Docp: What is XMP, EOCP, DOCP in your BIOS?

What is XMP, EOCP, DOCP in your BIOS?

What is XMP, EOCP, DOCP, in your BIOS?

Settings like these can be the subject of much confusion, especially if you’re new to this whole PC hardware thing.

Fortunately, we have you covered, and I’ll walk you through everything you need to know about XMP and related standards in this article.

Let’s start with the primary standard, XMP.

What is XMP?

XMP, or Extreme Memory Profiles, refers to an Intel-developed technology that is used to make your RAM run faster.

To better explain the purpose of XMP, I’m going to first explain a few things about how your RAM actually works out-of-the-box.

While you may have purchased a RAM stick rated for fairly high speeds and low latencies, chances are high that it isn’t going to be running at those settings without XMP being enabled.

Without XMP, your RAM will be limited to the default rate or that particular RAM standard.

XMP Settings in a Gigabyte BIOS, Image-Credit: Gigabyte

For instance, DDR4 RAM’s default speed is 2133 MHz, but many people are recommended to buy 3000 MHz or better.

However, if you don’t enable XMP or an equivalent setting in your BIOS, you won’t actually be able to enjoy those higher speeds that were used to sell you the product, to begin with!

So, XMP is the technology used to get fast RAM to run at its advertised specification.

That’s why it’s called a Memory “Profile” because the XMP profile that comes with your RAM tells your motherboard how fast it can go once XMP is enabled.

Despite the fact that XMP is developed by Intel, it’s still compatible with a number of AMD motherboards, especially newer ones. However, there are a few alternatives to XMP:

What is EOCP? What is DOCP?

DOCP is short for Direct Overclock Profile, whereas EOCP is short for Extended Overclock Profiles. Both are XMP alternatives for AMD motherboards, with DOCP coming from ASUS and EOCP coming from Gigabyte, respectively.

DOCP Settings in a Gigabyte BIOS, Image-Credit: Gigabyte

Since XMP is an Intel technology and AMD is a direct competitor, it makes sense that AMD and its partners would want to avoid paying for the license to such technology.

So making an alternative that works with the same on-memory information that XMP does seems clear cut. But at the time of writing, these are starting to fade out.

More specifically, these technologies are steadily being phased out in favor of AMD motherboards just adopting XMP.

While I couldn’t tell you exactly why this is, I imagine it simplifies things for most motherboard manufacturers, who make boards for both AMD and Intel. XMP is also known much more widely and will attract more buyers when seeing this in motherboard or RAM advertising.

Sticking to XMP and making sure it works properly is likely the most straightforward way to ensure that RAM sticks with XMP data work at their best.

The takeaway here is that you may still have an XMP-equivalent function in your BIOS, even if it isn’t labeled XMP. Dig around your Memory settings to find it.

How Does XMP Work?

XMP works by reading pre-defined memory profiles from your RAM kit of choice and applying those settings to the RAM.

The alternatives mentioned above do the same thing with data intended for XMP, but your results may vary on AMD motherboards.

Most RAM kits you buy should come with 2 XMP profiles. XMP Profile 1 will usually be the more stable of the two profiles and load up your RAM’s default XMP timings while keeping other settings optimized for your motherboard.

XMP Profiles are Latency and Frequency Presets – Image Credit: MSI

For workstation users especially, this is the one that you’ll want to go with.

XMP Profile 2 is closer to an exact match of the advertised specs, but it may be less stable as a result. Try XMP Profile 1 if 2 doesn’t work, and consider manual adjustments if neither do.

Do I Need XMP?

Besides XMP, another option to consider would be to simply overclock and adjust your RAM speeds and timings manually.

An extensive List of RAM supported Latencies and Frequencies – Image Credit: MSI

If the main XMP profile doesn’t work, you may be encouraged to experiment with manual settings to achieve as close to intended performance as possible.

Should You Be Using XMP?

I recommend sticking to XMP if it works properly, simply because it’s the most straightforward way to achieve high memory speeds on your PC.

All you should really need to do to get started with XMP or its equivalent on your motherboard is enable it in your BIOS.

If you aren’t sure how to do that or just want more detailed instruction, check out Jerry’s excellent guide to Setting up XMP. He goes into detail on how to set up XMP for a variety of BIOSes and answers plenty of setup-related questions.

Before we wrap up here, though, let’s talk a bit more about RAM speeds and good RAM to pair up with XMP.


How Do RAM Speeds Impact Performance?

First up, let’s talk about what makes XMP compelling, to begin with: faster RAM.

What benefits do you actually get from enabling XMP and getting faster RAM?

Well, the benefits may not always be immediately apparent with faster RAM.

It does help, though, especially for memory-intensive workloads like 3D rendering or video editing. The more fast RAM you have available, the better-equipped your CPU will be for handling intensive tasks.

For gaming, faster RAM speeds may not always result in an increase in average framerate.

What improving RAM speeds will almost always do, though, is provide an increase in minimum framerate. This is actually more important because your minimum framerate determines roughly the maximum amount that your PC can dip in performance during intensive scenes in the game.

Raising minimum framerates keeps your dips closer to your average, making them much less noticeable. Depending on the game and your hardware and a bunch of other factors I can’t really account for, the difference can be minor or major.

But there is a meaningful difference, and anything that you can do to keep your framerates and frame times consistent will do worlds to improve your experience with PC games.

Where Can I Find Good RAM To Use With XMP?

Most high-performance RAM will be good to use with XMP, but I actually have a specific recommendation to make here, for both AMD and Intel users.

I propose that you use Samsung B-Die RAM in order to achieve stable, high performance across both AMD and Intel processors using XMP.

While Samsung B-Die is most frequently referred to alongside AMD, since AMD processors are notoriously bound to having good RAM for maximum performance, Samsung B-Die kits are still great for Intel users, too.

What sets Samsung B-Dies apart is their guaranteed minimum specification of DDR4 running at 3200 MHz and a CAS Latency of 14.

Higher speeds of up to 4000 MHz can also be reached, though you may have to bump up the CAS Latency a notch to 15 in this scenario.

Here’s my detailed rundown of the best Samsung B-Die Memory kits currently available and everything you need to know about them.

How Much RAM Do I Need?

Last but not least, how much RAM do you actually need to make the best of XMP?

Well, RAM capacity really depends on your specific workload, so I can’t give a be-all, the end-all answer here.

However, you will at least need 2 RAM sticks in order for XMP to work properly because otherwise your RAM will be locked to half speed.

RAM is a pretty finicky and funny technology, it turns out, and one of its quirks means that you need to double it up to actually achieve rated speeds.

Fortunately, most memory kits are dual-stick and therefore dual-channel, making this a non-issue.

If you’re looking for a more precise rundown of how much RAM you need, check out Alex’s detailed guide.

Over To You

And that’s it, for now! I hope this article taught you everything you needed to know to have a good understanding of what XMP, DOCP, and EOCP are and how they work.

From here, you can move on to any of the articles linked above to flesh out your PC memory setup or leave a comment below or our forum if you have any lingering questions.

CGDirector is Reader-supported. When you buy through our links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

What Is D.O.C.P? And How To Enable/Disable It?


Home Blog What Is D.O.C.P? and How to Enable/Disable It?

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If you are here, you are probably looking for the meaning of D.O.C.P or how to disable/enable it. We have covered everything you need to know, including how to fix issues related to it. If you have a question that you can’t find in this article, please leave a comment in the comment box, and we will answer your question as soon as possible.  

Before jumping to D.O.C.P, you need to understand what Intel XMP is and how XMP and D.O.C.P are connected. 

Intel Extreme Memory Profile (Intel XMP) is a technology that automatically sets DRAM to the correct frequencies, voltage, and timings according to the specifications. Without XMP, you will have to manually configure your RAM, which can be too complicated for non-tech-savvy users. Not enabling the XMP feature and ignoring manual configuration means your RAM will run at a standard specification that depends upon the CPU you have.

In simple words, Intel XMP lets your system use the full potential of your RAM; some people also call it overclocking.

D.O.C.P stands for Direct OverClock Profile; it is an overclocking profile by Asus developed for AMD motherboards. D.O.C.P uses XMP protocol to automatically set up data rates and timings on the AMD motherboards. 


Most latest Motherboards with Intel CPU have XMP, and AMD motherboards have D. O.C.P. Both XMP and D.O.C.P are designed for the same purpose. 

What Is the Difference Between D.O.C.P and D.O.C.P Standard?

There is only a minor difference between D.O.C.P and D.O.C.P standard. D.O.C.P standard option selects a memory divider at the kit’s rated frequency. For example, if your RAM is running at 3000MHz with D.O.C.P enabled, switching to D.O.C.P Standard will slightly reduce the memory speed to stay within AMD’s memory divider’s specifications. If you are confused about choosing, go with D.O.C.P and then check if the RAM is stable or not; if it is, leave it like that; else, switch to D.O.C.P standard.  

What Is AI Overclocker Tuner D.O.C.P?

AI Overclocker Tuner is an option that can be accessed in the AI tweaker menu of the ASUS motherboard’s BIOS. It lets you choose any one option from Auto, Manual, and D.O.C.P.


Yes, as mentioned before, D. O.C.P will overclock your RAM so you can utilize its full potential. If you choose not to use D.O.C.P, you will have to rely on Auto or manual configuration, which are sometimes not the best options.

  1. Press the “F2” or “Delete” key during the boot-up process to enter BIOS.
  2. Press “F7” to open the Advanced mode.
  3. Click on the “AI Tweaker.”
  4. Now click on the dropdown located right next to “AI Overclock Tuner.”
  5. Select D.O.C.P in the menu.
  6. Finaly click on ”Save & Exit” or press ”F10.”

After enabling the D.O.C.P, you can also set FCLK (Fabric Clock). It should be set to 1/2 the MHz value of your DDR4 RAM. For example, if your RAM is 3600MHz, the FCLK should be set to 1800MHz.

What to Do if You Can’t Enable D.O.C.P?

Make sure the memory is in slots A2/B2 and try updating the BIOS.  


Follow the first three steps mentioned in the above section and then choose Auto or Manual to stop using D.O.C.P.

Yes, it’s way better than manual configuration because you may make mistakes while setting voltage and speed, but D.O.C.P sets everything based on hardware specs. 

CPU Temps Raising After Enabling D.O.C.P?

D.O.C.P raises speed and voltage for better stability and affects the CPUs memory controller too. It’s pretty normal to see raising temps while you are gaming. Sometimes, bad ventilation can also be the main reason behind raising temps after enabling D.O.C.P, Make sure your CPU case has enough fans, and also check if your CPU cooler is good enough or not.


There are multiple reasons why D.O.C.P can sometimes cause game crashing and other issues; below, we have mentioned some things you need to do to troubleshoot the issue.

1) Check if your RAM is on the QVL for the motherboard?

QVL(Qualified Vendors List) is provided by motherboard manufactures so you can check hardware compatibility. If the RAM you have is not on the list, you will have to buy one that’s compatible. 

2) Raise RAM voltage

Sometimes raising RAM voltage and manually setting the timings can fix the crashing issues, so make sure you try that before getting a new RAM.

3) Reset CMOS

If you are in a situation where your PC won’t turn on after enabling D.O.C.P, you can try resetting CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor). Resettings CMOS resets your BIOS to factory default state. CMOS can be reset using BIOS, but since your PC is not turning on, you can reset it via CLRTC. 

Read: How to Clear CMOS on an ASUS Motherboard


Read More

  1. What Is D-Ram Frequency?
  2. What Is SVM Mode? 
  3. How to Change CPU Fan Speed Without BIOS?
  4. What Is Launch CSM Option? 
  5. What is Microsoft Virtual WiFi Miniport Adapter?
  6. What is FCLK Frequency? 
  7. What Does Erp-Ready Mean in Bios?
  8. What is XHCI hand off? Should you enable it?


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Can’t Boot Up After Overclocking Memory With Overclocking (XMP/DOCP) Enabled? 3 Steps for You to Initially Find Possible Causes-TEAMGROUP

Last time we mentioned how to go into the BIOS and adjust the settings and let the memory run to the frequency indicated by the manufacturer. Go if you haven’t read it yet: How to Enter BIOS and Open XMP3.0 in Three Easy Steps!


However, what if you encounter a situation where you can’t boot after entering the BIOS to enable XMP DOCP? Here I will share with you T fans 3 steps, you can use this method to initially find the cause. Since there are many different situations where you can’t turn on your computer after overclocking, if you still can’t get rid of the problem after trying the following methods, you can use our online consultation service to get more help.

TEAMGROUP online consultation service:


Step 1: Check if the motherboard supports the capacity or frequency of the overclocking memory

Not every motherboard supports high frequency or high capacity. If the motherboard itself does not support it, no matter how high specification your overclocking memory is, it will not work. Therefore, I suggest you to check this information when you purchase motherboards and overclocking memory beforehand. Here’s how to find the information from the official website of the motherboard or the official website of the memory manufacturer.


1. Check the product specification sheet on the official website of the motherboard. Take the ASUS ROG MAXIMUS Z690 EXTREME as an example, go to the product page on the ASUS website, click on Tech Specs (green box), then scroll down to the memory section and you will see the memory capacity and frequency information supported by this motherboard (red box).


From the picture above, we can know that the ASUS ROG MAXIMUS Z690 EXTREME motherboard has 4 DDR5 U-DIMM slots, supporting a maximum memory capacity of 128GB, and supports frequency of 6400/6200/6000/5800/5600/5400/5200/5000/4800 and other specifications.


2.     Check the compatibility list (QVL) of the motherboard or memory module

You can also use the compatibility list provided by the motherboard manufacturer or memory module manufacturer to confirm whether the overclocking memory you bought has passed the official test certification of the motherboard manufacturer. The compatibility lists of different motherboard manufacturers are presented in different ways. Take BIOSTAR’s Z690 VALKYRIE as an example, after entering the official website and selecting the product page of the motherboard, click Memory Support (green box) to see the specifications of each memory module that has passed the compatibility test.



Memory module manufacturers also have compatibility lists, so you can check if the overclocking memory you purchased has passed the official test certification of those motherboard manufacturers. Take TEAMGROUP as an example, you can go to the compatibility check page and select the device you purchased or the memory product you want to check. Here we take DELTA RGB DDR5 for example, click Search by product (green box), select Motherboard first, then fill in the specification of the overclocking memory you purchased, and the result will be generated after sending.

Compatibility check:


Step 2: Start the system with default memory settings to make sure the memory is working properly.

After step 1, if it is confirmed that the motherboard supports the capacity or frequency of the overclocking memory you bought, then you can enter the BIOS again, turn off the XMP or DOCP of the overclocking memory, set it back to the default value, then press F10 to save and reboot to see if the memory can operate smoothly. If you still can’t boot up, you can perform a simple debugging process to test whether there is a single memory causing the problem. You can refer to the following article for instructions:

Easy memory debugging process

If it can boot normally, you can continue to step 3 to make sure whether the current BIOS version is the latest.


Step 3: Check if the current BIOS version is the latest

After making sure that the memory is intact and can be booted with the default settings, you can check whether the BIOS is the latest version. Currently the 600 series of motherboards support Intel’s 12th generation CPU are still updating the BIOS version frequently. In order to provide consumers with overclocking needs a better overclocking experience, if you are getting this series of motherboards, you must pay special attention to your BIOS version! You can see the version number in the BIOS screen of each motherboard manufacturer, or use the free software, CPU-Z to confirm.

The download link for CPU-Z:


The following is a screenshot from CPU-Z. The red box is the information of the BIOS version.

The following are the latest BIOS download method for each motherboard manufacturer for your reference. Want to know how to update after downloading? Stay tuned! (Hurry up and leave a message~) If you have any questions during the process, leave a message and ask me!

1.    ASUS

Take ASUS ROG MAXIMUS Z690 EXTREME for example, go to the product page on the ASUS official website, click Support (green box), click Driver & Tools (yellow box), and then click BIOS & FIRMWARE (red box), you will see the latest BIOS download (blue box).


2.  ASRock

Take ASRock Z690 Taichi as an example, visit the product page of ASRock official website, scroll down and click Support (green box), then click BIOS (yellow box), you will see the latest BIOS download (blue box).

ASRock Z690 Taichi:


Take Z690 AORUS XTREME as an example, go to the product page of GIGABYTE official website, click Support (green box), and then click BIOS (yellow box), you will see the latest BIOS download (blue box).


4.  MSI

Take MEG Z690 UNIFY as an example, go to the product page on MSI official website, click Support (green box), then click Driver & Downloads (yellow box), you will see the latest BIOS download (blue box).



Take Z690 VALKYRIE as an example, go to the product page of the BIOSTAR official website, click Download (green box), scroll down to BIOS, and you will see the latest BIOS download (blue box).

Z690 VALKYRIE: tw/app/en/mb/introduction.php?S_ID=1034#download

If you are still unable to boot up your computer after trying the three methods above, I suggest you provide the details of the product you purchased to the customer service channel of the memory module manufacturer or the motherboard manufacturer for assistance. If you T fans’ TEAMGROUP overclocking memory products are unable to boot up after overclocking, you can use our online consultation service to provide your overclocking memory model, specification, serial number, as well as the motherboard and CPU model and specification, and briefly describe the problem you are experiencing, and your professional customer service team will reply you as soon as possible!

TEAMGROUP online consultation service:








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2-((2,3-bis(oleoyloxy)propyl)dimethylammonio)ethyl hydrogen phosphate


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Nazemidashtarjandi S, Vahedi A, Farnoud AM. Lipid Chemical Structure Modulates the Disruptive Effects of Nanomaterials on Membrane Models. Langmuir. 2020 Apr 20. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00295. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32312045.

PubMed ID: 32312045

Cardenas AE, Anderson CM, Elber R, Webb LJ. Partition of Positively and Negatively Charged Tryptophan Ions in Membranes with Inverted Phospholipid Heads: Simulations and Experiments. J Phys Chem B. 2019 Apr 9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b00754. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 30912653

Wang X, Li X, Wang H, Zhang X, Zhang L, Wang F, Liu J. Charge and Coordination Directed Liposome Fusion onto SiO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles. Langmuir. 2019 Feb 5;35(5):1672-1681. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b02979. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

PubMed ID: 30558422

Zhang X, Barraza KM, Upton KT, Beauchamp JL. Subtle Changes in Lipid Environment Have Profound Effects on Membrane Oxidation Chemistry. J Am Chem Soc. 2018 Nov 21. doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b08610. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 30461271

Wang X, Li X, Wang H, Zhang X, Zhang L, Wang F, Liu J. Charge and Coordination Directed Liposome Fusion onto SiO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles. Langmuir. 2018 Dec 18. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b02979. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 30558422

Liu Y, Wang F, Liu J. Headgroup-Inversed Liposomes: Biointerfaces, Supported Bilayers and Applications. Langmuir. 2018 Aug 14;34(32):9337-9348. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b04369. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

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Liu Y, Liu J. Cu2+-Directed Liposome Membrane Fusion, Positive-Stain Electron Microscopy, and Oxidation. Langmuir. 2018 Jun 12. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b00864. [Epub ahead of print]

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Wang, F. and J. Liu. (2015). A Stable Lipid/TiO Interface with Headgroup-Inversed Phosphocholine and a Comparison with SiO. J Am Chem Soc

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Perttu, E.K., A.G. Kohli, and F.C. Szoka Jr. (2012). Inverse-phosphocholine lipids: a remix of a common phospholipid. J Am Chem Soc 134:4485-8.

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Efficacy of microcrystalline desoxycorticosterone pivalate for treatment of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. DOCP Clinical Study Group

. 1993 Feb 1;202(3):392-6.

R C Lynn 
, E C Feldman, R W Nelson



  • 1 CIBA-GEIGY Animal Health, Greensboro, NC 27419.
  • PMID:


R C Lynn et al.

J Am Vet Med Assoc.


. 1993 Feb 1;202(3):392-6.


R C Lynn 
, E C Feldman, R W Nelson


  • 1 CIBA-GEIGY Animal Health, Greensboro, NC 27419.
  • PMID:



The efficacy of microcrystalline desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) therapy was evaluated in 60 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. Fifty-one of the dogs were being treated with either DOCP or fludrocortisone acetate prior to entering the study. The disease had been recently diagnosed in 9 dogs that were not under maintenance treatment prior to entering the study. Desoxycorticosterone pivalate (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, IM) was administered on days 0, 25, and 50. Physical examination was performed, and blood samples were obtained for serum biochemical analysis (Na+, K+, and BUN concentrations) on days 0, 14, 25, 39, 50, 64, and 75. On day 75 of the study, a final physical examination was performed and the course of treatment was evaluated. Sixty-eight percent (41/60) of the dogs had normal physical findings on day 0 vs 87% (52/60) on day 75. Mean (+/- SD) body weight increased from 24.8 +/- 12.7 kg on day 0 to 26.2 +/- 13.7 kg on day 75. Mean serum Na+ (137.7 +/- 8.5 mEq/L) and K+ (5.6 1.0 mEq/L) concentrations and Na(+)-to-K+ ratio (25.4 +/- 5.0:1) were outside normal reference limits on day 0. By day 75, serum Na+ (144. 3 +/- 4.8 mEq/L) and K+ (4.9 +/- 0.8 mEq/L) concentrations and Na(+)-to-K+ ratio (30.4 +/- 5.1:1) were normal and were significantly (P < 0.01) improved, compared with the corresponding values on day 0. Of the 60 dogs, 58 (97%) regained the loss in body weight, appetite, and muscular strength while given DOCP; once achieved, these improvements were maintained. These 58 dogs did not vomit or have diarrhea, common problems in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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  • Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate Duration of Action and Individualized Dosing Intervals in Dogs with Primary Hypoadrenocorticism.

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Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate for Dogs With Addison’s Disease

Research studies show that DOCP injectable suspension is a safe and effective therapy for dogs with Addison’s disease.

February 24, 2021 | 

Dr. McKean is a small animal rotating intern at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. She is a 2020 graduate of the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University with an interest in internal medicine. 

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Dr. Fellman is an assistant professor of small animal internal medicine and clinical pharmacology at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. She completed her clinical training and earned her PhD degree from Mississippi State University. Her interests include immunology, pharmacology, and antimicrobial stewardship

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Desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) is a mineralocorticoid replacement therapy for dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease). This article covers its mechanism of action, dosing, monitoring, effectiveness, and safety and discusses clinical applications for both available formulations of the drug: Percorten-V (Elanco, elanco. com) and Zycortal (Dechra, 

DOCP Mechanism of Action

DOCP is a long-acting analog of desoxycorticosterone, an endogenous steroid hormone and precursor to aldosterone. When administered parenterally, it produces the same physiologic effects as endogenous aldosterone, increasing sodium retention in the distal tubule and renal collecting ducts through active sodium resorption and upregulated sodium/potassium exchange.1 Thus, DOCP increases serum sodium and chloride concentrations, promotes potassium excretion, and results in enhanced osmotic renal water retention. It is generally considered to have no glucocorticoid activity, though some have suggested weak activity,2 and should be used in conjunction with appropriate glucocorticoid replacement therapy for addisonian patients exhibiting both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficits. The manufacturers of both formulations recommend accompanying DOCP with prednisone or prednisolone at a starting dose of 0. 2 to 0.4 mg/kg/day.3,4

DOCP Formulations 

Percorten-V was approved for canine use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998, and Zycortal was approved for use by the European Medicines Agency in 2015 and the FDA in 2016. Both products contain 25 mg desoxycorticosterone per milliliter and are formulated as microcrystalline suspensions, allowing for slow dissolution and prolonged drug release.1,4 They differ in their use of preservative and surfactant.1 Percorten-V is labeled for intramuscular injection but is often given subcutaneously in clinical practice. Zycortal is labeled for subcutaneous injection. Pharmacokinetic studies found that Zycortal demonstrated a longer half-life (17 days) when administered subcutaneously as opposed to intramuscularly (8 days).1

DOCP Effectiveness

Two well-controlled clinical field trials found that, at doses of 2.2 mg/kg administered once every 25 days, Percorten-V provided good control of clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, resulting in normalization of serum sodium, potassium, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations, as well as body weight increases, although adjustments of the dose or dose frequency were sometimes needed. 5 

In a double-blind field trial, 152 dogs with primary adrenocortical insufficiency were randomized to treatment with either Percorten-V or Zycortal. Zycortal was found to be noninferior to Percorten-V in both management of clinical signs and control of serum sodium and potassium concentrations as evaluated at 90 days and 180 days after initiation of treatment.6,7

DOCP Safety

Safety trials conducted by the manufacturer of Percorten-V concluded that DOCP was tolerated without significant morbidity or mortality at doses up to 15 times the recommended dose of 2.2 mg/kg when administered intramuscularly every 28 days to clinically normal beagles for a period of 6 months.5,8 Noted adverse effects included polyuria, polydipsia, decreased serum potassium and BUN concentration, decreased urine creatinine, and weight loss.8 

Additional safety studies conducted by the manufacturer of Zycortal found no serious adverse effects in healthy beagles receiving up to 5 times the recommended treatment dose every 21 days for 6 months (9 injections). 1,6 Treated dogs exhibited decreased urine specific gravity, increased serum sodium and globulins, and decreased serum potassium and BUN, consistent with the pharmacologic effects of the drug.1,6 Injection site reactions were the most common adverse effect.1,6 

In effectiveness field studies, commonly reported adverse events for both Percorten-V and Zycortal included polydipsia, polyuria, and inappropriate urination.5,6 In the Zycortal field effectiveness study, lethargy/depression was reported more commonly with Zycortal than Percorten-V (9.7% versus 2.6%), while diarrhea was reported more commonly with Percorten-V (7.7% versus 2.7%).6 Other adverse effects from field studies of both drugs included 1 dog with a preexisting heart murmur that developed congestive heart failure,6 2 dogs with loss of hormonal control requiring a shorter dosage interval, and 1 dog that collapsed after the first dose, possibly from inadvertent intravenous drug administration. 5

Both the Percorten-V and Zycortal product labels include cautions for use in patients with preexisting congestive heart failure, severe renal disease, or edema (Percorten-V recommends not using the drug at all in these patients), and both products are not recommended for use in pregnancy.3,4 The Zycortal label also includes a caution for patients with primary hepatic failure.3

DOCP Comparison to Fludrocortisone Acetate

An alternative mineralocorticoid replacement therapy, fludrocortisone acetate, is available for use in dogs with adrenal insufficiency. Fludrocortisone acetate is an oral mineralocorticoid typically given twice daily. In contrast to DOCP, it possesses significant glucocorticoid activity. Thus, in some patients treated with fludrocortisone, supplemental glucocorticoid therapy may not be needed. However, this additional glucocorticoid activity may contribute to dose-dependent adverse effects, including polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. As DOCP has minimal glucocorticoid activity, its dose and dosing interval can be adjusted to effect without affecting glucocorticoid delivery. 

Studies comparing the effectiveness of DOCP and fludrocortisone are limited. The available data suggest the 2 drugs provoke a similar clinical response; patients that have persistent polyuria/polydipsia when treated with fludrocortisone may experience fewer adverse effects from DOCP. A 1997 study of 200 dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism found no significant difference in clinical response to treatment or median survival times between patients treated with DOCP and patients treated with fludrocortisone.9 However, treatment was changed from fludrocortisone to DOCP in 27 dogs due to the development of adverse effects, poor clinical response, or owner convenience/finances.9

A 2014 study compared plasma renin activity (PRA) in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism treated with fludrocortisone or DOCP.10 PRA is considered the gold standard in human medicine for monitoring response to mineralocorticoid therapy, as it is increased in people with adrenocortical insufficiency and decreases with mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. In studied dogs, increased baseline PRA levels normalized after treatment with DOCP but not with fludrocortisone. Serum sodium and potassium were also more commonly in the reference range in dogs treated with DOCP. Five dogs were switched from fludrocortisone to DOCP due to adverse glucocorticoid effects or poor clinical response to treatment.10 

Most clinicians consider DOCP the preferred mineralocorticoid for replacement therapy in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism, although fludrocortisone is a reasonable option for owners when oral therapy is strongly preferred or DOCP injections are not tolerated. 

DOCP Dosing and Monitoring

DOCP dosing protocols are tailored to the individual based on clinical response to therapy after administration of an initial starting dose. Package inserts for Percorten-V and Zycortal differ slightly in their dosing and monitoring recommendations, and existing clinical studies have taken varied approaches to dose adjustment in their studied patient populations.

DOCP Manufacturer Recommendations

Both Percorten-V and Zycortal are labeled for a starting dose of 2.2 mg DOCP/kg body weight, administered once every 25 days.3,4 Elanco recommends evaluating serum electrolytes at 14 days and 25 days after administration of Percorten-V. Patients are considered well controlled, with no adjustments recommended to dose or dosing interval, if serum electrolyte levels are normal or only slight hyponatremia and slight hyperkalemia exist at both 14 and 25 days. In dogs with more significant hyperkalemia or hyponatremia, guidelines state that the dosage interval should be decreased by 2 to 3 days. Elanco advises that most patients are well controlled with a dose range of 1.65 to 2.2 mg/kg given every 21 to 30 days.4 Dechra recommends serum sodium/potassium ratios be measured at 10 and 25 days after initial administration of Zycortal to determine changes in recommended dose and dosing interval, as described in the package insert. 3

DOCP Alternative Adjustment Protocols

Alternative monitoring and dose adjustment protocols have been described in the literature. In most described protocols, serum electrolyte (sodium and potassium) concentrations are measured at 2 time points after initial injection. Concentrations measured at the first time point (typically 10 to 14 days postinjection) are used to determine necessary dosage adjustments, while those measured at the second time point (typically 25 to 30 days postinjection) are used to determine necessary changes in dosing interval. 

A 2010 review suggests that, if hyperkalemia or hyponatremia is present at the initial recheck (day 12), the next DOCP dose should be increased by 5% to 10%, while if hypokalemia or hypernatremia is present, the next dose should be decreased by 5% to 10%. If the patient is hyperkalemic or hyponatremic at the subsequent recheck (day 25), the dosing interval can be decreased by 1 day.11 Other authors allow for further dosage reduction and interval extension in a clinically normal patient to allow for titration to the lowest effective dose. 10 Following establishment of a maintenance dose and dosing interval, subsequent monitoring of electrolyte levels once every 3 to 6 months is typically recommended. 

DOCP Alternative Dosing Protocols

As primary hypoadrenocorticism necessitates lifelong mineralocorticoid replacement therapy, cost of treatment is often a significant hurdle to delivery of care. Also, excessive mineralocorticoid supplementation may have deleterious effects. A number of studies have evaluated alternative dosing regimens in an attempt to characterize the success of lower-cost and lower-dose protocols in controlling clinical signs of disease. These studies have demonstrated that good clinical control of disease can be achieved for many patients at doses lower than the 2.2 mg/kg starting dose recommended by the manufacturers. 

DOCP Dose Reduction

A 2019 prospective study of 17 dogs with newly diagnosed primary hypoadrenocorticism found that a starting dose of 1.5 mg/kg of Zycortal was sufficient to control clinical signs and maintain normal serum electrolyte concentrations in all but 2 patients. 12 Further dosage reductions were used to achieve an injection interval of 28 to 30 days (median dose at 2 to 3 months, 1.1 mg/kg) in most dogs, and no dogs required the recommended 2.2 mg/kg dose. Further analysis of these results suggested that young, growing dogs might require higher initial doses that can be reduced over time.12 

A similar retrospective study of 13 dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism found a 1.5 mg/kg starting dose to be effective in all but 1 dog that required a dose of 1.6 mg/kg.13 A 2013 retrospective study of 49 dogs found that initial DOCP doses less than 2.2 mg/kg were effective at controlling clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, with a mean final dose of 1.3 mg/kg.14 In the 1997 study comparing DOCP with fludrocortisone, only 18% of the 33 dogs treated with DOCP required doses of 2.2 mg/kg or higher, with a final median dose of 1.69 mg/kg and a median dosing interval of 30 days.9

DOCP Dosing Interval Extension

Extending the interval between doses is another approach to reducing cost of treatment, and recent evidence suggests that a longer dosing interval may still achieve effective disease control. A 2017 prospective clinical trial of 53 dogs found that the duration of action of DOCP (1.4 to 2.6 mg/kg/dose) ranged from 32 to 94 days (median, 62 days) in dogs with newly diagnosed primary hypoadrenocorticism and from 41 to 124 days (median, 67 days) in dogs that had received previous treatment. The study concluded that a final acceptable treatment interval that maintained serum potassium and sodium concentrations within the reference interval for all studied patients ranged from 38 to 90 days (median, 58 days).15 

Although this approach is effective, some clinicians prefer to prioritize dose reduction since owner compliance may be higher with more standard monthly drug administration.


DOCP is a safe and effective mineralocorticoid replacement therapy when used in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism. Recent research suggests that lower doses and longer dosing intervals than those recommended in manufacturer guidelines may, for many patients, remain effective in controlling both serum electrolyte levels and clinical signs of disease. No current consensus exists regarding the most effective monitoring and dosing protocols. Further research is needed to better characterize clinically appropriate starting doses and evaluate the efficacy of the various dose adjustment and monitoring protocols used in clinical practice. 


1. European Medicines Agency. CVMP assessment report for Zycortal (EMEA/ V/C/003782/0000). September 10, 2015. Accessed October 2020.

2. Vinson GP. The mislabelling of deoxycorticosterone: making sense of corticosteroid structure and function. J Endocrinol 2011;211(1):3-16. doi: 10.1530/JOE-11-0178

3. Zycortal suspension (desoxycorticosterone pivalate injectable suspension) [package insert]. Overland Park, KS: Dechra Ltd; 2016.

4. Percorten-V (desoxycorticosterone pivalate injectable suspension) [package insert]. Greenfield, IN: Elanco; 2011.

5. Percorten™-V Freedom of Information Summary. January 12, 1998. Accessed October 2020.

6 Zycortal suspension Freedom of Information Summary. February 17, 2016. Accessed October 2020.

7. Farr H, Mason BL, Longhofer SL. Randomised clinical non-inferiority trial comparing two formulations of desoxycortone pivalate for the treatment of canine primary hypoadrenocorticism. Vet Rec 2020;187(2):e12. doi: 10.1136/vr.105328

8. Chow E, Campbell WR, Turnier JC, et al. Toxicity of desoxycorticosterone pivalate given at high dosages to clinically normal beagles for six months. Am J Vet Res 1993;54(11):1954-1961.

9. Kintzer PP, Peterson ME. Treatment and long-term follow-up of 205 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:43-49. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1997.tb00072.x

10. Baumstark M, Nussberger J, Boretti F, et al. Use of plasma renin activity to monitor mineralocorticoid treatment in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism: desoxycorticosterone versus fludrocortisone. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:1471-1478. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12426

11. Klein SC, Peterson ME. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: part II. Can Vet J 2010;51(2):179-184.

12. Sieber-Ruckstuhl NS, Reusch CE, Hofer-Inteeworn N, et al. Evaluation of a low-dose desoxycorticosterone pivalate treatment protocol for long-term management of dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2019;33:1266-1271. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15475

13. Münch L, Münch M, Paul H, et al. Therapie des primären Hypoadrenokortizismus beim Hund mit niedrig dosiertem Desoxycorticosteronpivalat [Therapy of primary hypoadrenocorticism in dogs with low dose desoxycorticosterone pivalate]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2020;48(3):171-175. doi:

14. Bates J, Shott S, Schall W. Lower initial dose desoxycorticosterone pivalate for treatment of canine primary hypoadrenocorticism. Aust Vet J 2013;91:77-82. doi: 10.1111/avj.12019

15. Jaffey J, Nurre P, Cannon A, et al. Desoxycorticosterone pivalate duration of action and individualized dosing intervals in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2017;31:1649-1657. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14828

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Documents are application configuration objects. They allow you to store in the application solution information about completed business transactions or about events that occurred in the «life» of the enterprise in general. These can be, for example, receipts, work orders, invoices, payment orders, etc.

Document structure

Each document is characterized by a number, date and time. The system supports the automatic numbering of documents, in which it can independently generate a number for a new document. In addition, the system allows you to control the uniqueness of document numbers, not allowing you to create documents with the same numbers:

The system automatically supports a mode in which the uniqueness of numbers and automatic numbering can be performed within a certain period (day, month, quarter, year). For example, if the frequency is set to a year, then from the new year the system will again start numbering the specified documents from 1.

Date and time are important characteristics of the document. They allow you to set a strict temporal sequence of transactions. Thus, documents can differ from each other not only by number, but also by their position on the time axis. As a result, you can always tell which of the two operations was performed earlier.

In addition to the number, date and time, each document usually contains some additional information that describes this document in detail. For example, for document Receipt of goods and services this can be information about the supplier of goods (counterparty), the warehouse where goods are received, etc. The set of such information is the same for all documents of a particular type, and the details of the document are used for its storage:

In addition, each document may contain a certain set of information that is the same in its structure, but different in quantity, for different documents. For example, for document Receipt of goods and services this can be information about goods received by the enterprise (name, quantity, etc.), serial numbers and returnable packaging. To store such data, tabular parts of the document are used:

Document posting

An important property of the document is the possibility of its implementation. If the document is posted, then it can change the state of certain data taken into account. If the document is not «conducted», this means that the event that it reflects does not affect the state of accounting that is maintained in this application solution.

For example, document Receipt of goods and services , when executed, can make changes to the status of settlements with suppliers, accounting for goods balances, the status of customer orders and other accounting data:

For document Commercial offer to counterparty , on the contrary, posting may be prohibited, because this document does not affect the accounting status in any way:

Movement Designer

The algorithm, on the basis of which the document makes certain changes to the state of credentials during its execution, is described using the built-in language at the stage of developing an application solution. The system contains a motion constructor that helps the developer create document flow algorithms. Read more…

Document forms

In order for the user to view and change the data contained in documents, the system supports several document presentation forms. The system can automatically generate all the necessary document forms. Along with this, the developer has the opportunity to create his own forms that the system will use instead of the default forms:

List form

To view documents of the same type, a list form is used. It allows you to navigate through the list of documents, set the time interval for displayed documents, add, mark for deletion, and delete documents. The list form allows you to sort and select the displayed information according to several criteria:

Document form

A document form is used to view and modify the data of individual documents. As a rule, it presents data in a form that is convenient for perception and editing:

Selection form

In addition to these two forms for a document, a form for selecting specific documents from the list is supported.