standard earlier this year. This allowed third parties to not only create pure Thunderbolt 3 devices without paying Intel, but also allowed Thunderbolt 3 technology to be repurposed for other standards. So whereas USB4 is a more straightforward rebranding of Thunderbolt 3, for DisplayPort 2.0 takes it in a different direction by essentially creating a one-way Thunderbolt 3 connection.

Under the hood, Thunderbolt 3 operates fairly similarly to DisplayPort, with 4 high-speed each lanes carrying packets of information at 20 Gbps. However while TB3 is a true bi-directional, full-duplex link with 2 lanes allocated for each direction, DisplayPort is focused on sending large volumes of data in just one direction: out. As a result, DisplayPort 2.0 reverses the two inbound lanes to outbound lanes, allowing the four total lanes to be combined into a single 80 Gbps link.

Thunderbolt 3 vs. DisplayPort 2.0
  Thunderbolt 3 DisplayPort 2.0
Max Cable Bandwidth 80Gbps 80Gbps
Max Channel Bandwidth 40Gbps

(Full Duplex, Bidirectional)

(Simplex, Unidirectional)
Physical Layer Thunderbolt 3 Thunderbolt 3
DisplayPort 2x DP 1. 4 Streams 1x DP 2.0 Streams
Passive Cable Option Yes (20Gbps) Yes (40Gbps)
Interface Port USB Type-C DisplayPort

USB Type-C

Speaking of the link itself, the move to Thunderbolt 3 technology also means that DisplayPort inherits Thunderbolt 3’s signal encoding scheme. Whereas DisplayPort 1.x has always used relatively inefficient 8/10b encoding – resulting in 20% overhead – DisplayPort 2.0 will offer 128/132b encoding, which has just 3% overhead. This is why the practical bandwidth gains for DisplayPort 2.0 are more than just the raw bandwidth gains; the standard doesn’t just get more bandwidth, but it uses it more efficiently. Consequently, at its highest data rate, DisplayPort 2.0 will be able to offer 77.37 Gbps of bandwidth.

But what of cables? Here’s where things get a bit trickier, both for VESA and for users. Thunderbolt 3 pushed the limits of copper cabling, and as a result for all but the shortest runs it requires active cabling, with transceivers at each end of a cable. While effective, this drove up the cost of Thunderbolt 3 cables versus relatively cheap all-copper commodity USB 3 and DisplayPort 1.x cables. By using Thunderbolt 3 as the basis of their new standard, VESA has inherited the cable technology limits of the standard as well.

The answer to the cable question then is that VESA hasn’t really answered it. Instead, they’re focusing on what they can do now with passive cables. All told, the DisplayPort 2.0 actually introduces not one, but three new data rates: 10 Gbps per lane, 13.5 Gbps per lane, and 20 Gbps per lane. Dubbed Ultra High Bit Rate (UHBR), the for free-standing monitors VESA right now is focusing on 10 Gbps per lane (UHBR 10), which will deliver a total of 40 Gbps of bandwidth.

At just half the data rate of full-fat DisplayPort 2.0 (and Thunderbolt 3), UHBR 10 is resilient enough that it can operate over standard passive copper cabling, and cables should have little issue reaching 2-3 meters. VESA has actually been preparing for this for some time now, and UHBR 10 aligns with their previously-launched DisplayPort 8K cable certification program; 8K-certified cables will be able to meet the signal integrity requirements for UHBR 10.

DisplayPort 2.0: UHBR Modes
Standard Raw Effective Cable
UHBR 10 40 Gbps 38.69 Gbps Passive Copper
UHBR 13. 5 54 Gbps 52.22 Gbps Tethered
UHBR 20 80 Gbps 77.37 Gbps Tethered

Past that, however, VESA isn’t currently exploring (or at least not focused on) passive cables for the higher bitrate modes. Instead, the group envisions UHBR 13.5 and UHBR 20 being tethered setups: manufacturers would ship devices with an appropriate port/cable already attached. These can potentially be passive cables for very short runs (think laptop docks), or integrated active cables for longer runs. I should note that the group hasn’t closed the door entirely to more traditional passive cable setups for these higher bitrates, but at least for the moment the group doesn’t see very many non-tethered use cases coming to market in the near future.

Tangentially, here, there is one more signal-related changed to the DisplayPort standard. Forward Error Correction (FEC), which was introduced to DisplayPort 1.4 as part of the Display Stream Compression (DSC) standard, is now a core part of DisplayPort 2.0. So on a 2.0 link, FEC will be in use at all times, reflecting the challenge in getting these high speed interfaces to constantly transmit data in an error-free manner.

DisplayPort 2.0 Features: Mandatory DSC, Branch Devices, & Panel Replay

Shifting gears, along with the significant physical layer changes being introduced in DisplayPort 2.0, the standard is also introducing some much more modest feature changes.

First and foremost, Display Stream Compression support is now mandatory for DisplayPort 2.0 devices. Previously introduced as part of DisplayPort 1.4 – and not really hammered out entirely until a couple of years after that – DSC is the group’s standard for “visually lossless” image compression. Operating on small groups of pixels, DSC offers modest compression ratios of around 3:1, with the goal of compressing images just enough to save power and bandwidth without introducing visual artifacts and without adding significant latency.

At any rate, starting with DisplayPort 2.0, DSC is now a core part of the DisplayPort standard. To be clear, 2.0 devices do not have to use DSC – the preference is clearly towards uncompressed images when the bandwidth allows for it – however 2.0 devices must be able to encode, pass, and decode DSC compressed data. This will, over time, lay the groundwork for manufacturers to develop and release monitors that require DSC (at least in certain modes), as they’ll be able to sell monitors knowing that all 2.0 devices can drive them.

Speaking of efficiency, the DisplayPort 2.0 standard is also introducing another vendor-optional feature focused on power efficiency, and that’s Panel Replay. Derived from earlier Panel Self Refresh technologies that are part of the embedded DisplayPort standard, Panel Replay is a partial self-update mechanism that allows a system to only transmit and update the portion of an image that has changed since the previous video frame. Like PSR in eDP, this feature is primarily intended for laptops and other mobile devices, where power consumption and the resulting impact to battery runtimes are important qualities. Transmitting less data reduces not only the amount of energy used chauffeuring bits around, but it also reduces the amount of processing required in a display controller.

Last but not least, DisplayPort 2.0 is also updating how “branch devices” work in the standard. Essentially the splitters in a Multi Stream Transport setup, DisplayPort 1.x required that the branch device be capable of decoding a DisplayPort bitstream, which is not an easy feat with 20 Gbps+ of data. So instead, for 2.0, branch devices are being simplified some, and now will just be able to forward data rather than having to decode it. This should make MST (and daisy chaining) a bit easier to implement overall, as branch devices won’t need to be as complex.

On a final note, ahead of today’s specification release I also asked about the state of variable refresh support on DisplayPort. VESA Adaptive Sync is an optional feature for monitors under DisplayPort 1.x, and it will remain so under DisplayPort 2.0. So manufacturers can continue adding it as a useful feature for their monitors, but there are no plans to make it mandatory.

Coming In Late 2020

Wrapping things up, the latest version of the DisplayPort standard is easily the biggest update to the PC display standard since it launched in 2007. By replacing the DisplayPort physical layer with Thunderbolt 3, VESA has greatly increased DisplayPort’s bandwidth potential, laying the groundwork for 8K monitors and beyond. This update doesn’t come for free, and VESA’s member companies will have to tackle the same kind of high-bandwidth cabling issues that Thunderbolt 3 itself had to address over the last few years, but ultimately it’s a situation that gives the display standard a major shot in the arm in terms of bandwidth, while pushing the PC industry ever so closer towards using a handful of common standards for all high bandwidth I/O.

As for the first retail products, the good news is that this will show up sooner than later. Because the new standard is based on the Thunderbolt 3 physical layer, member companies can hit the ground running on development and testing. As a result, VESA expects the first retail devices to show up in the latter part of 2020, less than 18 months from now.


DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2: What’s the difference?

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While living room gaming consoles, Blu-ray players, and HTPCs most often use the humble HDMI connection for their video and audio transmission needs, high-end desktop PCs have been using something different. DisplayPort is a much more capable cable type that has been the connection of choice for high-end monitors and graphics cards for years.

Even DisplayPort 1.2, originally released in 2010, offers more bandwidth than all but the latest of HDMI standards. DisplayPort 1.4 is a much more capable standard, with limited competition from even the latest and greatest.

That doesn’t mean DisplayPort 1.2 is bad though. In fact, in the battle of DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2, you might be surprised how competitive it is.

The raw data

At the heart of every high-end cable standards are some numbers that dictate just what it’s capable of. DisplayPort cables have offered broad and impressive bandwidth for data transmission since their first iteration, and that’s only improved in successive generations. When it comes to DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2, the newer standard is more capable, but DisplayPort 1.2 is still impressive.

DisplayPort 1.2 offers a maximum total bandwidth of 21.6 Gbps over its four lanes, and a maximum total data rate of 17.28 Gbps. In comparison, DisplayPort 1.4 has the same four-lane structure, but expands the maximum total bandwidth to 32.40 Gbps, and maximum total data rate to 25.92 Gbps.

These figures are identical to those of DisplayPort 1. 3, because DisplayPort 1.4 was more of a feature update than a physical change to the cable or design. However, it did integrate Display Stream Compression (DSC) 1.2, a lossless compression format that opens up a wider range of resolutions and refresh rates than its bandwidth might otherwise allow.

So, who comes out on top when we pit DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2? DisplayPort 1.4, by a noticeable margin.

Resolutions, refresh rates, and more

As much as raw numbers can look impressive on a spec sheet, what they mean in the real world is access to higher refresh rates and resolutions. DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2 is a battle of features, yes, but it’s also a head-to-head competition of what videos and games the cables can actually support.

When it was introduced in 2010, DisplayPort 1.2 heralded in a new era of high-end data transmission, with support for features like adaptive synchronization and panel-self-refresh. But it also improved the standard’s resolution and refresh rate support, opening up the option of 5K resolution at up to 30Hz, 4K at up to 75Hz, and 1080p at up to 240Hz – previously impossible standards for the DisplayPort connection to reach.

DisplayPort 1.4, however, takes things a much greater step further. It supports 1440p resolution at up to 240Hz, and even 4K at up to 120Hz. Like DisplayPort 1.3, it also supports 5K resolution at up to 60Hz, and even 8K resolution at 30Hz.

And that’s without even factoring in its support of DSC 1.2. DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2 is a blowout without even considering compression technologies, but with DisplayPort 1.4’s support of DSC 1.2 it is even more capable. With DSC enabled it can handle 4K at 60Hz with 30bit/px color and HDR, and even 8K at up to 60Hz.

DisplayPort 1.4 cables are entirely backward compatible with older DisplayPort devices too, whether you’re using a full size or Mini DisplayPort connection. While there is some benefit to buying a device that supports the DisplayPort 1.4 standard over DisplayPort 1.2, if you’re comparing DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2 cables, there’s little reason to consider the older alternative.

Which DisplayPort Cables to Buy?

With all the improvements in DisplayPort 1. 4, it wins hands down. If you are in the market for a DisplayPort cable, you should choose a quality DisplayPort 1.4 cable from a company like Cable Matters. Even if your current equipment only supports DisplayPort 1.2, a quality DisplayPort 1.4 cable is still a great choice. It is backward compatible with your current equipment and may allow you to avoid replacing cables when you do decide to upgrade your hardware.

Cable Matters DisplayPort 1.4 Cable

Cable Matters Active DisplayPort 1.4 Extension Cable

Cable Matters Unidirectional Active DisplayPort 1.4 Cable

What’s next?

DisplayPort 1.4 has been the best high-end cable for years, especially if you bought it from Cable Matters where we can guarantee a high quality of anti-noise shielding and anti-corrosion protection on the connectors. But DisplayPort and competing standards are always evolving.

HDMI 2.1 is a more capable cable and as more devices support it, it is likely to become the new standard for A/V and gaming connectivity over the next few years. Especially with the launch of new consoles from Microsoft and Sony at the end of 2020. But DisplayPort 2.0 was recently ratified as a standard, and it looks set to reclaim the top spot for high-performance connections and cabling.

Right now, the DisplayPort 1.4 vs. 1.2 question is an important one, but in the near future, it’ll be DisplayPort 2.0 vs HDMI 2.1.

DisplayPort vs. HDMI: Which Is Better For Gaming?

(Image credit: Amazon)

The best gaming monitors are packed with features, but one aspect that often gets overlooked is the inclusion of DisplayPort vs. HDMI. What are the differences between the two ports and is using one for connecting to your system definitively better?

You might think it’s a simple matter of hooking up whatever cable comes with your monitor to your PC and calling it a day, but there are differences that can often mean a loss of refresh rate, color quality, or both if you’re not careful. Here’s what you need to know about DisplayPort vs. HDMI connections.

If you’re looking to buy a new PC monitor or buy a new graphics card (you can find recommendations on our Best Graphics Cards page), you’ll want to consider the capabilities of both sides of the connection — the video output of your graphics card and the video input on your display — before making any purchases. Our GPU Benchmarks hierarchy will tell you how the various graphics cards rank in terms of performance, but it doesn’t dig into the connectivity options, which is something we’ll cover here. 

The Major Display Connection Types 

From left to right: Composite, VGA, DVI, HDMI, and DisplayPort.  (Image credit: Shutterstock)

The latest display connectivity standards are DisplayPort and HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface). DisplayPort first appeared in 2006, while HDMI came out in 2002. Both are digital standards, meaning all the data about the pixels on your screen is represented as 0s and 1s as it zips across your cable, and it’s up to the display to convert that digital information into an image on your screen.

Earlier monitors used DVI (Digital Visual Interface) connectors, and going back even further we had VGA (Video Graphics Array) — along with component RGB, S-Video, composite video, EGA and CGA. You don’t want to use VGA or any of those others in 2020, though. They’re old, meaning, any new GPU likely won’t even support the connector, and even if they did, you’d be using an analog that’s prone to interference. Yuck.

DVI is the bare minimum you want to use today, and even that has limitations. It has a lot in common with early HDMI, just without audio support. It works fine for gaming at 1080p, or 1440p resolution if you have a dual-link connection. Dual-link DVI-D is basically double the bandwidth of single-link DVI-D via extra pins and wires, and most modern GPUs with a DVI port support dual-link.

If you’re wondering about Thunderbolt 2/3, it actually just routes DisplayPort over the Thunderbolt connection. Thunderbolt 2 supports DisplayPort 1. 2, and Thunderbolt 3 supports DisplayPort 1.4 video. It’s also possible to route HDMI 2.0 over Thunderbolt 3 with the right hardware.

For newer displays it’s best to go with DisplayPort or HDMI. But is there a clear winner between the two?

Modern GPU with 2x DP and 2x HDMI ports. (Image credit: Future)

DisplayPort vs. HDMI: Specs and Resolutions 

Not all DisplayPort and HDMI ports are created equal. The DisplayPort and HDMI standards are backward compatible, meaning you can plug in an HDTV from the mid-00s and it should still work with a brand new RTX 20-series or RX 5000-series graphics card. However, the connection between your display and graphics card will end up using the best option supported by both the sending and receiving ends of the connection. That might mean the best 4K gaming monitor with 144 Hz and HDR will end up running at 4K and 24 Hz on an older graphics card!

Here’s a quick overview of the major DisplayPort and HDMI revisions, their maximum signal rates and the GPU families that first added support for the standard.

DisplayPort vs. HDMI Specs
Max Transmission Rate Max Data Rate Resolution/Refresh Rate Support (24 bpp) GPU Introduction
DisplayPort Versions
1.0-1.1a 10.8 Gbps 8.64 Gbps 1080p @ 144 Hz AMD HD 3000 (R600)
4K @ 30 Hz Nvidia GeForce 9 (Tesla)
1.2-1.2a 21.6 Gbps 17.28 Gbps 1080p @ 240 Hz AMD HD 6000 (Northern Islands)
4K @ 75 Hz Nvidia GK100 (Kepler)
5K @ 30 Hz
1.3 32.4 Gbps 25.92 Gbps 1080p @ 360 Hz AMD RX 400 (Polaris)
4K @ 120 Hz Nvidia GM100 (Maxwell 1)
5K @ 60 Hz
8K @ 30 Hz
1. 4-1.4a 32.4 Gbps 25.92 Gbps 8K @ 120 Hz w/ DSC AMD RX 400 (Polaris)
Nvidia GM200 (Maxwell 2)
2 80.0 Gbps 77.37 Gbps 4K @ 240 Hz Future GPUs
8K @ 85 Hz
HDMI Versions
1.0-1.2a 4.95 Gbps 3.96 Gbps 1080p @ 60 Hz AMD HD 2000 (R600)
Nvidia GeForce 9 (Tesla)
1.3-1.4b 10.2 Gbps 8.16 Gbps 1080p @ 144 Hz AMD HD 5000
1440p @ 75 Hz Nvidia GK100 (Kepler)
4K @ 30 Hz
4K 4:2:0 @ 60 Hz
2. 0-2.0b 18.0 Gbps 14.4 Gbps 1080p @ 240 Hz AMD RX 400 (Polaris)
4K @ 60 Hz Nvidia GM200 (Maxwell 2)
8K 4:2:0 @ 30 Hz
2.1 48.0 Gbps 42.6 Gbps 4K @ 144 Hz (240 Hz w/DSC) Partial 2.1 VRR on Nvidia Turing
8K @ 30 Hz (120 Hz w/DSC)

Note that there are two bandwidth columns: transmission rate and data rate. The DisplayPort and HDMI digital signals use bitrate encoding of some form — 8b/10b for most of the older standards, 16b/18b for HDMI 2.1, and 128b/132b for DisplayPort 2.0. 8b/10b encoding for example means for every 8 bits of data, 10 bits are actually transmitted, with the extra bits used to help maintain signal integrity (eg, by ensuring zero DC bias).

That means only 80% of the theoretical bandwidth is actually available for data use with 8b/10b. 16b/18b encoding improves that to 88.9% efficiency, while 128b/132b encoding yields 97% efficiency. There are still other considerations, like the auxiliary channel on HDMI, but that’s not a major factor. 

 Let’s Talk More About Bandwidth

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

To understand the above chart in context, we need to go deeper. What all digital connections — DisplayPort, HDMI and even DVI-D — end up coming down to is the required bandwidth. Every pixel on your display has three components: red, green and blue (RGB) — alternatively: luma, blue chroma difference and red chroma difference (YCbCr/YPbPr) can be used. Whatever your GPU renders internally (typically 16-bit floating point RGBA, where A is the alpha/transparency information), that data gets converted into a signal for your display.

The standard in the past has been 24-bit color, or 8 bits each for the red, green and blue color components. HDR and high color depth displays have bumped that to 10-bit color, with 12-bit and 16-bit options as well, though the latter two are mostly in the professional space right now. Generally speaking, display signals use either 24 bits per pixel (bpp) or 30 bpp, with the best HDR monitors opting for 30 bpp. Multiply the color depth by the number of pixels and the screen refresh rate and you get the minimum required bandwidth. We say ‘minimum’ because there are a bunch of other factors as well.

Display timings are relatively complex calculations. The VESA governing body defines the standards, and there’s even a handy spreadsheet that spits out the actual timings for a given resolution. A 1920×1080 monitor at a 60 Hz refresh rate, for example, uses 2,000 pixels per horizontal line and 1,111 lines once all the timing stuff is added. That’s because display blanking intervals need to be factored in. (These blanking intervals are partly a holdover from the analog CRT screen days, but the standards still include it even with digital displays.)

Using the VESA spreadsheet and running the calculations gives the following bandwidth requirements. Look at the following table and compare it with the first table; if the required data bandwidth is less than the max data rate that a standard supports, then the resolution can be used.

Common Resolution Bandwidth Requirements
Resolution Color Depth Refresh Rate (Hz) Required Data Bandwidth
1920 x 1080 8-bit 60 3.20 Gbps
1920 x 1080 10-bit 60 4.00 Gbps
1920 x 1080 8-bit 144 8.00 Gbps
1920 x 1080 10-bit 144 10.00 Gbps
2560 x 1440 8-bit 60 5.63 Gbps
2560 x 1440 10-bit 60 7.04 Gbps
2560 x 1440 8-bit 144 14.08 Gbps
2560 x 1440 10-bit 144 17.60 Gbps
3840 x 2160 8-bit 60 12.54 Gbps
3840 x 2160 10-bit 60 15.68 Gbps
3840 x 2160 8-bit 144 31.35 Gbps
3840 x 2160 10-bit 144 39. 19 Gbps

The above figures are all uncompressed signals, however. DisplayPort 1.4 added the option of Display Stream Compression 1.2a (DSC), which is also part of HDMI 2.1. In short, DSC helps overcome bandwidth limitations, which are becoming increasingly problematic as resolutions and refresh rates increase. For example, basic 24 bpp at 8K and 60 Hz needs 49.65 Gbps of data bandwidth, or 62.06 Gbps for 10 bpp HDR color. 8K 120 Hz 10 bpp HDR, a resolution that we’re likely to see more of in the future, needs 127.75 Gbps. Yikes!

DSC can provide up to a 3:1 compression ratio by converting to 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 YCgCo and using delta PCM encoding. It provides a «visually lossless» (or nearly so, depending on what you’re viewing) result, particularly for video (ie, movie) signals. Using DSC, 8K 120 Hz HDR is suddenly viable, with a bandwidth requirement of ‘only’ 42.58 Gbps.

Both HDMI and DisplayPort can also carry audio data, which requires bandwidth as well, though it’s a minuscule amount compared to the video data. DisplayPort and HDMI currently use a maximum of 36.86 Mbps for audio, or 0.037 Gbps if we keep things in the same units as video. Earlier versions of each standard can use even less data for audio.

That’s a lengthy introduction to a complex subject, but if you’ve ever wondered why the simple math (resolution * refresh rate * color depth) doesn’t match published specs, it’s because of all the timing standards, encoding, audio and more. Bandwidth isn’t the only factor, but in general, the standard with a higher maximum bandwidth is ‘better.’

DisplayPort: The PC Choice 

(Image credit: Monoprice)

Currently DisplayPort 1.4 is the most capable and readily available version of the DisplayPort standard. The DisplayPort 2.0 spec came out in June 2019, but there still aren’t any graphics cards or displays using the new version. We thought that would change with the launch of AMD’s ‘Big Navi’ (aka Navi 2x, aka RDNA 2) and Nvidia’s Ampere GPUs, but both stick with DisplayPort 1. 4a. DisplayPort 1.4 doesn’t have as much bandwidth available as HDMI 2.1, but it’s sufficient for up to 8K 60Hz with DPC, and HDMI 2.1 hardware isn’t really available for PCs yet.

One advantage of DisplayPort is that variable refresh rates (VRR) have been part of the standard since DisplayPort 1.2a. We also like the robust DisplayPort (but not mini-DisplayPort) connector, which has hooks that latch into place to keep cables secure. It’s a small thing, but we’ve definitely pulled loose more than a few HDMI cables by accident. DisplayPort can also connect multiple screens to a single port via Multi-Stream Transport (MST), and the DisplayPort signal can be piped over a USB Type-C connector that also supports MST.

One area where there has been some confusion is in regards to licensing and royaltees. DisplayPort was supposed to be a less expensive standard (at least, that’s how I recall it being proposed back in the day). But today, both HDMI and DisplayPort have various associated brands, trademarks, and patents that have to be licensed. With various associated technologies like HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection), DSC, and more, companies have to pay a royalty for DP just like HDMI. The current rate appears to be $0.20 per product with a DisplayPort interface , with a cap of $7 million per year. HDMI charges $0.15 per product, or $0.05 if the HDMI logo is used in promotional materials.

Because the standard has evolved over the years, not all DisplayPort cables will work properly at the latest speeds. The original Display 1.0-1.1a spec allowed for RBR (reduced bit rate) and HBR (high bit rate) cables, capable of 5.18 Gbps and 8.64 Gbps of data bandwidth, respectively. DisplayPort 1.2 introduced HBR2, doubled the maximum data bit rate to 17.28 Gbps and is compatible with standard HBR DisplayPort cables. HBR3 with DisplayPort 1.3-1.4a increased things again to 25.92 Gbps, and added the requirement of DP8K DisplayPort certified cables.

Finally, with DisplayPort 2.0 there are three new transmission modes: UHBR 10 (ultra high bit rate), UHBR 13. 5 and UHBR 20. The number refers to the bandwidth of each lane, and DisplayPort uses four lanes, so UHBR 10 offers up to 40 Gbps of transmission rate, UHBR 13.5 can do 54 Gbps and UHBR 20 peaks at 80 Gbps. All three UHBR standards are compatible with the same DP8K-certified cables, thankfully, and use 128b/132b encoding, meaning data bit rates of 38.69 Gbs, 52.22 Gbps, and 77.37 Gbps. 

Officially, the maximum length of a DisplayPort cable is up to 3m (9.;8 feet), which is one of the potential drawbacks, particularly for consumer electronics use. 

With a maximum data rate of 25.92 Gbps, DisplayPort 1.4 can handle 4K resolution 24-bit color at 98 Hz, and dropping to 4:2:2 YCbCr gets it to 144 Hz with HDR. Keep in mind that 4K HDR monitors running at 144 Hz still cost a premium, so gamers will more likely be looking at something like a 144Hz display at 1440p. That only requires 14;08 Gbps for 24-bit color or 17.60 Gbps for 30-bit HDR, which DP 1.4 can easily handle.

If you’re wondering about 8K content in the future, the reality is that even though it’s doable right now via DSC and DisplayPort 1. 4a, the displays and PC hardware needed to drive such displays aren’t generally within reach of consumer budgets. (GeForce RTX 3090 may change that, but it seems as though HDMI 2.1 will be the way to go there.) By the time 8K becomes a viable resolution, we’ll have gone through a couple of more generations of GPUs.

HDMI: Ubiquitous Consumer Electronics 

(Image credit: HDMI.org)

Updates to HDMI have kept the standard relevant for over 16 years. The earliest versions of HDMI have become outdated, but later versions have increased bandwidth and features. 

HDMI 2.0b and earlier are ‘worse’ in some ways compared to DisplayPort 1.4, but if you’re not trying to run at extremely high resolutions or refresh rates, you probably won’t notice the difference. Full 24-bit RGB color at 4K 60 Hz has been available since HDMI 2.0 released in 2013, and higher resolutions and/or refresh rates are possible with 4:2:0 YCbCr output — though you generally don’t want to use that with PC text, as it can make the edges look fuzzy.

For AMD FreeSync users, HDMI has also supported VRR via an AMD extension since 2.0b, but HDMI 2.1 is where VRR became part of the official standard. So far, only Nvidia has support for HDMI 2.1 VRR on its Turing and upcoming Ampere GPUs, which is used on LG’s 2019 OLED TVs. That will likely change once AMD’s ‘Big Navi’ GPUs are released, and we expect full HDMI 2.1 support from Nvidia’s Ampere GPUs as well. If you own a Turing or earlier generation Nvidia GPU, outside of specific scenarios like the LG TVs, you’re generally better off using DisplayPort for the time being.

One major advantage of HDMI is that it’s ubiquitous. Millions of devices with HDMI shipped in 2004 when the standard was young, and it’s now found everywhere. These days, consumer electronics devices like TVs often include support for three or more HDMI ports. What’s more, TVs and consumer electronics hardware has already started shipping HDMI 2.1 devices, even though no PC graphics cards support the full 2. 1 spec yet. (The GeForce RTX 3070 and above have at least one HDMI 2.1 port.)

HDMI cable requirements have changed over time, just like DisplayPort. One of the big advantages is that high quality HDMI cables can be up to 15m (49.2 feet) in length — five times longer than DisplayPort. That may not be important for a display sitting on your desk, but it can definitely matter for home theater use. Originally, HDMI had two categories of cables: category 1 or standard HDMI cables are intended for lower resolutions and/or shorter runs, and category 2 or “High Speed” HDMI cables are capable of 1080p at 60 Hz and 4K at 30 Hz with lengths of up to 15m.

More recently, HDMI 2.0 introduced “Premium High Speed” cables certified to meet the 18 Gbps bit rate, and HDMI 2.1 has created a fourth class of cable, “Ultra High Speed” HDMI that can handle up to 48 Gbps. HDMI also provides for routing Ethernet signals over the HDMI cable, though this is rarely used in the PC space.

We mentioned licensing fees earlier, and while HDMI Technology doesn’t explicitly state the cost, this website details the various HDMI licencing fees as of 2014. The short summary: for a high volume business making a lot of cables or devices, it’s $10,000 annually, and $0.05 per HDMI port provided HDCP (High Definition Content Protection) is used and the HDMI logo is displayed in marketing material. In other words, the cost to end users is easily absorbed in most cases — unless some bean counter comes down with a case of extreme penny pinching.

Like DisplayPort, HDMI also supports HDCP to protect the content from being copied. That’s a separate licensing fee, naturally (though it reduces the HDMI fee). HDMI has supported HDCP since the beginning, starting at HDCP 1.1 and reaching HDCP 2.2 with HDMI 2.0. HDCP can cause issues with longer cables, and ultimately it appears to annoy consumers more than the pirates. At present, known hacks / workarounds to strip HDCP 2.2 from video signals can be found.

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

We’ve covered the technical details of DisplayPort and HDMI, but which one is actually better for gaming? Some of that will depend on the hardware you already own or intend to purchase. Both standards are capable of delivering a good gaming experience, but if you want a great gaming experience, right now DisplayPort 1.4 is generally better than HDMI 2.0, HDMI 2.1 technically beats DP 1.4, and DisplayPort 2.0 should trump HDMI 2.1. The problem is, you’ll need to buy a TV rather than a monitor to get HDMI 2.1 right now, and we’re not sure when DP 2.0 hardware will start shipping (RTX 40-series maybe).

For Nvidia gamers, your best option right now is a DisplayPort 1.4 connection to a G-Sync display. If you buy a new GeForce RTX 30-series card, however, HDMI 2.1 might be better (and it will probably be required if you want to connect your PC to a TV). Again, the only G-Sync Compatible displays out now with HDMI 2.1 are TVs. Unless you’re planning on gaming on the big screen in the living room, you’re better off with DisplayPort right now. Ampere supports HDMI 2.1 but sticks with DP 1.4, and G-Sync PC monitors are likely to continue prioritizing DisplayPort.

AMD gamers may have a few more options, as there are inexpensive FreeSync monitors with HDMI available. However, DisplayPort is still the preferred standard for PC monitors. It’s easier to find a display that can do 144 Hz over DisplayPort with FreeSync, where a lot of HDMI FreeSync displays only work at lower resolutions or refresh rates. HDMI 2.1 meanwhile is only supported on the latest RX 6000-series GPUs, but DisplayPort 2.0 support apparently won’t be coming for at least one more generation of GPUs.

What if you already have a monitor that isn’t running at higher refresh rates or doesn’t have G-Sync or FreeSync capability, and it has both HDMI and DisplayPort inputs? Assuming your graphics card also supports both connections (and it probably does if it’s a card made in the past five years), in many instances the choice of connection won’t really matter.

2560×1440 at a fixed 144 Hz refresh rate and 24-bit color works just fine on DisplayPort 1.2 or higher, as well as HDMI 2. 0 or higher. Anything lower than that will also work without trouble on either connection type. About the only caveat is that sometimes HDMI connections on a monitor will default to a limited RGB range, but you can correct that in the AMD or Nvidia display options. (This is because old TV standards used a limited color range, and some modern displays still think that’s a good idea. News flash: it’s not.)

Other use cases might push you toward DisplayPort as well, like if you want to use MST to have multiple displays daisy chained from a single port. That’s not a very common scenario, but DisplayPort does make it possible. Home theater use on the other hand continues to prefer HDMI, and the auxiliary channel can improve universal remote compatibility. If you’re hooking up your PC to a TV, HDMI is usually required, as there aren’t many TVs that have a DisplayPort input (BFGDs like the HP Omen X being one of the few — very expensive! — exceptions).

Ultimately, while there are specs advantages to DisplayPort, and some features on HDMI that can make it a better choice for consumer electronics use, the two standards end up overlapping in many areas. The VESA standards group in charge of DisplayPort has its eyes on PC adoption growth, whereas HDMI is defined by a consumer electronics consortium and thinks about TVs first. But DisplayPort and HDMI end up with similar capabilities. You can do 4K at 60 Hz on both standards without DSC, so it’s only 8K or 4K at refresh rates above 60 Hz where you actually run into limitations on recent GPUs.

Jarred Walton is a senior editor at Tom’s Hardware focusing on everything GPU. He has been working as a tech journalist since 2004, writing for AnandTech, Maximum PC, and PC Gamer. From the first S3 Virge ‘3D decelerators’ to today’s GPUs, Jarred keeps up with all the latest graphics trends and is the one to ask about game performance.




HDMI vs. DisplayPort: Which Should I Use for My PC Monitor?

Which monitor is right for your computer? There are many factors to consider before making a purchase, but a big one is port availability. Different ports have different capabilities and compatibilities, so take a look at the back of your PC to see what you’re working with.

If you’re looking to plug a new monitor into your gaming computer, you’ll probably notice two ports that look remarkably similar. There will be HDMI and DisplayPort ports to choose from, but what’s the difference between the two, and does it really matter which one you use?

(Photo: Whitson Gordon)

The answer, as always, is «it depends.» What are you looking to do? For instance, you will have different needs depending on if you’re gaming, photo editing, or just looking to hook your Mac up to something that works. Even if your monitor supports both connections, it may only support certain versions of each, which determines what resolution, refresh rate, and other features it can handle. Here’s what you need to know.

*Deals are selected by our partner, TechBargains(Opens in a new window)

HDMI: For PC and TV

Photo: Whitson Gordon

Let’s start by talking about HDMI, the standard with which you’re probably most familiar. HDMI is most commonly used on TVs, sending high-definition video and audio signals over one cable for an easy, clean setup. There have been multiple versions of HDMI, each improving on the last. On modern monitors, you’ll find any combination of the following ports:

  • HDMI 1.4: Supports up to 4K (4,096 by 2,160) at 24Hz, 4K (3,840 by 2,160) at 30Hz, or 1080p at 120Hz.

  • HDMI 2.0: Supports up to 4K at 60Hz, and later versions (HDMI 2.0a and 2.0b) include support for HDR.

  • HDMI 2.1: Supports up to 10K resolution at 120Hz, as well as improved HDR with dynamic metadata and enhanced Audio Return Channel (eARC) which allows sending Dolby Atmos and DTS:X audio from the display to a receiver. It also includes variable refresh rate (VRR) like FreeSync in the standard, though there are plenty of HDMI 2.0 monitors that also support the feature.

These are somewhat simplified explanations of each HDMI version, as there are other feature improvements in each standard, but they’re the things most PC users will care about. If you want to take full advantage of those specifications, you’ll also need an HDMI cable capable of the correct bandwidth.

For example, if you’re running 4K at 60Hz with HDR, you’ll want a cable labeled Premium High Speed(Opens in a new window) or 18Gbps (or better). For 8K at high refresh rates, you may need even more bandwidth, so check the description and reviews of any cable you plan to buy. 

Lower-spec cables(Opens in a new window) may still work under certain circumstances, but can be finicky, adding “snow” to the image or not routing your surround sound audio properly. If you ever experience issues, check the cable—you may find it isn’t up to snuff.

In addition to the above, all modern HDMI ports should support AMD’s FreeSync technology, which eliminates screen tearing in games by matching the monitor’s refresh rate to your video card’s output framerate (with newer HDMI versions supporting FreeSync at higher refresh rates). Nvidia’s similar G-Sync technology, however, does not always work over HDMI—on many monitors, it’s DisplayPort-only.

DisplayPort: For PC

(Photo: Whitson Gordon)

DisplayPort looks similar to HDMI but is a connector more common on PCs than TVs. It still allows for high-definition video and (in many cases) audio, but its standards are a bit different. On modern monitors, you’ll likely find any of the following:

  • DisplayPort 1.2: Supports up to 4K at 60Hz, some 1.2a ports may also support AMD’s FreeSync

  • DisplayPort 1.3: Supports up to 4K at 120Hz or 8K at 30Hz

  • DisplayPort 1.4: Supports up to 8K at 60Hz and HDR

  • DisplayPort 2.0: Supports 16K with HDR at 60Hz and 10K without HDR at 80Hz

When shopping for a DisplayPort cable, I recommend picking one from DisplayPort’s certified cables list(Opens in a new window) to ensure it performs as advertised.

In addition, DisplayPort has a few other useful features. First, it supports AMD’s FreeSync and Nvidia’s G-Sync, so you can have a tear-free gaming experience no matter which brand of card you use (as long as your monitor supports the technology, of course).  

You can also drive multiple monitors(Opens in a new window) from one DisplayPort connection, rather than having to use multiple ports, which is handy. Laptops can even send DisplayPort signals through a USB-C port. Many DisplayPort cables also have clips to keep them securely in your monitor, which is both a pro and a con because they can sometimes be tough to get out!

Which Cable Should You Choose?

One cable is not necessarily better than the other across the board, but each does have its place. If you have the choice between DisplayPort 1.4 and HDMI 2.0, DisplayPort would be the better option. In other cases, if a monitor only gives you the choice between, say, HDMI 2.0 and DisplayPort 1.2, HDMI could be the way to go for the HDR support, as long as all your devices support the HDMI version in question.

And there’s the final rub: which port you choose depends on the capabilities of both your monitor and your video card. If you’re looking to use the features of HDMI 2. 1, for example, you need a monitor with an HDMI 2.1 port and a video card with an HDMI 2.1 port—if one of them is running HDMI 2.0, you won’t be able to take advantage of those newer features.

The best choice you can make is what’s best for your particular setup. Check every link in the chain before you buy a cable, so you can pick the best combination for optimal performance.

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What is the DisplayPort port


Robert Sole Follow on Twitter Send an email September 4, 2019

1 42. 465 5 reading minutes

Today we are going to continue with the series of articles on video connectors that we can find in the vast majority of our devices. The next thing we’re going to touch on is the DisplayPort. Although the HDMI is the most common of the three, the DisplayPort is entering the market with force and possibly, the ones that have most opted for this connector are Apple and AMD.

iVANKY 4K DisplayPort Cable, [VESA Certified] [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], Nylon Braided, 144Gbps High Speed ​​21.6Hz Displayport Cable 3D Compatible, Gaming, 144Hz Monitor — 2M

  • ✔️【Designed for Gaming】: Displayport 1.2 cable with 165Hz refresh rate provides super smooth gaming experience in First Person Shooter (FPS) and Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games. It also fully works with FreeSync and G-Sync.
  • ✔️【Immersive 4K Video & Audio】: UltraHD 4K @ 60Hz offers higher resolution and detail compared to Full HD (1080p). Supports UHD 4K (3840×2160 @ 60Hz), 2K (2560×1440 @ 165Hz), 3D Surround, DTS-HD and Dolby Audio, providing a cinematic experience for home entertainment or gaming.
  • ✔️ 【VESA Certified】 It also meets the high standards of the DisplayPort 1.2 standard guidelines and is officially certified by VESA. Since pin # 20 is not used (according to VESA specification), there is no risk of short circuits.
  • ✔️ 【Quality Assurance】: Before leaving the factory, all cables have passed more than 15.000 plug and unplug tests. Superior 28AWG copper and 24K gold connectors ensure flawless video. No dropouts, no random flashes, no white dots, and Plug & Play.
  • ✔️【For office, home and entertainment】: So you can work comfortably at home. Connect your desktop/laptop to HD TV, monitor, display, gaming graphics card to get high definition video and ultra clear audio. Easily create a desktop extension or mirror screen. Backwards compatible with the DP1.2/1.1/1.1a standard.


This connector has been developed by the Association for Electronic Video Standards (VESA). VESA was born in 1988 by the company NEC Corporation and they are in charge of several connectors that have been standardized, but in addition, they are also the ones that make the standards for monitor mounts, called Flat Display Mounting Interface. Compact computers such as the Intel NUC often refer to VESA because they can be installed behind monitors with attachments. Wall fittings also include this rating.

Regarding the DisplayPort, we have that this connector is a free license and without guns. This standard is intended for the transmission of video from the computer to the monitor. Not only does it support video streaming, it also enables audio streaming for home entertainment systems, and it also supports sending data, just like a USB port.

General features

Currently this cable competes directly with the HDMI, in addition to also having an option system against copying called DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP). The company that first opted for this connector was AMD, who began to introduce it in 2007 in its products. Not only AMD has made a strong commitment to this connector, there are also very important companies that have added this connector to their products, such as AMD, Intel, Dell, Lenovo, Molex, NVIDIA, Apple, Samsung or Philips, as the most representative.


DisplayPort 1.0

It came to the market as a great high-performance solution offering a maximum data transmission speed of 10.8Gb / s and supporting a resolution of 1440p @ 60Hz (2560 × 1440) for high-resolution and performance monitors. This connector is 8B / 10B encoded for data transmission. Supports 6-bit, 8-bit, 10-bit, 12-bit, and 16-bit colors per component.

Regarding the bandwidth of this connector, the maximum resolutions are limited to three meters of cable length and admits a maximum of fifteen meters, yes, greatly reducing the resolution to 1080p. It not only supports DPCP, it also supports HDCP of HDMI in version 1.1 onwards.

DisplayPort 1.2

DisplayPort was revised in 2010, a few years after being implemented and has been to improve it a lot. The highlight is the data transmission, which has gone from 10.8Gb / s in the standard starts to double, with 21.6Gb / s thanks to High Bit Rate 2 (HBR2). Not only that, we have gone from a simple monitor to being able to use two monitors through a single cable with a maximum resolution of 2560 × 1600 pixels and supports up to four displays with a single cable and a resolution of 1920 × 1200 pixels.

Video and audio transmission through multiple channels has also been added, adding to this using high definition formats such as DTS HD, Dolby MAT and BD formats. This new connector offers 3D video support, this being the emission of double the frames for HD3D screens with a maximum of 240fps in 1080p resolution. This means that we can connect a 3D monitor with a maximum resolution of 2560 × 1600 pixels working at 120Hz. It also allows data transfer, such as USB ports, with a bandwidth of 720Mbps.

DisplayPort 1.3

This connector was revised in September 2014 and significant improvements were added to it. This connector had a bandwidth of 32.4Gbps, thanks to the HBR3 mode that allows transporting 8.1Gbps per lane. This allows this connector to support 4K UHD @ 120Hz, 5K @ 60Hz, and up to 8K UHD @ 30Hz. Thanks to MST technology, it allows watching video on two 4K UHD @ 60Hz screens and up to four WQXGA @ 60Hz screens. It also has support for DVI and HDMI 2.0

DisplayPort 1.4

It has been introduced very recently, in March 2016. There are no variations in terms of data transfer speed, which is still 32.4Gbps. The novelty is that this update adds support for Display Stream Compression 1.2 (DSC), Forward Error Connection, HDR 10 with defined extension CTA-861.3. DSC technology is a ‘lossless’ encoding technology with a maximum 3: 1 compression ratio. By using DSC with HBR3, the resolutions it supports have been improved, with support for 8K UHD @ 60Hz and 4K UHD @ 120Hz.

DisplayPort 2.0

The new standard has been developed to provide support for 8K @ 60Hz resolutions with HDR and 30-bit panel color. It also supports 10K uncompressed resolutions with 24-bit panel color and up to 16K with image compression. It offers us a bandwidth of 80Gbps, although effective will be 77.4Gbps.

This port can be used for video or data transfer, since it is based on the Thunderbird 3.0 standard. So the DisplayPort USB Type-C format will allow video output and / or data transfer. It will not begin to be implemented until the end of 2020.

Supported resolutions:

  • A monitor
    • Resolution 16K (15360 x 8460) @ 60 Hz at 10 bits with 4: 4: 4 and HDR (with DSC)
    • Resolution 10K (10240 x 4320) @ 60 Hz at 8 bits with 4: 4: 4 (without DSC)
  • Two monitors
    • Resolution 8K (7680 x 4320) @ 120 Hz and 10 bits with 4: 4: 4 and HDR (with DSC)
    • 4K resolution (3840 x 2160) @ 144 Hz and 8-bit with 4: 4: 4 (without DSC)
  • Three monitors
    • Resolution 10K (10240 x 4320) @ 60 Hz at 10 bits with 4: 4: 4 and HDR (with DSC)
    • 4K resolution (3840 x 2160) @ 90 Hz at 10 bits with 4: 4: 4 and HDR (without DSC)

DisplayPort AltMode 2.


DisplayPort 2.0 port upgrade with sSupport for USB4 standard via physical USB Type-C connection. It should be noted that the USB4 standard will be based on the Thunderbolt 3 standard. It will have the same bandwidth as DisplayPort 2.0 and will support the same range of resolutions.

ANNNWZZD DisplayPort to DisplayPort Cable (v1.2), DP to DP Cable Supports [email protected] for PC or Laptop (3m)

  • The DP to DP cable transmits high definition video and audio simultaneously from any equipped DisplayPort to an advanced HDTV, monitor or projector. Flawless Audio Pass-thru for uncompressed digital 7.1, 5.1 or 2 channels.
  • Supports video resolutions up to 4K (3840 x 2160, Ultra HD) and 1080P (Full HD), and flawless pass-through audio for uncompressed 7.1, 5.1 or 2 digital channels
  • High performance, made of triple shielding, 28 AWG OFC copper and gold plated contacts to ensure interference-free signal transmission with a release button for easy and secure connection;
  • Nylon braided material and gold-plated connectors to ensure superior durability and functionality under heavy use. The high-quality aluminum housing effectively maximizes heat dissipation.
  • We offer 18 months warranty for this Displayport cable. Please don’t hesitate to contact us for a replacement if you have any quality issues within the warranty.

mini DisplayPort

Apple is the developer of this solution and made it for their laptops, especially. It was in 2008 and it is available in the Apple Cinema Display LED and in all Macintosh, such as MacBook, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, iMac, Mac mini, Mac Pro and Xserve. It was in 2009 when VESA accepted this connector and made it a standard within the DisplayPort specifications. Companies like Microsoft, Lenovo, Toshiba, HP and Dell have implemented these connectors in their laptops.

This new connector has a maximum resolution of 2560 × 1600 (WQXGA) and if this is mini DisplayPort in its revision 1.2 it supports 4K resolution. Not only that, this connector through an adapter can connect with VGA, DVI and HDMI displays. The rest of the parameters and characteristics are the same as the DisplayPort.


DisplayPort 1.0 10.8Gbps 8.64Gbps [email protected]
DisplayPort 1.2 21.6Gbps 17.28Gbps [email protected]
DisplayPort 1.3 32.4Gbps 25.92Gbps [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
DisplayPort 1.4 32.4Gbps 25.92Gbps [email protected]
[email protected]
8[email protected]
DisplayPort 2.0 80.0Gbps 77.4Gbps [email protected]
2x [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected] SDR
DisplayPort AltMode 2.0 80.0Gbps 77.4Gbps [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected] SDR


It is not yet one of the most used in the market, far from it, but it has great power and can be a substitute for HDMI. This connector has enough potential for Virtual Reality, which uses this connector mostly, due to the high bandwidth of the connector. 3D also benefits from this connector, as it supports a large data flow, improving the experience in this field. That it allows to transfer data is another important factor of this connector, although it is limited in this aspect because it is a flow similar to that of USB 2.0 ports, which are now obsolete by USB 2.0.

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Related publications

Changing the display refresh rate in Windows

Windows 11 Windows 10 More…Less

The display refresh rate is the number of times per second that the image on the screen is updated. For example, a 60Hz display refreshes the screen 60 times per second.

In general, the refresh rate determines how smoothly motion is displayed on the screen. For example, if you’re playing a game with a lot of fast action, a higher refresh rate can help improve the overall game experience to follow the action. A higher refresh will also help you get a better smooth motion experience when browsing the web or using a digital pen to write or draw.

A higher refresh rate can also reduce battery life because it uses more power. So if you’re using a laptop or tablet and want to save battery life, you can lower your refresh rate. However, it can also reduce the overall interface when using the device.

Update rate change

  1. Select options > « > » > «> «.

  2. Next to «Select update rate » select the course you want.
    The refresh rates displayed depend on your display and its support. Select laptops and external displays will support higher refresh rates.

Note: The word «dynamic» may appear next to some upgrade rates. The dynamic update rate automatically increases the refresh rate when inking and scrolling, and then slows down when you don’t. This saves battery life and provides a smoother experience.

Related Articles

  • View display options in Windows

  • Changing screen brightness in Windows

The display refresh rate is the number of times per second that the image on the screen is updated. For example, a 60Hz display refreshes the screen 60 times per second.

In general, the refresh rate determines how smoothly motion is displayed on the screen. For example, if you’re playing a game with a lot of fast action, a higher refresh rate can help improve the overall game experience to follow the action. A higher refresh will also help you get a better smooth motion experience when browsing the web or using a digital pen to write or draw.

A higher refresh rate can also reduce battery life as it uses more power. So if you’re using a laptop or tablet and want to save battery life, you can lower your refresh rate. However, it can also reduce the overall interface when using the device.

Update rate change

  1. Click the Start button, and then select Settings > system > display > advanced display settings .

  2. In the «Update frequency » section, select the desired tariff.
    The refresh rates displayed depend on your display and its support. Select laptops and external displays will support higher refresh rates.

Related Articles

  • View display settings in Windows 10

  • Change screen brightness in Windows 10

Servomill® UWF 5 Universal Milling Machine (without speed display) — Vertical Milling Machines

Servomill® UWF 5 Universal Milling Machine (without speed display) — Vertical Milling Machines — KNUTH

  • Technical details
  • Details
  • Standard equipment
  • Additional equipment
Working area
Table dimensions 1600 mm x 320 mm
Table load capacity 300 kg
T-slots, quantity 3 pcs.
T-slots, width 18 mm
T-slots, spacing 80 mm
Traverse X 1300 mm
Traverse, Y-axis 290 mm
Traverse, Z-axis 450 mm
Milling head
Spindle speed (2) 60-360 / 360-1800 rpm
Spindle taper ISO 50
Angle of rotation 360°
Top crosshead travel 550 mm
Distance spindle center/table 186 mm — 636 mm
Rapid traverse
Rapid traverse, X axis 5000 mm/min
Rapid traverse, Y axis 3000 mm/min
Rapid traverse, Z-axis 1500 mm/min
Horiz. milling spindle
Spindle speed (2) 60-360 / 360-1800 rpm
Spindle taper (horiz.) 50SK
Distance spindle center/table 10 mm — 460 mm
X feedrate 0 mm/min — 1000 mm/min
Y feedrate 0 mm/min — 1000 mm/min
Feedrate, Z axis 0 mm/min — 1000 mm/min
Engine power main. actuator 7.5 kW
Dimensions and weights
Dimensions (L x W x H) 2.52 m x 2.1 m x 2 m
Weight 2800 kg

Demonstration machine with traces of use

This machine is not equipped with a digital RPM indicator

  • Servomill machines are a new generation of traditional milling machines
  • They are characterized by greater ease of operation, significantly higher precision and increased processing efficiency
  • high reliability of all components used and their durability is essential reduce maintenance costs and thus guarantee a longer service life
  • stable frame made of extra strong ribbed gray cast iron HT-200
  • Precisely machined guides with hardened surface to maintain precision over a long service life
  • Smooth running, precision machined spindle boxes with hardened and ground gears excellent processing results with
    use of long milling mandrels
  • Servo-mechanical drives in all axes with stepless regulation and fast feed
  • Ball screws in all axes provide increased accuracy and reduced wear over a long service life

Servomill advantages

  • Control system designed and manufactured in Germany
  • machine control allows you to pass the selected feed rate in all axes
  • Ball screws with backlash-free pretensioning
  • Servo motors in all axes, infinitely variable feedrate, rapid traverse and speed control
  • electronic spindle load indicator
  • electronic handwheels in all axes
  • joystick feed switch in X, Y and Z axes
  • integrated digital readout with glass rulers

Your benefits:

                  and easy to understand functions
                • infinitely adjustable automatic feed in all axes
                • max. rapid traverse 5000 mm/min
                • all axes equipped with electronic push-button control for setting the end stops, 3 stop positions can be saved for each axis CNC controlled
                • Reliability: Drives, spindles and measuring system are reliably isolated from dirt and require almost no maintenance
                • electronic components — made in germany
                • load capacity: complete with high quality drive units designed for continuous production
                • maintenance: drive elements do not require regular maintenance
                • servo drives that transform handwheel movement with the precision and dynamics of CNC machines
                • reliable, maintenance-free high-volume technology
                • high rapid traverse speed reduces downtime
                • Ball screw drive in all axes:
                • reduced back lash results in a significant increase in accuracy
                • significant reduction in friction, no jerky movement, heating — low wear
                • Electronic handwheels:
                • micrometric control of electronic handwheels, at the level of touch and positioning, the same as conventional machines, but with easier running and increased accuracy
                • Joystick control:
                • high user-friendliness when feeding along the axes
                • easy to use when developing a sequence of operations
                • Electronically controlled fixed stops:
                • 3 x 2 end stop positions can be set on each axis at the push of a button — these switches are grouped Feed switch and intuitive operation
                • When jigging or pocket milling, high repeatability is achieved and significantly more positions can be set than on conventional machines
                • Electronic spindle load indicator:
                • helps the operator to use the productivity of the machine and tools
                • reliable indicator to avoid damage caused by overload

                X. pos Plus — take advantage of your productivity, quality and comfort

                • data entry coordinates
                • calculation of hole pattern diameter
                • vibration filter function
                • conversion mm/inch
                • 8-language display navigation
                • calculator
                • high-resolution display with clear images
                • high safety meets production conditions thanks to state of the art electronics and robust and fully insulated housing selection of electronic components that are not susceptible to external influences and with low temperature conditions
                • the display of background and text colors can be changed in accordance with the wishes of the operator
                • very robust and easy to use membrane keypad
                • equipped with a switch from radius to diameter
                • The same principle is also used for data backup
                • graphical support thanks to display of distance distance and drawing
                • linear and non-linear length correction possible
                • easy installation and easy electrical connection, virtually maintenance-free

                3-axis DRO
                electronic handwheels
                adapter sleeve (ISO 50 / MK4)
                milling arbors (27, 32 mm)
                ISO 50 collets with collets up to 16 mm (8 pcs. )
                chip tray
                pressure bar
                tool for service
                instruction manual

                Vibration-resistant support LK 5

                • Damper elements absorb shock and vibration
                • Creates a vibration-free operation of the machine
                • Centering the machine is done with the help of set bolts

                Vibration-resistant support LK 5
                Art.: 103331

                Vibration-resistant support LK 5

                • COMPOTIONS0026
                • 5 l. in 1 canister

                Dividing head ST 130
                Art.: 110960

                Dividing head ST 130

                • Peeping number 1:90, with division, POVOPOPOTO ONE 360 ° (vpychny)
                • MAXH COL
                • , 3 «
                • 6 shut , 24
                • Hardened and ground gear rims with 3-jaw chuck 160 mm or 200 mm

                Option kit / ST 130
                Art. : 110970

                Option kit / ST 130

                Workpieces can be clamped between the divider and the tailstock
                in a horizontal position.

                Retrofit to Universal Divider

                Functions of goniometer set for indirect dividing:

                • The spindle is positioned on several concentric circles by means of dividing discs to make holes
                • The so-called scissors — two arrows that rotate around the crankshaft — make it easy to position over several revolutions of the axis while maintaining the angles between the holes on the dividing disc
                • The user only has to control the total number of revolutions dividing disks,
                  higher precision due to the use of a transforming worm gear when rotating the spindle
                • Reliable clamping, independent of vibrations and shocks
                • Hydraulic clamping force booster

                Indexer / RT 160-320
                Art. : 125805

                Indexer / RT 160-320

                • For degrees and indirect divisions
                • All divisions can be made from 2-66, and from 68-132 all divisible by 2, 3 and 5 divisions

                Tailstock / RT 200/250
                Art.: 125820

              • The guide groove passes in the main vertical surface
              • It is possible to use the rotary table in vertical position

              Accuracy (max. Enlightenment):

              • Thin beaming of the desktop table 300: 0.015
              • Radio -based label of the desktop 0.015
              • 9009 9 work table surface in relation to the base surface 300 : 0.02

              • Clamping table taper bore radial run-out
              • Hole axis parallelism in relation to vert. fastening 0.03
              • Parallelism of the hole axis with respect to the groove in vert. fixing rep. 0.02
              • Parallelism between vert. fixing surface and the axis connecting the center of the cone with the center of the headstock 0. 02
              • Parallelism between vert. fixing surface and axis connecting centering centers 0.02
              • Graduation accuracy 45″

              Do you need help finding a machine?

              We are happy to help you make the right decision to achieve your business goals

              Service by KNUTH

              All equipment needs to be stopped from time to time. With our comprehensive service, training and installation plans, you will always get the best performance from your KNUTH equipment.

              View services

              See KNUTH machines in action

              Get an experience in one of our factories! Most of our equipment portfolio is always in stock and ready for immediate demonstration.

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              Desired delivery time*Short delivery time 3 to 6 months 6 to 12 months

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              Finding the power adapter for your Mac

              Find out which cable and power adapter comes with your Mac and how to check the power of an attached power adapter or display.

              If your Mac uses a USB-C port to charge, you can charge it using any USB-C power adapter or display. For optimal charging speed, use a power adapter or display that is at least the minimum wattage of the power adapter that came with your MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, or MacBook. Learn how to determine the wattage of a connected power adapter or display.

              MacBook Air

              The illustrations below show the types of adapters that come with each MacBook Air. If you’re not sure which model you have, learn how to identify your MacBook Air model.

              Apple 30W USB-C Power Adapter and USB-C Charging Cable

              • MacBook Air models introduced in 2018 or later

              45W MagSafe power adapter with MagSafe 2 connector

              • MacBook Air models introduced between 2012 and 2017

              45W MagSafe L-Slot Power Adapter

              • 13-inch MacBook Air models introduced between 2008 and 2011*
              • 11-inch MacBook Air models introduced between 2010 and 2011

              * The adapters included with MacBook Air (Original Model), MacBook Air (Late 2008), and MacBook Air (Mid 2009) are not recommended for use with MacBook Air (Late 2010). If possible, use an original or later model adapter for your computer.

              MacBook Pro

              The images below show the types of adapters that come with each MacBook Pro. If you’re not sure which model you have, learn how to identify your MacBook Pro model.

              Apple 96W USB-C Power Adapter and USB-C Charging Cable

              • 16-inch MacBook Pro models introduced in 2019

              Apple 61W USB-C Power Adapter and USB-C Charging Cable

              • MacBook Pro (13-inch 2016 and up)

              Apple 87W USB-C Power Adapter and USB-C Charging Cable

              • MacBook Pro (15-inch) models introduced in 2016 or later

              85W MagSafe Power Adapter with MagSafe 2 connector

              • MacBook Pro (15-inch) models introduced between 2012 and 2015

              60W MagSafe Power Adapter with MagSafe 2 connector

              • MacBook Pro (13-inch) models introduced between 2012 and 2015

              60W MagSafe L-Slot Power Adapter

              • MacBook Pro (13-inch) models introduced between 2010 and 2012

              85W MagSafe L-Slot Power Adapter

              • MacBook Pro (15-inch) models introduced between 2010 and 2012
              • 17-inch MacBook Pro models introduced between 2010 and 2011

              85W MagSafe T-Slot Power Adapter

              • MacBook Pro (15-inch) models introduced between 2006 and 2009
              • MacBook Pro (17-inch) models introduced between 2006 and 2009

              60W MagSafe T-Slot Power Adapter

              • MacBook Pro (13-inch) models introduced in 2009


              The images below show the types of adapters that ship with each MacBook. If you’re not sure which model you have, learn how to identify your MacBook model.

              Apple 29W or 30W USB-C Power Adapter and USB-C Charging Cable

              • MacBook models introduced in 2015 or later

              60W MagSafe L-Slot Power Adapter

              • MacBook models introduced between late 2009 and 2010

              60W MagSafe T-Slot Power Adapter

              • MacBook models introduced between 2006 and mid-2009

              Check for power

              To find out how much power your connected power adapter or display can provide, look at the rating label on the power adapter, or check the system information on your Mac.

              • Look for the label on the power adapter that says Wattage (W):
              • Hold down the Option key and choose Apple menu  > System Information, then choose Power Options. Find the power in the «AC Charger Information» section at the bottom of the page:

              If your Mac uses a USB-C port to charge, you can charge it using any USB-C power adapter or display. You can safely use a higher or lower power adapter or display than the one that came with your Mac. For optimal charging speed, use the cable and power adapter that came with your MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, or MacBook.

              Additional information

              Find out what to do if your MagSafe cable or power adapter isn’t working.

              If you have an older MagSafe adapter, you can use it with Macs equipped with MagSafe 2 ports using the MagSafe/MagSafe 2 adapter.

              The MagSafe/MagSafe 2 adapter is not compatible with MagSafe 3. 2022

              Instructions for the simulator computer. Description of parameters and functions of the display


              Site temporarily out of service


              explanations. Below we will try to reveal the values ​​​​of the main parameters of the computer.

              Speed ​​(Speed) — displays the current running (ride) speed in km/h or mph, depending on the «Distance» unit.
              Distance — distance traveled for the current workout. Some computers have the ability to switch the system of measurement «km — mile».
              Time (Time) — shows the elapsed time from the start of the workout to the current moment. This meter goes into «Pause» mode when you stop and resumes timing when you continue your workout.
              Calories — approximate value of energy expended. As a rule, calories burned depend on the distance traveled, this is how the computer is programmed, so the conventional value of calories burned is displayed.
              Pulse — heart rate measured by various methods: clip, cardio sensors, chest belt. It is not recommended to use for medical purposes due to the definition with a large margin of error. The most accurate heart rate measurement is carried out using a chest belt.
              Count (Count) — in simulators by the type of steppers, displays the number of steps taken.
              Odometer (Odometer) is a counter that summarizes the distance traveled over several activities. For example: in the morning 3 km. + day 7 km. + 5 km in the evening. = 15 km.

              RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) — the cadence of your cardio machine during exercise. RPM (revolutions per minute) is literally translated as «the number of revolutions per minute».
              Temp — is essentially the same function as RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) but is more commonly used to determine cadence (strokes) in mini steppers and rowing machines.
              Scan (Scan) — is a mode in which the computer alternately displays all the parameters on the display every 5 seconds. That is, if this mode is active (Scan appears on the display), the computer will display «Speed» first, after 5 seconds. «Time», after another 5 sec. «Distance», etc. in a circle.
              Watt (Watt) — displays the current resistance level. This indicator is used on ergometers, where the load is given in watts.
              Steps (Stride) — gives the number of steps taken during the entire workout on an elliptical or similar trainer.
              Strides/Min (Reps/Min) — See Temp.
              Total Count is the same principle as the Odometer, but it mainly sums up the steps.
              Program (Program) — allows you to train according to the set scenario. For example, interval programs on treadmills themselves change the speed after passing a certain distance (time). Depending on the type of training and the capabilities of the simulator, the program will simulate going uphill and downhill. AT pulse-dependent (T.H.R. or H.R.C.) programs, the computer will adjust the speed (load) so that the heart rate is within the specified pulse. The same principle in programs for power generation (Watts Workout) , — the ergometer changes the amount of load, or makes you pedal faster (slower) if the number of watts generated does not match the specified ones. In programs for weight loss (Weight Loss) , the type of training depends on the amount of calories burned.
              In more functional computers, you can create a training program yourself (mode User ), drawing interval-time diagrams of ascents and descents and changes in speed. But, even without pre-installed programs, most computers are equipped with the ability to set the parameters of the activity. So, you can set the distance, after which the computer will notify you about the end of the workout, time, calories, pulse, and other indicators. This target workout is set with computer buttons :

              Mode (MODE, ENTER) — the button is used to select one of the parameters that will later need to be set or changed. Also, holding this button often resets all previously set computer parameters.
              Enter (SET) — a button for setting the values ​​​​of the functions Time, Pulse, Distance, Calories, etc. In many computers, a combination of the «MORE» and «LESS» buttons is used instead.
              Up (UP) — changes the value of the previously selected function up.
              Less (DOWN) — reduces the value of the selected function accordingly.
              Reset (RESET) — button to reset the value of a function. It can also reset all computer settings if you hold it down for a while.
              Recovery (RECOVERY) — within a minute determines the rate of recovery of your pulse, thereby showing the degree of preparation of the body. The screen will display the result F1, F2 … F5, F6, where F1 is the best indicator, F6 is the worst.
              Fat analyzer (BODY FAT, MEASURE) — using basic data about your physiology (gender, age, height, weight), the computer will calculate the percentage of adipose tissue in the body ( FAT%) , body mass index ( BMI — the degree of conformity of a person’s weight to his height) and the level of metabolism ( BMR — the number of calories needed to maintain the body’s vital functions).
              Fitness Assessment (Fitness Test) — see RECOVERY.
              Speed ​​(SPEED) — mainly refers to electric treadmills, using the «-» and «+» buttons, you can adjust the speed, increasing or decreasing it.
              Incline (INCLINE) — by analogy with speed, by pressing the «▲» and «▼» keys you adjust the angle of inclination of the treadmill. This creates an additional load by simulating the descent (ascent) uphill.

              This was an overview of the main functions and buttons of the computer, there may be slight discrepancies in the names and purpose, but now it will not be difficult to recognize them intuitively! A more detailed description of the console of a particular machine can be found in the Instructions section.

              What is the screen refresh rate and what does it affect

              • Computer store
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                Published: 10 March 2021

                The development of modern technologies allows monitor manufacturers to constantly increase the technical characteristics of their products. And if there are no questions with the diagonal, resolution and brightness, then such a parameter as frequency requires careful study.

                What is the monitor frequency.

                The refresh rate of a monitor is a measure of how many times per second a screen is capable of displaying a new frame. For example, the most affordable and common models with a frequency of 60 Hz in one second manage to change the frame 60 times.

                The frequency primarily affects the smoothness of the picture, which is especially noticeable in rich game scenes, as well as when watching dynamic movies.

                Also, a low frequency can cause some discomfort to the user. Noticeable flickering of the screen leads to increased eye strain and fatigue. Often, long-term work at a monitor with low rates can even end in a headache.

                There is an opinion that 24 frames per second, which was shown to us by analog television, is enough for the human eye. But this position is not true. The human eye is able to discern the nuances of video quality even at frequencies up to 380 Hz.

                You can clearly understand the value of the frequency by following the movement of the mouse cursor on the screens with a frequency of 60 and, for example, 120 Hz. In the second case, the movement will be smoother, more uniform and without a blurry trail.

                How to choose the right monitor.

                The monitor frequency settings should be selected depending on the user’s plans and the purpose of the computer:

                • 60 — 75 Hz is sufficient for office paperwork, home computer use, online communication and web surfing. Also on such a monitor it will be comfortable to play simple RPG, arcade or logic games, watch movies and TV shows.
                • 75 — 120 Hz is enough for a user who is passionate about simple races, sports simulators and shooters without a competitive scenario.
                • 120 — 165 Hz is chosen for building a computer designed for PvP or PvE multiplayer online games.
                • 165 — 240 Hz is preferred by players who are serious about online shooters, who regularly participate in competitions or are engaged in streaming activities.
                • 240 Hz and more — the frequency of monitors for professional cybersportsmen or fans of maximum computer assemblies.

                For comfortable use of the monitor, regardless of the purpose, users should pay attention to other parameters.

                Response time.

                Response time or latency of the display matrix is ​​the second most important technical characteristic of each monitor. It is determined by the period of time that it takes for each pixel of the display from the moment a command is received to its execution — a color change.

                Response time is measured in milliseconds and is determined by the physical properties of the matrix. The shorter the response time, the faster a new frame is formed, therefore, there is more time left for its demonstration. Therefore, if the choice of monitor rests only on the response rate, then definitely take the one where the value is minimal.

                Latency significantly affects several image characteristics:

                • clarity;
                • frame detail;
                • display of dynamic scenes;
                • accurate color reproduction.

                If the computer is designed for modern powerful AAA-class games, then pay attention to monitors with a matrix response time of 1 ms.

                If you like to enjoy high-definition movies on a wide screen video panel, the response time should not exceed 8-10ms.

                But for working with texts or tables, as well as for browsing sites on the network, the matrix response delay is of no fundamental importance.

                The highest response time can be observed in monitors designed for professional color work. On such devices, for the sake of accurate color reproduction, all other parameters are set.

                Hertz and FPS.

                As you already understood, the monitor frequency is a characteristic that mainly determines the gameplay. Therefore, a very important aspect is the ratio of the frequency of the gaming monitor and the performance of the video card.

                The main task of the video card is to create frames-images from which a dynamic plot is formed. Therefore, the main characteristic of the gameplay is FPS — the frame rate created by the graphics core.

                If the monitor frequency exceeds the capabilities of the video card, then some frames are displayed 2 times, which leads to noticeable delays and freezes. That is, if a game is played at 60 fps on a monitor with a frequency of 120 Hz, then each image will be shown 2 times in a row.

                If the ratio is reversed, and the monitor frequency is less than the FPS of the game, then extra frames will be discarded in a random order, for example, every third or every second. In the case of activated vertical synchronization, this will lead to delays in control and noticeable slowdown in the picture. For analog HIDs (rudder, flight joystick, positioning systems), it is recommended to remove the maximum frame rate limit.

                Therefore, when buying a monitor, correlate the frequency indicators with the gaming capabilities of the computer. On gaming models with forced overclocking from 144 to 165/170 Hz, you can set the appropriate values ​​\u200b\u200bin the display settings.

                In the short video , NVIDIA shows you how refresh rates in competitive games let you see things sooner and get where you want to go.

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                Input delay and response time: what is the difference between them?

                If you’re looking for a new gaming monitor, be it 60Hz, 144Hz or even 240Hz, among other things, you should also pay attention to two very important monitor characteristics — input lag and response time. While most potential gaming monitor buyers know what refresh rate (or frame rate) is, many don’t understand the difference between response time and input lag.

                In addition, the response time is listed on the packaging of each gaming monitor in the specifications section, and input lag rarely appears. This is because manufacturers can easily calculate and test monitor response times in the factory, but input lag is a much more complex metric. Many of the factors that affect input lag have nothing to do with the monitor or the display manufacturing process, so manufacturers simply cannot know the input lag on a case-by-case basis.

                That said, if you’re interested in games and gaming monitors, then you should definitely look into these two related yet distinct terms. If you choose a cheap monitor with slow response or high latency, you may run into issues such as motion blur and haloing. Also, in-game action controls will feel unresponsive.

                Why do many people confuse these concepts?

                The response time is part of the total input delay. This most likely explains why so many people misunderstand that the two specs describe different but closely related aspects of a gaming monitor. Another reason is that both specifications are related to speed and are often mentioned when it comes to gaming monitors and their optimal performance. Often mentioned in the same sentence, response time and input lag sometimes get mixed up with each other.

                Both characteristics tell us about the speed of the gaming monitor, the speed at which images change on the display, and react to your actions. At the same time, the response time is completely dependent on the monitor itself, while the input lag includes the entire process from pressing a button to the appearance of the corresponding picture on the screen.

                Response time

                Response time is the amount of time it takes for a monitor or panel to change properties of each pixel. The response time tells us how long it will take for the monitor to change the color of a pixel from red to green, for example. The faster the pixels update, the faster and smoother the image on the screen will update

                Monitor manufacturers typically use a GtG gray to gray response time. Switching between grayscales is much faster than switching between primary RGB colors and this number is a great indicator of monitor speed. A GtG response time of less than 5ms is quite acceptable for gaming, although the best option is, of course, 1ms.

                Imagine that you are playing a game in first person and decide to turn left down an alley. Your monitor is receiving data from your PC or console and should update the image to display the new picture. A 5ms monitor does this five times slower than a 1ms screen. Of course, we’re talking about milliseconds, so the difference might not be that noticeable to the naked eye. But a slow response time will contribute to the overall input lag.

                Different types of gaming monitor panels have different response times. TN panels have the fastest response times, so they are best suited for competitive gaming. Basically, all TN panel monitors run at 1ms, so this is the only type of panel that is capable of supporting refresh rates up to 240Hz. VA and IPS panels typically have response times between 2ms and 5ms but provide excellent colors and viewing angles. If you want to learn more about different panel technologies, then this article is for you.

                TN panels perform image processing with the fewest pixels of the three main panel types. This explains their high speed. VA and IPS panels were designed for excellent color reproduction, so they require more pixel processing and response times increase.

                It is also important to note that the larger the screen, the slower the response time will be. Likewise, the higher the resolution, the slower the response. Larger panel sizes require signals to travel a greater distance, and higher resolution means more pixels to update. With advances in technology, the difference between 24-inch and 32-inch monitors has dwindled to near zero, and 4K displays are just as fast as 1080p monitors.

                From pressing to displaying the picture on the screen

                The total time required for the action to be shown on the screen is the input delay. The user presses a key or button on the keyboard or controller and then waits for the corresponding action on the gaming monitor or TV. The time it takes to show a picture on the screen that corresponds to the action taken and there is an input delay.

                Input delay depends on many factors. From the controller, mouse or keyboard, a signal is sent to your computer or console. If you are using wireless input devices, it will take much longer than the wired versions. It will then take time for your computer or console to process the data you provide and then send the graphic information over a cable to your display. As a rule, HDMI and DisplayPort have the same signal transfer rate — the speed of light, so cables are not a major problem in terms of latency. As soon as the monitor has received a signal, it starts updating the picture on the screen. Thus, the response time of the monitor affects the overall latency, as we mentioned above. The time it takes for the monitor to receive the signal, process it, and then change the pixels to display the visuals obviously adds to the overall latency.

                It’s important to note that any image processing done on your monitor adds latency. Even if the base response time is 1ms, but if you add HDR, dynamic brightness/contrast, edge sharpening, local dimming, and the like, then the delay increases. Therefore, for games, we recommend using PC mode or Game mode. They turn off most of the image processing to reduce monitor response time.

                How is input lag measured?

                Input delay, like response time, is measured in milliseconds. But the order of numbers will be much larger. Really good monitors like the BenQ EL2870U, 4K monitor EW3270U, ​​and 144Hz gaming monitor EX2780Q have latency of 9-10ms based on third party reviews, but the average is somewhere between 15ms and 22ms for typical gaming monitors and gaming monitors.