Download catalyst 15.12: AMD Crimson 15.12 WHQL Graphics Drivers Released

AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15.12 for Linux Download

The main new addition to Radeon Software is a redesigned driver utility called Radeon Settings that focuses on accessibility and usability. Rather than hiding various features in confusing drop-down menus and cluttered panels, Radeon Settings is now much easier to navigate thanks to suitable separation of features into different tabs.

Highlights:

  • ​Radeon Settings
  • New Install UI
  • Liquid VR
  • Asynchronous Shaders
  • Shader Cache
  • Optimized Flip Queue Size
  • Freesync Enhancements
  • Custom Resolution Support
  • Frame Pacing Enhancements
  • Frame Rate Target Control Enhancements
  • Updated Video Feature support for ‘Carrizo’ products
  • Power Optimization
  • Directional Scaling
  • Dynamic Contrast Update
  • DisplayPort to HDMI 2. 0 support

Radeon Settings:

Radeon Settings is the new, streamlined user interface, engineered to bring out the best of AMD graphics hardware. User-friendly and feature-rich, Radeon Settings is lightning fast and starts upto 10x times faster1​ than the previous AMD Catalyst Control Center. Radeon Settings provides a brand new game manager, improved AMD Overdrive options per game and new video, display and Eyefinity tabs.

New Install UI:

The driver installer now provides a brand new, streamlined user experience with a reduced number of clicks required, providing better usability and an easy to install user experience.

Liquid VR:

The AMD Radeon Software Crimson edition is the first publicly available driver that enables all LiquidVR features, which are currently being validated and tested by VR headset manufacturers and ecosystem partners.

Asynchronous Shaders:

A feature that has been extensively used by game console developers is now available to PC Gamers. Asychronous Shaders break complex serial workloads into smaller parallel tasks, thereby allowing idle GPU resources to be used more efficiently and parallel workloads allow taskes to be completed much faster.

Shader Cache:

The shader cache feature allows complex shaders to be cached, thereby resulting in reduced game load times, lower CPU usage and reduced stuttering and latency during gameplay2​.

Optimized Flip Queue Size:

The optimized Flip Queue Size provides users with the very latest keyboard and mouse positional information during gameplay to reduce input latency on DirectX 9® , DirectX® 10 and DirectX 11 applications. This feature is a driver optimization, therefore it is automatically enabled and requires no user configuration or setup.

Freesync Enhancements:

Minimum/Maximum display rate is now listed in Radeon Settings​

Low framerate compensation to reduce or eliminate judder when application FPS falls below the minimum refresh rate of an AMD Freesync enabled display

New support for AMD Freesync with AMD Crossfire in DirectX 9 titles

Custom Resolution Support:

This feature provides users more control over display capabilities allowing the user to create custom display profiles to attempt to drive their display with chosen resolution, timings, refresh rates and pixel clocks.

Frame Pacing Enhancements:

Frame pacing support is now extended to DirectX 9 titles.

Frame Rate Target Control Enhancements:

FRTC enhancements include: power saving capabilty, support for DirectX 9 titles and an extended range for target control (30 — 200 FPS).

Updated Video Feature support for ‘Carrizo’ products:

  • FluidMotion for smoothing playback of 24/30 FPS video using Cyberlink PowerDVD 15 for Blu‐Ray playback
  • Improved edge enhancement for sharper images
  • Improved de‐interlacing for interlaced content

Power Optimization:

Improved power optimizations for video, gaming and FRTC enabled gaming environments (AMD Radeon R7 360, AMD Radeon R9 380, AMD Radeon R9 390 series and AMD Radeon Fury series).

Directional Scaling:

Enhanced image quality for 1080p media content scaled to 4K resolution using adaptive directional filtering technology (AMD Radeon Fury products).

Dynamic Contrast Update:

Qualative changes are now content adaptive and provides video enthusiasts with improved video quality and contrast settings (AMD Radeon™ R8 285, AMD Radeon™ R9 380 and AMD Radeon Fury products).

DisplayPort to HDMI 2.0 support:

Provides full support for DisplayPort to HDMI 2.0 connections via certified dongles.​​

What’s New:

Before attempting to install the AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition Proprietary Linux Graphics Driver, the following software must be installed:

  • Xorg/Xserver 7.4 and above (up to 1.17)
  • Linux kernel 2.6 or above (up to 3.19)
  • glibc version 2.2 or 2.3
  • POSIX Shared Memory (/dev/shm) support is required for 3D applications

NOTE: If a Linux 2.6.11 or newer kernel was built with CONFIG_AGP enabled, the kernel AGP frontend is required to load the fglrx kernel module. To identify whether your kernel with CONFIG_AGP enabled, look for CONFIG_AGP=y in the kernel config file, or if the ‘agpgart’ module is loaded

System Recommendations

  • For optimal performance and ease of use, the following are available:
    • Kernel module build environment
  • Kernel source code include either the Kernel Source or Kernel Headers packages
  • The RPM utility should be installed and configured correctly on your system, if you intend to install via RPM packages

The following packages must be installed in order for the AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition Proprietary Linux Graphics Driver to install and work optimally:

  • gimp-help-en
  • gimp-help-common
  • XFree86-Mesa-libGL
  • libstdc++
  • libgcc
  • XFree86-libs
  • fontconfig
  • freetype
  • zlib
  • gcc

Resolved Issues:

  • [SWDEV-55204] Stuttering when running glxgears with VSync enabled
  • [SWDEV-7339] Intermittent mouse cursor corruption

Supported Products:

The AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition Proprietary Linux Graphics Driver is compatible with the following AMD products.

  • AMD Radeon R9 Fury X
  • AMD Radeon R7 200 Series
  • AMD Radeon R9 Fury
  • AMD Radeon R5 230 Series
  • AMD Radeon R9 Nano
  • AMD Radeon HD 8000 Series
  • AMD Radeon R9 300 Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 7000 Series
  • AMD Radeon R9 200 Series
  • ATI Radeon HD 6000 Series
  • AMD Radeon R7 300 Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 5000 Series

​AMD All-In-One Desktop Product Family Compatibility ​

  • AMD Radeon HD 7600A Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 6600A Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 7450A Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 6350A Series

AMD APU Product Family Compatibility ​

  • A-Series AMD Radeon R7 Graphics
  • A-Series AMD Radeon R6 Graphics
  • A-Series AMD Radeon R5 Graphics
  • A-Series AMD Radeon R4 Graphics
  • A-Series AMD Radeon R3 Graphics
  • FX-8800P AMD Radeon R7 Graphics
  • E-Series AMD Radeon R2 Graphics
  • AMD Radeon HD 8000D Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 7000D Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 6000D Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 8000G Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 7000G Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 6000G Series

​AMD Mobility Product Family Compatibility

  • AMD Radeon R9 M200 Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 7000M Series
  • AMD Radeon R7 M200 Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 6000M Series
  • AMD Radeon R5 M200 Series
  • ATI Mobility Radeon HD 5000 Series
  • AMD Radeon HD 8000M Series

Previous versions:

  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15. 11 for Linux

AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.12.2 Download

  • Drivers
  • Graphics Cards

​Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition is AMD’s advanced graphics software for enabling high-performance gaming and engaging VR experiences.

Overview

What’s New

Specs

Last updated:

Manufacturer:

AMD

Filename:

win10-64bit-radeon-software-crimson-relive-16.12.2-jan3.exe

File size:

497 MB

Downloads:

5,930

Filed in:

Graphics Cards

OS:

Android OS

Download

Download options:

  • Windows 10 64-bit

  • Windows 10 32-bit

  • Windows 8 64-bit

  • Windows 8 32-bit

  • Windows 7 64-bit

  • Windows 7 32-bit

Create, capture, and share your remarkable moments. Effortlessly boost performance and efficiency. Experience Radeon Software with industry-leading user satisfaction, rigorously-tested stability, comprehensive certification, and more.

You can download the latest AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver here.

Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.2 Highlights:

Fixed Issues

  • AMD FreeSync technology may experience performance issues with Borderless Fullscreen application support when a secondary display is attached and has dynamic content running such as video playback in a web browser or if other applications or game launchers are running on the primary screen in the background. A workaround if this issue is experienced is to minimize all other running applications that are on the primary desktop display or on non-primary extended displays.
  • Radeon ReLive may fail to install during installation on some system configurations.
  • Battlefield1 may experience flashing or corruption when running in Multi GPU with Radeon RX 400 series.
  • Instant Replay fails to enable itself after it has been turned off due to content protection.
  • Radeon Settings may not load on system boot for some system configurations.
  • Fixed some errors in translations for Radeon Settings and Radeon ReLive.
  • Audio recorded by Radeon ReLive may sometimes exhibit slow motion when played back.
  • Radeon ReLive may experience recording issues or issues toggling the Overlay/Toolbar when Frame Rate Target Control is enabled. Users are suggested to disable Frame Rate Target Control when using Radeon ReLive.
  • Mouse cursor may stutter in recorded video when there is limited on screen activity outside of minor mouse movement.
  • In AMD Multi GPU configurations the secondary graphics product will exit the low power state when Radeon ReLive is enabled.
  • Radeon ReLive may sometimes not be able to take screenshots of secondary displays.
  • Chromium may fail to utilize hybrid decode for VP9 content.
  • DOTA2 may experience game corruption when performing a task switch while recording with Radeon ReLive in AMD Multi GPU configurations.
  • Radeon ReLive Overlay/Toolbar will not launch or Record when running League of Legends in Administrator Mode and Windowed Borderless Fullscreen.
  • Long ping times may be experienced with some WiFi adapters.

Known Issues

  • A small amount of apps may still experience issues with Borderless Fullscreen mode and AMD FreeSync technology if other applications or game launchers are running on the primary screen in the background.
  • Counter-Strike: Global Offensive and World of Warcraft may experience flickering or performance issues the first time the game is launched on a system boot with AMD FreeSync technology enabled. Workarounds include exiting and restarting the application or task switching (alt+tab) in and out of the game to fix the issue.
  • AMD Multi GPU configurations may experience a system hang or reboot during install when using tiled MST 4K or 5K displays.
  • Titanfall2 may experience black square corruption in game menus or during game play on some Graphics Core Next products.
  • FIFA 17 may experience an application hang or black screen on launch for some select Hybrid Graphics or AMD PowerXpress mobile configurations.
  • Radeon Settings may not show display details for connected displays in AMD X-Connect technology mode.
  • Mouse cursor corruption may be intermittently experienced on Radeon RX 480.

Known Issues for Radeon ReLive

  • The XBOX DVR application may cause conflicts with Radeon ReLive, users are suggested to disable XBOX DVR if Radeon ReLive is experiencing issues.
  • Radeon ReLive may fail to install on AMD APU Family products or experience a system hang or failure to record when using the recording feature on AMD APU Family products.
  • Battlefield1 may experience UI flickering and/or performance drops when recording gameplay with Radeon ReLive on graphics products with 4GB or less of VRAM.
  • Radeon ReLive recordings may experience flicker when creating a single recording for many hours.
  • Radeon ReLive may experience minor graphical corruption for the first few recorded frames when launching UWP applications.
  • Radeon ReLive will not allow recording settings to change with Instant Replay enabled. A workaround is to disable Instant Replay and change settings then enable Instant Replay.
  • Vulkan applications may experience a game hang when using Radeon ReLive to record.
  • Radeon ReLive will not notify an end user of low disk space during recording.

Radeon Product Compatibility

Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.1 is compatible with the following AMD Radeon products. Note that AMD Radeon R9 Fury, Radeon Pro Duo, and Radeon RX 400 Series graphics are only supported by Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition on Windows 7/8.1/10 64-bit.

Radeon Desktop Product Family Compatibility ​

  • Radeon RX 400 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R7 300 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon Pro Duo
  • AMD Radeon R7 200 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R9 Fury Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R5 300 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R9 Nano Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R5 200 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R9 300 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon HD 8500 — HD 8900 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R9 200 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon HD 7700 — HD 7900 Series Graphics

Mobility Radeon Family Compatibility

Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16. 12.1 is a notebook reference graphics driver with limited support for system vendor specific features.

Radeon Mobility Product Family Compatibility ​

  • AMD Radeon R9 M300 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R7 M200 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R7 M300 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R5 M200 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R5 M300 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon HD 8500M — HD 8900M Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon R9 M200 Series Graphics
  • AMD Radeon HD 7700M — HD 7900M Series Graphics

AMD APU Product Family Compatibility

AMD APU products codenamed «Kaveri», «Godavari» and «Carrizo» are only supported by AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition on Windows 7 (32 & 64-bit), Windows 8.1 (64-bit) and Windows 10 (64-bit). AMD’s 7th Generation APU products Radeon Graphics are only supported by AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition on Windows 7 (32 & 64-bit) and Windows 10 (64-bit)​.

​AMD APU Product Family Compatibility

  • AMD A-Series APUs with Radeon R4, R5, R6, or R7 Graphics
  • AMD A-Series APUs with Radeon R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, or R8 Graphics
  • AMD Pro A-Series APUs with Radeon R5 or R7 Graphics
  • AMD Pro A-Series APUs with Radeon R5, R6, or R7 Graphics
  • AMD Athlon Series APUs with Radeon R3 Graphics
  • AMD FX-Series APUs with Radeon R7 Graphics
  • AMD Sempron Series APUs with Radeon R3 Graphics
  • AMD E-Series APUs with Radeon R2 Graphics
  • AMD Radeon HD 8180 — HD 8400 Series Graphics

Compatible Operating Systems:

Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16. 12.1 is designed to support the following Microsoft Windows platforms. Operating System support may vary depending on your specific AMD Radeon product.

  • Windows 10 (32 & 64-bit version)
  • Windows 8.1 (32 & 64-bit version)
  • Windows 7 (32 & 64-bit version with SP1 or higher)

Disclaimer:

  • Compatible with desktop discrete AMD Radeon GCN and Radeon RX 400 Series enabled products with at least 2GB of VRAM, AMD VCE Support and Windows 7/8.1/10 64 bit operating systems. Radeon ReLive is currently considered «as-is» beta level support for 32 bit operating systems.
  • Compatible with AMD Radeon GCN and Radeon RX 400 series enabled products in specified AMD supported titles and applications with Windows 7/8.1/10. Power saving and temperature reduction results may vary based on system configurations.
  • Compatible with desktop discrete GPU AMD RadeonR9 Fury series, R9 390 series, R9 380 series, R9 290 series, R9 285, R9 260 series, R7 360, and R7 260 products with Windows 7/8. 1/10.
  • Compatible with AMD Radeon GCN and Radeon RX 400 Series enabled products with Windows 7/8.1/10.
  • Compatible with AMD Radeon GCN and Radeon RX 400 Series enabled products with Windows7/8.1/10.
  • Compatible with AMD Radeon R9 285, 290, 290X, 380, 390, 390X, R7 260, 260X, 360, R9 Fury series, and Radeon RX 400 series products with Windows 7/8.1/10. Requires an AMD FreeSync technology certified capable display and AMD graphics product.
  • Compatible with AMD Radeon R9 285, 290, 290X, 380, 390, 390X, R7 260, 260X, 360, R9 Fury series, and Radeon RX 400 series products with Windows 7/8.1/10. Feature is not available worldwide and may not be available in your country or area.
  • Compatible with desktop AMD Radeon R9 Fury series, R9 380, R9 390 series, and Radeon RX 400 series products with Windows 7/8.1/10. Requires an HDR capable display and game content.
  • Requires supported Chrome web browser versions with Hardware Acceleration enabled. Compatible with AMD Radeon GCN and Radeon RX 400 series enabled products on Windows 7/8.1/10.
  • Compatible with AMD Bristol, Carrizo and Stoney AMD Family APUs with Windows 7/8.1/10 and supported Skype application.

Package Contents

The Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.1 installation package contains the following:

  • Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.1 Driver Version 16.50.2001

Note:

This driver is not intended for use on AMD Radeon products running in Apple Boot Camp platforms. Users of these platforms should contact their system manufacturer for driver support.

When installing Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.1 for the Windows operating system, the user must be logged on as Administrator, or have Administrator rights to complete the installation of Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.1.

Radeon Software Crimson ReLive Edition 16.12.1 requires Windows 7 Service Pack 1 to be installed.

Previous versions:

AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.12.1

AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.4.2 2016-04-29

AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 2016-03-29

  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.3.2 for Windows 10 32-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.3.2 for Windows 10 64-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.3.2 for Windows 8 32-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.3.2 for Windows 8 64-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.3.2 for Windows 7 32-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 16.3.2 for Windows 7 64-bit

AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 2015-12-21

  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15.12 for Windows 10 32-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15.12 for Windows 10 64-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15. 12 for Windows 8 32-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15.12 for Windows 8 64-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15.12 for Windows 7 32-bit
  • AMD Radeon Crimson Edition Graphics Driver 15.12 for Windows 7 64-bit

Here’s other similar drivers that are different versions or releases for different operating systems:

▸ Browse all AMD drivers

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AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition 15.12 WHQL Driver

AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition 15.12 WHQL Driver

Published: 18th December 2015 | Source: AMD Radeon | Author: Mark Campbell

 

AMD have released their new Radeon Software Crimson Edition 15.12 WHQL Driver, fixing a few issues of the previous Crimson Drivers.

 

 

Resolved Issues:

Radeon Settings driver update check is not available for minor driver versions
System has higher idle power usage on Windows® 7 when running with Radeon Settings
Star Wars™: Battlefront ? Snow flickers in a few locations in the game
Star Wars™: Battlefront ? Sky rendering may be broken in some game locations
Fallout 4 ? The compass may flicker during gameplay on AMD Radeon R9 390 series products. We continue to investigate the issue with AMD Radeon R9 290 and AMD Radeon R9 295X2 series products
Star Wars™: Battlefront ? Shadowy textures are visible around hills/structures/caves
Just Cause 3 ? Texture corruption may be experienced during gameplay
Call of Duty: Black Ops 3 ? Poor AMD Crossfire™ performance may be experienced
The driver installation may fail while installing the ACP component
The font size in Chinese language installations may be too small
The label range values in some AMD Freesync™ installations may be incorrect
The Radeon Settings dropbox does not close when it is clicked on a second time
The AMD Overdrive™ fan settings is always set to ON after first edit on reboot
Language shows up as Chinese Simplified when Chinese Traditional is selected in Windows® 7
Radeon Settings crashes on the Display tab when cloning a display via HDMI on some notebooks
Overdrive™ fan speed is reset to Manual on exiting from a 3D game or application
Radeon Settings does not get upgraded in some install scenarios
AMD Overdrive™ cannot revert to default settings in some situations

 

Known Issues:

Dirt Rally ? A crash may be experienced starting a new race with AMD Crossfire™ and AMD Freesync™ enabled
PowerDVD ? 3D playback may fail on some configurations using an HDMI 2. 0 dongle
Starcraft 2: Flickering may be observed in the ‘Episode 3’ campaign
Fable Legends: The DirectX® 12 benchmark may fail to launch on some configurations
Call of Duty: Black Ops 3 ? Flickering or poor performance may be experienced when running in AMD Crossfire™ mode
Assassin’s Creed Syndicate ? A crash may be experienced when setting game to Ultra?High graphics mode
Flickering may be observed on some Freesync monitors while playing Wolfenstein ? The New Order and Battlefield™:
Hardline with Vsync disabled
A system restart may be experience when waking the system from sleep mode on some systems with Intel processors
Unable to create 4×1 or 2.1 portrait mode SLS with 4K displays
Star Wars™: Battlefront ? texture corruption may be experienced if the game «Field of View» setting is > 100
Call of Duty Online ? the game may crash if the Printscreen key is pressed on a 4K monitor
Launching a game from the Game Manager may launch on a single display after enabling and disabling AMD Crossfire™ in a 3×1 AMD Eyefinity™ setup
A crash may be experienced if an HDMI™ display is a cloned display device on an HP Envy 15 notebook
Unable to change resolution if a wireless display is the only connected display
Marginally increased power consumption may be observed during video playback
Flickering may be experienced on some monitors when AMD Freesync™ is enabled
Assassin’s Creed Syndicate ? Building textures may be missing on some AMD Freesync™ displays with Vsync enabled
Ark Survival Evolved ? Poor performance may be experienced when running in AMD Crossfire™ mode
Star Wars™ : Battlefront ? Some flickering may be experienced in shaded areas of the screen while game levels are loading
Star Wars™ :  Battlefront ? Some users may experience minor flickering or corruption at different game location or while viewing the in?game cinematics

 

AMD Issue Reporting Form:

This driver release incorporates suggestions received through the AMD Issue Reporting Form. To provide us with your feedback, visit the AMD Issue Reporting Form.

 

You can download AMD’s Radeon Software Crimson Edition 15.12 driver here

 

You can join the discussion on AMD’s Radeon Software Crimson Drivers on the OC3D Forums

 

AMD have released their new Radeon Software Crimson Edition 15.12 WHQL Driver. https://t.co/5OpNkkoCmZ pic.twitter.com/U5hndtDkAr

— OC3D (@OC3D) December 18, 2015

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Most Recent Comments

Téléchargez les derniers pilotes AMD Crimson WHQL (15.12)

Téléchargez les derniers pilotes AMD Crimson WHQL (15.12)

Retour accueil Clubic

En fin de semaine dernière, AMD a mis en ligne la mouture 15. 12 de ses pilotes Radeon Software Crimson Edition. Pas de grosses évolution pour cette nouvelle version, la première certifiée WHQL.

Depuis la fin du mois dernier, AMD a renouvelé son offre logicielle avec l’apparition de nouveaux pilotes pour remplacer les Catalyst : les Radeon Software Crimson Edition.

  • A lire à ce sujet : AMD lance ses nouveaux pilotes Crimson, les Radeon Software

Ceux du mois de décembre 2015 (d’où le numéro de version) n’apportent pas grand chose du point de vue du pilote graphique par rapport à la dernière bêta (15.30.1025.1001) et seul le panneau de contrôle profite de quelques retouches.

Vous pouvez vous procurer ces pilotes depuis notre logithèque :

  • Télécharger les AMD Radeon Software Crimson Edition 15.12

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openSUSE – proprietären Grafik-Treiber AMD Catalyst 15.

12 als RPM installieren

AMD Catalyst 15.12 (fglrx 15.302) (Radeon Crimson Edition) wurde veröffentlicht und unterstützt Grafikkarten ab Radeon HD 5000 und höher. Das Skript makerpm-amd-15.12.sh steht ab sofort zum Download zur Verfügung und unterstützt openSUSE 11.4, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 13.1, 13.2, 42.1 und Tumbleweed sowie bis Kernel 4.5 (offiziell nur bis Kernel 3.19).

Hinweis: Unter openSUSE Tumbleweed wird der AMD Treiber nicht funktionieren. Die Version vom X-Server ist zu neu für den Treiber.

Ab sofort wird die Integrität der heruntergeladenen Dateien mit SHA256 geprüft. SHA1 ist somit obsolet und sollte besser nicht mehr verwendet werden.

Neues Feature vom Packaging Skript:

  • systemd Support für den automatischen Bau des fglrx-Kernelmodules (openSUSE 13.2 und höher)

Gelöste Probleme:

  • [SWDEV-82980] Ubuntu 15.10 fails when building the .deb packages

Link: AMD Catalyst 15. 12 Release Notes

Folgende Steam-Spiele habe ich getestet und laufen mit diesem Treiber (Fettdruck = Neu):

  • A Bird Story
  • A Virus Named TOM
  • AaaaaAAaaaAAAaa…
  • Age of Wonders III
  • AI War: Fleet Command
  • Alien Isolation
  • Amnesia: The Dark Descent
  • Anomaly 2
  • Anomaly Defenders
  • Anomaly Korea
  • Antichamber
  • Aquaria
  • Auto Dealership Tycoon
  • Avadon: The Black Fortress
  • Awesomenauts
  • Bastion
  • Battle Group 2
  • Beatbuddy: Tale of the Guardians
  • BIT.TRIP Presents… Runner 2: Future Legend of Rhythm
  • Borderlands 2
  • Breach & Clear
  • Bridge Constructor
  • Bridge Constructor Playground
  • Broken Sword: Director’s Cut
  • Broken Sword 2 – the Smoking Mirror: Remastered
  • Broken Sword 5 – the Serpent’s Curse
  • Brütal Legend
  • Cave Story+
  • Cities in Motion 2
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Closure
  • Cogs
  • Costume Quest
  • Counter-Strike: Global Offensive
  • Creeper World III: Arc Eternal
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Cubemen
  • Cubemen 2
  • Darwinia
  • DeadCore
  • Defcon
  • Defense Grid 2
  • Distance
  • Duke Nukem 3D: Megaton Edition
  • Dungeon Defenders
  • Dust: An Elysian Tail
  • Dustforce
  • Eets Munchies
  • Euro Trucker Simulator
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Evoland
  • Factorio
  • FEZ
  • FortressCraft Evolved!
  • Forward to the Sky
  • From The Depths
  • Frozen Synapse
  • FTL: Faster Than Light
  • Galcon Fusion
  • Galcon Legends
  • Game Dev Tycoon
  • Gemini Rue
  • Gratuitous Space Battles
  • Guacamelee! Gold Edition
  • Hacknet
  • Half-Life
  • Half-Life Deathmatch: Source
  • Half-Life: Blue Shift
  • Half-Life: Opposing Force
  • Half-Life: Source
  • Half-Life 2
  • Half-Life 2: Deathmatch
  • Half-Life 2: Episode One
  • Half-Life 2: Episode Two
  • Half-Life 2: Lost Coast
  • Halfway
  • Hero Academy
  • HOARD
  • Hotline Miami
  • Insurgency
  • Ironclad Tactics Deluxe
  • Ittle Dew
  • Jack Lumber
  • Jagged Alliance – Back in Action
  • Joe Danger 2: The Movie
  • Kerbal Space Program
  • Killing Floor
  • Kinetic Void
  • Kingdom Rush
  • Knights of Pen and Paper +1 Edition
  • Legend of Grimrock
  • LIMBO
  • Little Inferno
  • LUFTRAUSERS
  • Lux Delux
  • Mark of the Ninja
  • Metro: Last Light Redux
  • Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor
  • Mini Metro
  • Monaco: What’s Yours Is Mine
  • Monstrum
  • Multiwinia
  • Natural Selection 2
  • Nihilumbra
  • Nightside
  • Not The Robots
  • Nuclear Dawn
  • Organ Trail: Director’s Cut
  • Painkiller Hell & Damnation
  • Planet Explorers
  • Portal
  • Portal 2
  • Postal 2
  • Prison Architect
  • Project Zomboid
  • Psychonauts
  • Puddle
  • Ravensword: Shadowlands
  • Rising World
  • Rochard
  • Rocketbirds: Hardboiled Chicken
  • Sanctum 2
  • Savage Lands
  • Savant – Ascent
  • Serious Sam 3: BFE
  • Shadow Warrior Classic Redux
  • Shadowrun Returns
  • Shank 2
  • Shatter
  • Sid Meier’s Civilization® V
  • Sir, You Are Being Hunted
  • Skulls of the Shogun
  • Small World 2
  • Snapshot
  • Solar 2
  • Solar Flux
  • SPACECOM
  • Space Hulk
  • Space Pirates and Zombies
  • Spec Ops: The Line
  • Splice
  • Starmade
  • Stealth Bastard Deluxe
  • Strike Suit Zero
  • Superbrothers: Sword & Sworcery EP
  • Surgeon Simulator 2013
  • Survivor Squad
  • Syder Arcade
  • Symphony
  • Tetrobot and Co.
  • The Bard’s Tale
  • The Book of Unwritten Tales
  • The Book of Unwritten Tales: The Critter Chronicles
  • The Bridge
  • The Last Federation (Alle DLCs)
  • The Long Dark
  • The Raven – Legacy of a Master Thief
  • The Shivah
  • The Swapper
  • The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings Enhanced Edition
  • This War of Mine
  • Thomas Was Alone
  • Ticket to Ride
  • Titan Attacks
  • Toast Time
  • To the Moon
  • Toki Tori 2+
  • Torchlight II
  • Train Fever
  • Transistor
  • Trine 2: Complete Story
  • Tropico 5
  • Unity of Command: Stalingrad Campaign + DLC
  • Uplink
  • VVVVVV
  • Waking Mars
  • Wargame: Airland Battle
  • Wargame: European Escalation
  • Wargame: Red Dragon
  • Wizorb
  • Worms Reloaded
  • XCOM: Enemy Unknown
  • X-Plane 10 Global (64-bit)
  • Zen Bound 2

Eine kleine Bitte habe ich: Wenn irgendwelche Probleme mit dem Treiber auftauchen, scheut euch nicht mir zu berichten (Ich nehme deutsche und englische Bugreports gerne entgegen). Ich werde versuchen, soweit es mir möglich ist, den gemeldeten Fehler zu reproduzieren. Zusammen mit den nötigen System-Informationen werde ich mich direkt an die richtige Stelle bei AMD wenden, um den Bug in der nächsten Treiber-Version beheben zu lassen. Danke schön.

Für Benutzer älterer AMD Grafikkarten (Radeon HD Serie 2000 – 4000) wird dringend die Installation dieses Treibers abgeraten. openSUSE bringt bereits für ältere Grafikkarten den freien Radeon-Treiber mit. Um regelmäßig Verbesserungen am freien Radeon-Treiber zu erhalten, ist die Installation eines neuen Kernel unumgänglich.

Downloads:

  • Skript: makerpm-amd-15.12.sh
  • SHA256: makerpm-amd-15.12.sh.sha256

Installationsanleitung:
http://de.opensuse.org/SDB:AMD/ATI-Grafiktreiber#Installation_via_makerpm-amd-Skript

Installation guide (English):
http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:AMD_fglrx#Building_the_rpm_yourself

Das Skript makerpm-amd-15. 12.sh ist sehr mächtig, robust und läuft vollautomatisch. Der AMD-Installer wird automatisch heruntergeladen, falls er nicht schon im Verzeichnis liegt. Zudem wird geprüft, ob die Grafikkarte vom Treiber unterstützt wird. Auf Wunsch wird nach dem Bau des RPM-Packages der fglrx-Treiber installiert.

Folgende Argumente können dem Skript übergeben werden:

-b Nur das RPM-Package bauen (Standard)
-c <type> Nur X-Server konfigurieren. Monitor-Typ: single = 1 Monitor, dual = 2 Monitore (Wichtig: Nur ausführen, wenn es Probleme mit der Standardkonfiguration des X-Servers auftreten)
-d Nur den AMD-Installer downloaden
-i Das RPM-Package bauen und installieren bzw. updaten
-igf/–install-gdm-fix installiert einen Fix, um den Treiber mit dem GNOME Desktopmanager (gdm) läuffähig zu machen
-kms <yes|no> Kernel-Mode-Setting (KMS) aktivieren oder deaktivieren
-nohw Hardware-Erkennung explizit ausschalten. (z.B. beim Bau in einer VM)
-old2ddriver <yes|no> den alten 2D-Treiber aktivieren oder deaktivieren
-r|–report erstellt ein Report und speichert diese in eine Datei namens amd-report.txt
-u|–uninstall entfernt AMD Catalyst restlos vom System. Zuerst wird das fglrx-Package (falls vorhanden) vom System deinstalliert. Danach werden vorhandene AMD-Dateien und -Verzeichnisse entfernt. Hinweis: Falls das Rebuild-Skript installiert wurde, wird es ebenfalls entfernt und das Initskript /etc/init.d/xdm wiederhergestellt.
-ugf/–uninstall-gdm-fix entfernt den Fix, dass den Treiber mit dem GNOME Desktopmanager (gdm) läuffähig macht
-ur|–uploadreport wie Option –report nur zusätzlich wird der Report auf einem NoPaste-Service sprunge.us hochgeladen und gibt bei Erfolg den Link zurück.
-h Die Hilfe anzeigen lassen
-V Version des Skript anzeigen

Bitte haltet folgende Regel ein:

  1. Bei der Eingabe der Befehle auf mögliche Tippfehler überprüfen.
  2. Möglicherweise ist die Lösung für das Problem im Wiki vorhanden.
  3. In Kommentaren lesen, ob eine Lösung zu einem Problem bereits existiert.

Wenn keines der o.g. Regel greift, dann könnt ihr mit eurem Anliegen an mich wenden. Damit ich euch helfen kann, müsst ihr erst vorarbeiten. Bitte ladet euch das Skript makerpm-amd-15.12.sh herunter und erstellt einen Report von eurem System in der Konsole:

su -c 'sh makerpm-amd-15.12.sh -ur'

Das Skript lädt das Report auf sprunge.us hoch und gibt anschließend einen Link aus. Diesen Link postet ihr in eurem Kommentar zusammen mit einer Beschreibung zu eurem Problem an mich. Ich werde mir euren Report anschauen und Hilfestellung geben, wo evtl. das Problem liegen könnte.

Feedbacks sind wie immer willkommen.

Dieser Beitrag wurde in openSUSE veröffentlicht und getaggt AMD, ATI, Linux, openSUSE, Radeon, RPM, Treiber, X-Server. Ein Lesezeichen auf das Permalink. setzen. Die Kommentare sind geschlossen, aber Sie können einen Trackback hinterlassen: Trackback-URL.

linux — How to install AMD Catalyst 15.7 (fglrx 15.20.1046) on Kali 2.0 (Sana)?

** Update 2045/09/21 **

  • New links for mutter packages

To install Catalyst 15.7 on Kali 2.0 we have to be very careful. I try to explain briefly where the driver is installed.

First of all, we know that Kali 2.0 is based on Debian 8, therefore, when the X server starts loading the driver modules, it does so within the directory /usr/lib. This happens in Debian.

When the installation script of Catalyst starts running, it detects the architecture of our computer and look for the following folders in the following order: If architecture is x86_x64 will search for the /usr/lib64 directory, if the directory does not exist, then use the /usr/lib for installation. Something similar happens to the i386 architecture.

Kali has both directories, /usr/lib and /usr/lib64. Earlier it was mentioned that Kali is based on Debian, so in Kali, the X server will load the modules of the driver from the directory /usr/lib but because Kali also has the /usr/lib64 directory, when installing Catalyst this will be installed on /usr/lib64 directory and not on /usr/lib which is where it should be installed.

To correct the above problem, we have to rename the directories /usr/lib64 and /usr/x86_64-linux-gnu adding a point before the name, this will cause directories be hidden, and so the script installation will not find them and instead will use /usr/lib to install the driver.

Execute the following commands to perform a successful installation.

First we rename directories:

mv /usr/lib64 /usr/.lib64

mv /usr/x86_64-linux-gnu /usr/.x86_64-linux-gnu

Since Kali has the kernel 4. 0 we will need to patch Catalyst to make it work with that version of the kernel, but we can save this step by downloading the following package already patched for me.

AMD Catalyst 15.7

Before we begin, we need to install some dependencies, so we will open a terminal and execute the following command:

apt-get install gcc g++ make dkms fakeroot

After downloading Catalyst, we must unpack. In the folder where you unpack Catalyst we will open a terminal and run the following commands:

cd Setup-Experimental

mkdir /lib/modules/4.0.0-kali1-amd64/build/include/linux

cp /usr/include/linux/version.h /lib/modules/4.0.0-kali1-amd64/build/include/linux/

sh ati-installer.sh 15.20 --install

Once the driver is installed, it will ask if you want to restart the computer. Select «no».

Now we need to create a configuration file for the X server, so execute the following command:

aticonfig --initial

Note: If you need to use different options with aticonfig command, please read the help of it, running in a terminal the following command:

aticonfig --help

By default, Kali comes with GNOME, so we have to take the following steps if we want GNOME to work properly.

Unfortunately Catalyst has some compatibility issues with GNOME, so, to correct, we must run in a terminal the following commands:

echo "export COGL_DRIVER=gl" >> /etc/environment

echo "export COGL_OVERRIDE_GL_VERSION=1.4" >> /etc/environment

echo "export COGL_RENDERER=GLX" >> /etc/environment

echo "export LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/fglrx/fglrx-libGL.so.1.2" >> /etc/environment

The previous commands helps mutter to detect the version of OpenGL, with this, the issue with GDM is solved.

Now we need help mutter to detect the version of OpenGL that our GNOME session can load properly. To do this, run in a terminal the following commands:

echo "export COGL_DRIVER=gl" > ~/.xsession

echo "export COGL_OVERRIDE_GL_VERSION=1.4" >> ~/.xsession

echo "export COGL_RENDERER=GLX" >> ~/. xsession

echo "export LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/fglrx/fglrx-libGL.so.1.2" >> ~/.xsession

echo "gnome-session" >> ~/.xsession

GNOME laptop users only.

In laptops, gnome-shell crash, reason for the crash is an X error asserting arguments to XRRChangeOutputProperty called from mutter-3.14.4/src/backends/x11/meta-monitor-manager-xrandr.c:output_set_presentation_xrandr

To correct this error, we must recompile «mutter» with a patch source. For users of the amd64 architecture can save the job, downloading the following files, which compiled and packed it myself.

gir1.2-mutter-3.0_3.14.4-1~deb8u1_amd64.deb

libmutter-dev_3.14.4-1~deb8u1_amd64.deb

libmutter0e_3.14.4-1~deb8u1_amd64.deb

mutter_3.14.4-1~deb8u1_amd64.deb

mutter-common_3.14.4-1~deb8u1_all.deb

mutter-dbg_3.14.4-1~deb8u1_amd64.deb

For users of the i386 architecture, soon I’ll upload the packages compiled and packaged, so stay tuned to this guide.

To install the packages need to open a terminal in the folder where you downloaded the packages and run the following command:

sudo dpkg -i *.deb

If we have problems with some dependencies when installing packages, it is only necessary to run the following command:

sudo apt-get -f install

Before restarting our computer, we must rename renamed directories initially, because they contain files that our system needs.

In a terminal run the following commands:

mv /usr/.lib64 /usr/lib64

mv /usr/.x86_64-linux-gnu /usr/x86_64-linux-gnu

And with that we’re done. Now we just have to restart our computer to enjoy Catalyst 15.7.

Bulletin of the Bashkir University

BICEOLITE CATALYST FOR THE PROCESS OF HYDRODEWAXING OF HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS

Bulletin of the Bashkir University. 2019. Volume 24. No. 4. pp. 814-817.

Download

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33184/bulletin-bsu-2019.4.8

  • Copyright © M. L. Pavlov0016

    Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 453256 Salavat, st. Molodogvardeytsev, 30

    Email: [email protected]

  • © R. A. Basimova

    Scientific and Technical Center Salavatnefteorgsintez LLC

    Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 453256 Salavat, st. Molodogvardeytsev, 30

  • © R. A. Karimov

    Salavatneftekhimproekt LLC

    Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 453259 Salavat, st. Gagarina, 8

  • © I. N. Pavlova

    Institute of Petrochemistry and Catalysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 450075 Ufa, Oktyabrya Ave., 141

  • © I. E. Alekhina

    Bashkir State University

    Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 450076 Ufa, st. Zaki Validi,32

As a result of the research, a biceolite catalyst for the process of hydrodewaxing of hydrocarbon fractions containing Y and ZSM-5 zeolites was synthesized, its catalytic properties were studied and compared with the properties of an imported industrial catalyst. It is shown that in the reaction of hydrocarbon fraction hydrodewaxing using synthesized and industrial catalysts at equal pour and pour temperatures, the synthesized catalyst provides a lower filterability limit temperature (-51°C) than the imported catalyst (-49°C). In this case, the yield of the target hydrocarbon fraction on the synthesized catalyst is higher by 13.2 wt %.

Keywords :

  • biceolite catalyst
  • hydrodewaxing
  • hydrocarbon fraction
  • Y and ZSM-5 zeolites
  • bizeolite catalyst
  • hydrodewaxing
  • hydrocarbon fraction
  • Y zeolite
  • ZSM-5 zeolite

LITERATURE

  1. Khavkin V. A., Gulyaeva L. A., Krasilnikova L. A., Shmelnikova O. I., Ishmurzin A. V. The World of Oil Products. 2012. No. 5. pp. 7-8.
  2. Kameshkov A. V., Gaile A. A. Organic synthesis and biotechnology. 2015. No. 29. pp. 49-50.
  3. Rakoski R. A., Mors P. M. Processing of hydrocarbons. 2013. No. 6. pp. 67-69.
  4. Gurevich S. A., Kozhevin V. M., Yavsin D. A. [et al.]; applicant and patent holder JSC «Gazpromneft-Omsk Refinery». Catalyst for hydroisomerization of diesel fuel. RF patent No. 2620813. IPC B01J29/44. dec. 07/06/2016; publ. 05/30/2017. 9 p.
  5. Sergienko S. A., Krasilnikova L. A., Misko O. M., [and others]; applicant and patent holder of OAO VNII NP. Catalyst and method for hydroisomerization of diesel distillates using it. RF patent No. 2535213. IPC B01J29/42. dec. 10/22/2013; publ. 12/10/2014. 7 s.
  6. Klimov O. V., Uvarkina D. D., Dick P. P. [et al.]; applicant and patent holder “Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science Institute of Catalysis named after V.I. G.K. Boreskov of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Catalyst, method of its preparation and diesel fuel hydroisomerization process. Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2536585. IPC B01J29/44. dec. 09/27/2013; publ. 12/27/2014. 10 s.
  7. Elia K. N., Lai V. F.; applicant and patent holder ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company. Deparaffinization method and catalyst for its implementation. US Patent No. 2501843. IPC C10G45/64. dec. 12/15/2009; publ. 12/20/2013. 17 p.
  8. Gulyaeva L. A., Krasilnikova L. A., Khavkin V. A. [et al.]; applicant and patent holder JSC «VNII NP». Catalyst for hydroisodewaxing of middle distillate hydrocarbon fractions. Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2612134. IPC B01J 29/48. dec. 12/25/2015; publ. 03/02/2015. 8 s.
  9. I. D. Reznichenko, M. I. Tselyutina, O. M. Posokhova, [et al.]; applicant and patent holder JSC «AZKiOS». Zeolite-containing catalyst for the dewaxing of oil fractions. RF patent No. 2518468. IPC B01J 29/076. dec. 09/17/2012; publ. 06/10/2014. 6 s.
  10. Belyavsky O. G., Glazov A. V., Panov A. V. [et al.]; applicant and patent holder JSC «Gazpromneft-Omsk Refinery». Catalyst and method for isodeparaffinization of diesel distillates using it. RF patent №2549617. IPC B01J29/072. dec. 04/02/2014; publ. 04/27/2015. 9 p.
  11. Reznichenko I. D., Bocharov A. P., Levina L. A. [i dr.]; applicant and patent holder OJSC Angarsk Plant of Catalysts and Organic Synthesis. A method for obtaining a base base for petroleum oils. RF patent No. 2310681 IPC C10G65 / 12. dec. 08/01/2006; publ. 11/20/2007. 9 p.
  12. Pavlov M. L., Basimova R. A., Shavaleev D. A., Pavlova I. N., Khazipova A. N., Alekhina I. E. Synthesis of micro-mesoporous zeolite catalyst for liquid-phase alkylation of benzene with ethylene and ethane — ethylene fraction of pyrolysis // Bulletin of the Bashkir University. 2018. V. 23. No. 2. pp. 368-371.
Copyright © Bashkir University Bulletin 2010-2022

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    , alcohol, — Translation into English — examples Russian

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    alcohol and
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    These examples may contain rude words based on your search.

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    alcohol
    2705

    ethanol
    425

    pure alcohol

    industrial alcohol

    isopropyl alcohol

    Mixer, test tubes , alcohol, oil and catalyst.

    Blender, a scale, tubes , alcohol, industrial oil.

    Do not use leather cleansers, alcohol, peroxide, iodine, or soaps with antibacterial chemicals.

    Do not use skin cleansers , alcohol, peroxide, iodine, or soaps with antibacterial chemicals.

    Moreover, , alcohol, has been found to reduce the allergenic properties of other foods.

    Moreover , alcohol as it appeared, reduces allergenic properties of other foodstuff.

    If ammonia is not at hand, use other liquids with a pungent odor — vinegar , alcohol, gasoline.

    If you do not have ammonia on hand, use other liquids with a strong odor — vinegar , alcohol, gasoline.

    Tinctures and liquid extracts are made from active plant ingredients dissolved in a liquid (usually water , alcohol or glycerin).

    Tinctures and liquid extracts are made of active organic components liquefied in a liquid (generally liquor, glycerol , or water).

    For parenteral administration, such as subcutaneous injection, the carrier preferably contains water, saline , alcohol, fat, wax or buffer.

    For parenteral administration, such as subcutaneous injection, the carrier preferably comprises water, saline , alcohol, a fat, a wax or a buffer.

    Non-limiting examples of acceptable liquids include one or a combination of water , alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, and/or esters.

    Non-limiting examples of suitable liquids include one or a combination of water , alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, and/or esters.

    caustic technical liquids: gasoline, kerosene , alcohol, used engine oil;

    caustic technical liquids: gasoline, kerosene , alcohol, used engine oil;

    The shops have canned food, wine , alcohol,

    Canned things in shops; wines , spirits

    Houseplants purify the air by removing formaldehyde, benzene, ammonia , alcohol, xylene and other toxic chemicals harmful to the human body.

    Houseplants clean the air by removing formaldehyde, benzene, ammonia , alcohol, xylene and other toxic chemicals harmful to the human body.

    Sometimes the owners of the house prepare a large jar of punch, which contains wine , alcohol, fruit juice and water in various proportions.

    Sometimes the host makes a big bowl of punch which consists of wine , spirits, fruit juice and water in varying proportions…

    Acne lotions and tonics are liquid compounds that include water , alcohol, plant extracts and other active ingredients.

    Lotions and tonics against acne are liquid compounds, which include water , alcohol, plant extracts and other active ingredients.

    It is forbidden to import coffee, matches , alcohol, pork, any meat products from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, drugs, firearms (except for sporting rifles, but they need to get permission).

    Coffee, matches , methylated spirits, pork, all meat products from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, drugs and firearms (except sporting rifles with relevant permit).

    Natural Products Information about Greek natural products such as olives and olive oil, honey, wine , alcohol, vinegar , herbs, spices, nuts, sweets.

    Information about natural products of Greece like olives and olive oil, honey, wine , alcohol, vinegar, herbs, spices, nuts and sweet.

    Gasoline, diesel fuel , alcohol, kerosene, propane can be used to run a Skycar while mileage is comparable to an average car, 20 miles (32.2 km) per gallon.

    Gasoline, diesel , alcohol, kerosene and propane can be used to fuel the Skycar, and its fuel mileage will be comparable to that of a medium-sized car, getting 20 miles (32.2 km) to the gallon.

    It is clear that the same mechanism cannot work here — four different substances: water , alcohol, milk sugar and cane sugar grains.

    Clearly the same mechanism could not be working here — four different substances — water , ethanol, sugar of milk powder and cane sugar pills.

    Toothpaste may seem perfect for acne because its ingredients (hydrogen peroxide , alcohol, menthol , essential oils) can reduce oil on the skin and dry out acne.

    Toothpaste may seem ideal for fighting acne because its ingredients (hydrogen peroxide , alcohol, menthol, essential oils) can reduce oil on the skin and dry out pimples.

    A large amount of corn grain is processed into starch, alcohol, beer, glucose, sugar, oil, vitamins and many other types of products that serve as raw materials for various industries.

    Great amount of corn is processed into starch , alcohol, beer, glucose, sugar, oil, vitamins and many other types of products that serve as raw materials for various industries.

    In order to improve the flowability of the reaction solution and to effectively promote the reaction , the alcohol is preferably used in excess of the amount of amino groups of the organic primary amine.

    In order to improve the flowability of a reaction solution and to efficiently promote the reaction , alcohol is preferably used in an excessive amount with respect to the amount of the amino group of the organic primary amine.

    Our products contain only 100% natural ingredients and do not contain substances that commonly cause reactions in humans, such as parabens , alcohol, lanolin and paraffin.

    Our products contain only 100% natural ingredients and are free from many substances that commonly cause a reaction with people such as parabens , alcohol, lanolin and paraffin.

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    No results found for this meaning.

    alcohol
    2705

    ethanol
    425

    pure alcohol

    industrial alcohol

    isopropyl alcohol

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    Procurement Notice 2016

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    4 D.E. Verfahner zur kontinuierlichen Herstellung von Stabilen Chlorparaffinen / Erlenbach Lutz, Conrad Cuno, Hermann Rudolf; dec. 12/16/1969; publ. 06/24/1971, Bull. No. 22.

    34. Endyuskin V.P., Gorbushkina A.N., Danilov S.D., Endyuskin P.N., Lukin P.M. Low-waste technology for the production of chlorinated paraffins // Ecology and Industry of Russia, 2006. — April. — P. 10-11.

    35. Pat. 15

    477 Russian Federation. The method of chlorination of paraffinic hydrocarbons / E.S. Balakirev, I.A. Dyakonov, V.A. Filimonov, B.A. Ilyin; dec. 08/27/1998; publ. 06/10/2000.

    40. Application 9

    45 Russian Federation. The method of chlorination of paraffin / E.D. Vertuzaev, V.M. Yuriev, V.A. Filimonov, E.S. Balakirev, B.A. Ilyin, I.A. Dyakonov; dec. 01/11/1999; publ. 10/20/2000.

    41. Aliev N.U., Sakhatova G.S., Yagudeev T.A., Altaeva G.S. Chlorination of n-paraffins isolated from oils of Kazakhstan / Oil refining and petrochemistry. 2003: Materials of the scientific-practical conference, Ufa, May 21, 2003.- Ufa: INHP.- P. 172-175.

    42. Karazhozov S., Prodanov E., Dunov A. Chlorination of paraffins in a film reactor // Zhurn. VHO them. DI. Mendeleev, 1985.- No. 3,- S. 350-351.

    43. Pat. 2

    3 USA. Parafïn wax chlorination process / John W. Jenney, Madison, Richard C. Rahn; head 11/06/1958; publ. 06/14/1960, Bull. No. 42.

    44. Pat. 1180726 D.E. Verfahren zum kontinuierlichen Chlorieren von fluessigen und wachsartigen Paraffinen / Dr. Werner Jacquemin, Marl; dec. 09/22/1962; publ. 11/05/1964, Bull. No. 5.

    45. Pat. 2111672 France. Demande de brevet dinvention / Simonnot, Rinuy, Santarelli; dec. 11/26/1979; publ. 04/25/1980, Bull. No. 17.

    46. Suvorova A.I., Safronov A.P., Purgina S.V. Low-combustible compositions of polyvinyl chloride with mixed plasticizers / Destruction and stabilization of polymers: Abstracts of the 9th Conference. — Moscow, 2001.-S. 193-194.

    47. Strizhakova Yu.A. Chlorination of chloroolefins Cz in the liquid phase // Abstract of the thesis. for the competition uch. step. chem. nauk.- Samara, 2000.- 23 p.

    48. Smolyan Z.S., Bodrikov I.V., Sedov M.P., Spiridonova C.V. Chlorination of saturated hydrocarbons induced by alkenes // Chemical Industry, 1972.- No. 11.- P. 807-811.

    49. Kazakov A. K., Levanova C.V., Pechatnikov N.G. Reducing the amount of waste in the processes of chlorination of hydrocarbons // Environment for us and future generations. — Samara, 2000. — P. 19-20.

    50. Pat. 1768367 D.E. Verfahren zur Herstellung von 1,2-Dichloraethan / Fruhwirth Otto, Schmidhammer Ludwig, Pichl Eduard; dec. 06.05.1968; publ. 03/09/1972, Bull. No. 44.

    51. Pat. 2245318 Russian Federation. A method for stabilizing halogenated paraffins / L.I. Kutyanin, A.A. Kuznetsov, I.S. Poddubny, H.A. Ivanova, S.A. Sergeev; head 08/14/2002; publ. 27.01.2005, Bull. No. 21.

    52. Flid M.R., Treger Yu.A. Vinyl chloride: chemistry and technology.- M.: Kalvis, 2008.- 368 p.

    53. Zanaveskin L.N., Konorev O.A., Averyanov V.A. Oxidative methods of processing and detoxification of organochlorine wastes. Course on resource saving and environmental safety // Chemical Industry, 2002.- №2.- P. 3-18.

    54. Zanaveskin L.N., Averyanov V.A., Treger Yu.A. Prospects for the development of methods for processing organohalogen waste. Patterns of catalytic hydrogenolysis of halogen-containing compounds // Uspekhi khimii, 1996.- No. 65.- P. 667-675.

    55. Zanaveskin L.N., Averyanov V.A. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Problems of Environmental Pollution and Technological Methods of Decontamination // Uspehi Chemistry, 1998.- T.68.- No. 8.- P. 788-800.

    56. Korte F. Fundamentals and concepts // Ecological chemistry.- M.: Mir, 1996.615 p.

    57. Protasov V.F. Ecology, health and environmental protection in Russia // Educational and reference manual. — M .: Finance and statistics, 2001. — 665 p.

    58. Vaisman Ya.I., Khalturin V.G., Sorokin A.I., Karmanov V.V. Utilization of organochlorine pesticides // Ecology and industry of Russia, 2002.-December.- P. 34-35.

    59. Bukov N.N., Larionov K.V., Repnaya L.F., Panyushkin V.T., Strelkov V.D. Utilization of chlorine-containing pesticides // Ecology and industry of Russia, 2007. — March, — P. 7-9.

    60. Bernadiner M.N., Shurygin A.P. Fire processing and disposal of industrial waste. — M.: Chemistry, 1990.- 371 p.

    61. Muganlinsky F.F., Treger Yu.A., Lyushin M.M. Chemistry and technology of organohalogen compounds.- M.: Chemistry.- 1991.- 272 p.

    62. Bernadiner M.N. Thermal-oxidative (fire) neutralization of liquid organochlorine waste // Chemical industry today, 2004.- №7.-p. 40-43.

    63. Scheer A. Dioxin sources in the environment // Chemosphere, 1998. Vol. 17.-№4.-P. 627-631.

    64. Shurygin A.P., Bernadiner M.N. Environmental protection from industrial emissions.- M.: MPEI, 1978.- 228 p.

    65. Safarova V.I. etc. Ecoanalytical control in the environmental quality assessment system.- M.: Inter, 2004.- 228 p.

    66. Maltseva A.S., Frolov Yu.E., Zharova N.N., Rozlovsky A.I. Stationary combustion of mixtures containing chloroalkanes // Chemical industry, 1984.-№1.- P. 19-21.

    67. Konorev O.A. Reactor for the oxidation of organochlorine waste. Abstract diss. cand. tech. Sciences.- M.: MITHT, 2002.- 16 p.

    68. Bernadiner M. N., Bernadiner I.M. Fire disposal of superecotoxicants // Ecology and industry of Russia, 2004.- June.1. pp. 12-14.

    69. Konorev O.A., Zanaveskin L.N., Suris A.L., Uskach Ya.L. Waste processing of organochlorine production by catalytic oxidation // Ecology and industry of Russia, 2003.- January.- P. 8-11.

    70. Khitrin L.N. Physics of combustion and explosion. — M .: MGU, 1957. — 223 p.

    71. Bernadiner M.N., Sanfirov E.S. High-temperature processing and neutralization of toxic wastes containing organochlorine substances // Chemical industry, 1996.- No. 6.- S. 390-397.

    72. Sharf V.Z., Gurovets A.S., Slinyakova I.B., Finn L.P., Freidlin L.Kh., Krutiy V.N. Study of the catalytic activity of metal complexes fixed on a solid support. Izv. USSR Academy of Sciences, Ser. Khim., 1980.- No. 1.- S. 114-116.

    73. Treger Yu.A. State and prospects for the development of the industry of organochlorine synthesis // Zhurn. VHO them. DI. Mendeleev, 1985.- T.ZO.-№3. — S. 242-255.

    Processing of carbon tetrachloride and its wastes into methyl chloride // Chemical industry today, 2007.-№5.- P. 22-31.

    75. Smirnov V.V., Berlin E.R., Abdrashitov Ya.M. Alternative technology for the utilization of carbon tetrachloride // Agrohim. business, 1995.- No. 16-17.1. pp. 39-47.

    76. Treger Yu. A., Kartashov JI.M., Krishtal N.F. Basic organochlorine solvents.- M.: Chemistry, 1984.- 224 p.

    77. Kartashov L.M., Flid M.R., Treger Yu.A., Dasaeva G.S. Qualified processing of organochlorine wastes of industrial production // Chemical industry today, 2004.- No. 7.- P. 33-39.

    78. Zambacher F. // The use and processing of vinyl chloride waste into per- and trichlorethylenes: Report at the symposium of the Rutner company (Austria), 1984.

    79. Levanova S.V. Investigation and thermodynamic analysis of transformations of halogen derivatives (SH, Br») of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Author’s abstract of diss. Doctor of Chemical Sciences. Kuibyshev Polytechnic Institute, 1979.- 38 p.

    80. Golubeva E.H., Nevskaya S.M. , Vorontsov VV, Abdrashitov YM Immobilized complexes of copper chloride with dimethylformamide as catalysts for the reaction of CC14 with n decane // Izv.97.- No. 10.1. S. 1835-1838.

    81. Treger Yu.A., Guzhnovskaya T.D. Intensification of organochlorine production // Highly efficient catalytic systems.- M.: Chemistry, 1989.- 80 p.

    82. Sonin E.V., Shkalyabin O.K., Treger Yu.A. Development of methods for obtaining vinyl chloride // Zhurn. VHO them. DI. Mendeleev, 1985.- T.30.- No. 3.- S. 255-260.

    83. Nesmeyanov A.N. Methods of organoelement chemistry. Chlorine, aliphatic compounds.- M.: Chemistry, 1978.- S. 15-37.

    84. A.c. 1122643 USSR. Method for obtaining 1,1,2,3-tetrachloropropene / S.S. Shavanov, G.A. Tolstikov, T.V. Shutenkova, A.S. Ikhsanov, V.P. Vasiliev, N.M. Sadykov, S.R. Rafikov; dec. 01/22/1981; publ. 07.11.1984, Bull. No. 41.

    85. Glezin I.L., Petrov V. N., Timofeev G.A. Modern state and methods of environmental protection in petrochemical and oil shale processing industries. — M.: Nauka, 1984. — P.3-10.

    86. Solyannikov V.E., Bykov D.E., Abdrashitov Ya.M. Pyrolysis of saturated C2 polychlorides // Dep. in VNIINTPI, 1996.- No. 11601.- 8 p.

    87. Solyannikov V.E., Bykov D.E., Abdrashitov Ya.M. High-temperature transformations of trichloroethene and tetrachlorethene // Dep. in VNIINTPI, 1996.-No. 11602.-8 p.

    88. Nesmeyanova A.N., Kocheshkova K.A. Methods of organoelement chemistry // Handbook.- M.: Nauka, 1973.- 121 p.

    89. Zanaveskin JI.H. Catalytic hydrogenolysis of chloroethanes and chloroethyls. Abstract diss. cand. chemical sciences. — M.: GOSNIICHLORPROEKT, 1987, — 15 p.

    90. Pat. 2039731 Russian Federation. The method of obtaining chlorobenzene / JI.H. Zanaveskin, V.A. Averyanov, S.A. Popov, JI.E. Pashchenko, Yu.A. Treger, N.M. Feofanova, I.Ya. Mokrousova; filed 05/18/1993; publ. 07/20/1995, Bull. No. 13.

    91. Zanaveskin JI.H., Averyanov V.A. Thermal hydrogenolysis of organochlorine compounds. Basic patterns and development prospects // Chemical Industry, 1999.- No. 2.- P. 3-13.

    92. Zaydman O.A., Vertukhova E.I., Zanaveskin L.N., Treger Yu.A. Substitutive catalytic hydrogenation of C2 chlorine derivatives // Chemical Industry, 1991.- No. 9.- P. 5-10.

    93. Flid M.R. Resource-saving, chlorine-balanced technologies for the production of vinyl chloride from ethane-ethylene feedstock. Abstract diss. doc. tech. Sciences.- M.: MITHT, 2002.- 51 p.

    94. Dmitriev Yu.K. Resource- and energy-saving technologies for the production of organochlorine products based on ethylene and propylene. Abstract diss. doc. tech. nauk.- Ufa, 2007.- 48 p.

    95. Dasaeva G.S., Velichko S.M., Treger Yu.A., Moiseev I.I. Hydrodechlorination of CC14 in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 // Kinetics and catalysis, 1990.- T.31.- No. 4.- P. 858-862.

    96. Dasaeva G.S., Treger Yu. A., Moiseev I.I., Zanaveskin JI.H. Liquid-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination of carbon tetrachloride // Chemical industry, 1996.-№6,- S. 16-20.

    97. Zanaveskin JI.H., Averyanov V.A. Carbon tetrachloride. Methods of processing into environmentally friendly products and prospects for their development // Chemical Industry, 2002.- No. 9.- P. 4-21.

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    99. Treger Yu.A., Kartashov L.M. The problem of waste processing of organochlorine production and methods of its solution. Creation of non-waste technologies // Russian Chemical Journal, 1998.- T.42,- №6.- S. 58-66.

    100. Shiryaev V.K., Ivanov A.Yu. Reductive dehydrochlorination of trichlorethylene // Chemical Industry, 1998.- No. 1.- P. 3-4.

    101. Averyanov V.A., Zanaveskin L.N., Popov S.A., Treger Yu.A. Kinetics of catalytic hydrogenolysis of chlorobenzene // Chemical Industry, 1997. — No. 12.- P. 28-32.

    102. Lokteva E.S., Simagina V.I., Golubina E.V., Stoyanova I.V., Lunin V.V. Formation of C1-C5 hydrocarbons from CCI4 in the presence of palladium catalysts deposited on a carbon carrier // Kinetics and Catalysis, 2000.- T.41.- No. 6.- P. 855-860.

    103. Dasaeva G.S., Flid M.R., Dmitriev Yu.K., Kartashov L.M., Treger Yu.A. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,2 dichloroethane // Chemical industry, 2000.- No. 3.- P. 49-54.

    104. Dasaeva G.S., Flid M.R., Dmitriev Yu.K., Kartashov L.M., Treger Yu.A. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,1,2 trichloroethane // Chemical Industry, 2000.- No. 4.- P. 43-46.

    105. Kartashov L.M., Treger Yu.A., Flid M.R., Koblov A.A., Kalyuzhnaya T.L. Processing of vinyl chloride production waste by catalytic hydrodechlorination // Chemical industry, 2009.- No. 2.- S. 34-45.

    106. Serguchev Yu.A., Belokopytov Yu.V. Kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenolysis of chlorobenzenes and chlorocyclohexanes // Kinetics and catalysis, 2001. — T.42.- No. 2.- P. 195-203.

    107. Mishakov I.V., Buyanov P.A., Chesnokov V.V. A method for the utilization of chlorohydrocarbons on nickel- and cobalt-containing catalysts // Catalysis in industry, 2002.- No. 4.- P. 33-39.

    108. Gentsler A.G., Simagina V.I., Netskina O.V., Komova O.V., Tsybulya S.V., Abrosimov O.G. Study of the regularities of catalytic hydrodechlorination on palladium-containing catalysts // Kinetics and Catalysis, 2007.- T. 48.- No. 1.- P. 66-73.

    Hydrogenolysis of chlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene on bimetallic catalysts // Green Chemistry, 2005, No. 12.1. P. 133-147.

    110. Yakovlev V.A. Liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of chloraromatic compounds in the presence of supported catalysts. Abstract diss. cand. chem. nauk.-Novosibirsk, 2001.- 18 p.

    111. GOST 18995.1-73. Organic chemical products. Methods for determining the physical indicators of quality.- M., 1973.

    112. GOST 14871-76. Reagents. Methods for determining the color of liquid chemical reagents and reagent solutions. — M., 1976.

    113. GOST 5960-72 as amended. 1-9. Polyvinyl chloride compound for insulation and protective sheaths of wires and cables. — M., 1972.

    114. GOST 14236-81. Films are polymeric. Tensile test method.-M., 1981.

    115. GOST 14041-91. Plastics. Determination of the tendency to release hydrogen chloride and other acidic products at high temperature in compositions and products based on homopolymers and copolymers of vinyl chloride. Congo method red.- M., 1992.

    116. GOST 11645-73. Plastics. Method for determining the flow rate of thermoplastic melt.- M., 1973.

    Pilot CCE fake catalyst emulator eliminates errors P0420, P0430 — Pilot Engineering

    $49.00

    This 2-channel emulator1 — is easy to install: 9028 for engines with two catalysts
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    100% works on Lexus, Tyota, Subaru, Mazda, Honda, Jeep, Suzuki, etc.
    has the ability to configure and log all emulation parameters health

    Pilot CCE fake catalyst emulator eliminates errors P0420, P0430

    Article: Pilot_CCE

    Categories: Pilot CCE, Catalyst emulator

    • Description

    • Specifications

    • Installation instructions

    • Software and settings

    • FAQ/Questions

    • Reviews (9)

    Description

    Unlike mechanical spacers for lambda probes,
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    Even if it suddenly happens that after installation,
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    Pinout and connection diagram at the top of this page

    A special configurator for Lexus has been added to the «Software and settings» section — now settings for most Lexus models are loaded in just a couple of clicks


    No tags for this entry

    Specifications

    • Supply voltage range 8-16V
    • Reverse polarity and surge protection YES
    • Support for lambda probes with offset signal ground
    • Two processing channels.
      i.e. easily installed on engines with two catalysts and two additional oxygen sensors — you do not have to buy two emulators.
    • 100% works on Lexus(RX, LX, IS,ES,GS), Toyota and KIA cars, on which, in most cases, folk methods such as spacers for lambda probes and capacitor + resistor circuits do not work. Full emulation of catalyst warm-up and response to enrichment / leanness of the auto mixture
    • With Bluetooth module hc-06, it is possible to:
      — wireless connection to a laptop
      — change settings
      — logging all parameters
      — firmware updates

    There are no tags for this entry

    Installation instructions

    There is nothing complicated in installing the emulator and, if you have little knowledge in electrics, you can install it yourself.

    Pinout

    Installing on a car
    Install according to the diagram below

    (If your browser does not enlarge the picture, save it and open it with any image viewer )

    Attention! It is very important to connect the emulator power minus as close as possible to the computer, ideally to the ecu ground or minus coolant temperature sensor.
    The power wires of the lambda probe heater have the same colors. In order to find which of them is supplied with + 12V, use a multimeter or a control lamp (relative to the car body).

    For 4-cylinder engines with one catalyst, the second channel of the emulator does not need to be connected anywhere. no need 🙂
    On tricky models, you may need to change the settings, the list of tricky cars is below 🙂
    Why did we make it possible to change settings and log parameters?
    Everything is very simple — on some brands of cars, lambda probes can be connected with an offset.
    Also, for some manufacturers, the criteria for evaluating the performance of a catalyst differ from the standard ones. In order not to send emulator boards back and forth and save your time, we made a universal board with the ability to change settings.
    i.e. this emulator will work on almost any brand of car.
    Well, for the owners of those brands for which the standard settings are not suitable, we always help to remove the log and prepare non-standard settings. In addition, when placing an order, you can specify the brand of your car, and we will fill in the appropriate settings in advance.
    List of vehicles that may require alternative tuning 2.0L California

  • Mitsubishi Outlander 2010
    When installed on Mitsubishi Outlander 2010, the emulator ground must be connected to the car body, the lambda probe preheater ground wire cannot be used for this purpose. You will also need to upload a new settings file (see attachments in the topic on the forum)
  • Toyota Corolla 2009g 1.8l
  • LEXUS RX330 2005 and up with LZ offset signal ground
    Alternate settings required. The emulator is working 🙂
  • LEXUS GX470,LEXUS RX300,GS300,LS430
    Standard settings fit. There are a lot of emulators installed.
  • Toyota Camry 40 2.4 incl. and with PZEV engines (two catalysts and three lambda probes)
  • Toyota Camry 45 2.5
  • Toyota Sequoia 2005+
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    ZALIMOV TIMUR RAISOVICH

    REDUCING THE MAN-MADE IMPACT OF ETHYLENE OLIGOMERIZATION WASTE AND ORGANOCHLOROGENIC PRODUCTIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT (on the example of JSC Caustic)

    Specialty 03.00.16 — «Ecology»

    1 DEC 2009

    ABSTRACT

    dissertations for the degree of candidate of technical sciences

    Ufa-2009

    003488539

    The work was carried out at the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University.

    Supervisor

    Official opponents:

    Lead organization

    Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Yagafarova Guzel Gabdullovna.

    Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Bykov Dmitry Evgenievich;

    Doctor of Chemistry, Professor Mazitova Aliya Karamovna.

    Bashkir State

    university.

    The defense will take place on December 23, 2009 at 10:00 at a meeting of the council for the defense of doctoral and master’s theses D 212.289.03 at the Ufa State Oil Technical University at the address: 450062, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, st. Cosmonauts, 1.

    The dissertation can be found in the library of the Ufa State Oil Technical University.

    Abstract sent out November 23, 2009.

    Scientific secretary of the council

    Abdulminev K.G.

    General characteristics of the work Relevance of the topic. Protecting the environment from man-made pollution is one of the global environmental problems. The solution to this problem is possible only by an integrated approach, solving the problem of reducing the amount of waste in the environment or using waste as secondary raw materials. The importance of the problem of using secondary resources becomes more acute, since the reserves of mineral and organic raw materials are limited, their extraction is shifting to hard-to-reach places. In this regard, the disposal of ethylene oligomerization waste in order to produce target products is an urgent problem. —

    Increasing production and consumption of organochlorine products inevitably leads to an increase in the generation and accumulation of waste. At present, the organochlorine wastes of the Sterlitamak JSC «Kaustik» are subject to incineration, part of the wastes is subjected to high-temperature oxidative destruction in a chlorine environment to obtain an organochlorine solvent perchlorethylene. Thermal combustion produces highly toxic products such as chlorine, nitrogen oxides, phosgene and dioxins. In addition, this method leads to the irreversible loss of hydrocarbons, the release of carbon dioxide into the environment and the rapid wear of equipment.

    The most versatile and promising method of recycling and reducing the technogenic impact of organochlorine waste in terms of preventing damage to the environment and public health without the threat of obtaining side toxic substances is the method of liquid-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination or hydrogenolysis using available molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenolysis has an obvious resource-saving potential. One of the urgent problems of the industrial use of the schdrogenolysis method is the search for a catalytic system that includes both optimal conditions for the process and an active and stable catalyst.

    Purpose of work. Development of an integrated approach to the disposal of ethylene oligomerization wastes and industrial organochlorine wastes of JSC «Kaustik» in order to reduce the impact of technogenic factors on the environment and obtain useful products.

    To achieve this goal, the following tasks were solved:

    — to develop and introduce into industrial production a resource-saving process for the disposal of waste from the production of ethylene oligomerization of a — olefins of the C14-C32 fraction with the production of stable chlorohydrocarbons — analogues of liquid chlorinated paraffins;

    — to develop and introduce into industry formulations of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) compositions using chlorohydrocarbons as multifunctional additives with the properties of a secondary plasticizer and lubricant;

    -develop an industrial process for the disposal of waste from the production of vinshshuride, epichlorohydrin and perchlorethylene by liquid-phase hydrogenolysis;

    — search for an active and stable catalyst for the hydrogenolysis process.

    Scientific novelty

    1 For the first time, an environmentally friendly method for recycling waste from ethylene oligomerization by two-stage thermal and initiated chlorination was developed to obtain the target product — chlorohydrocarbons, analogues of liquid chlorinated paraffins (KhP-470). It was found that in the presence of a radical initiator, the time of utilization of a-olefins by chlorination decreases by 1.5 times.

    2 A stabilizing composition has been developed, including wt %: hydrogen chloride acceptor — epoxy resin (10-20), antioxidant — ionol (0.1-3), complexing agent — urotropine or tributyl phosphate (0.01-0.04) and chlorohydrocarbons of the С14-С32 fraction (80-90), which increases the stability of chlorohydrocarbons and prevents pollution of the environment by degradation products during their use and storage.

    3 It has been established that chlorohydrocarbons have plasticizing properties in PVC compositions. The thermal stability of PVC — compositions when using chlorinated hydrocarbons instead of HP-470 in various formulations increases by 1. 2-1.4 times. With the introduction of chlorinated hydrocarbons into the formulation of cable plastic compound in an amount of 15-30%, the manufacturability of plastic compound processing is improved by reducing the stickiness of the granules, the indicators «strength at break», «relative elongation at break» by 15-20% increase.

    4 High-temperature inert solvents for liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of industrial wastes were found: AMT-300 transformer oil, vacuum gas oil or heavy gas oil.

    5 Highly active and self-regenerating M-A1-‘P alloy catalyst under the conditions of the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis process was selected. It has been established that the hydrogenolysis of wastes and the activation of the spent catalyst are carried out in one reactor by washing out the inactive aluminum component, which acts as a protective layer, from the surface of the alloyed catalyst after its interaction with hydrogen chloride.

    Practical value

    1 For the first time in Russia in Sterlitamak OJSC «Kaustik» a resource-saving environmentally safe process of utilization of waste from the production of oligomerization of ethylene a-olefins С14-С32 with the production of chlorinated hydrocarbons with a degree of chlorination of 47 ± 2% of mass, with a capacity of 1800 tons per year, was introduced into industry.

    2 The resulting chlorohydrocarbons comply with the technical requirements of TU 2493-277-00203312-2007 with amendments No. 1-3 «Chlorinated liquid paraffins of grades HP-470A and HP-470B». On their basis, formulations of PVC compositions were developed and introduced into production (adhesive PVC tape, cable plastic compound grade OM-40 using stabilized chlorohydrocarbons instead of chlorinated paraffins KhP — 470).

    3 A method has been developed for recycling organochlorine wastes to obtain useful products, excluding the process of environmentally hazardous highly toxic combustion.

    4 A highly active and self-regenerating alloyed Ni-Al-Ti catalyst has been developed and successfully tested in organochlorine waste disposal.

    Work approbation. The results of the work were reported and discussed at the 11th International Conference of Students and Postgraduates «Synthesis, Study of Properties, Modification and Processing of Macromolecular Compounds» (Kazan, 2005), the 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Oligomers «0ligomers-2005» (Kazan, 2005). Odessa, 2005), XVIII Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry «Petrochemistry, Oil Refining and Catalysis» (Moscow, 2007), First All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference «Alternative Sources of Chemical Raw Materials and Fuels» (Ufa , 2008), XXI International scientific and technical conference «Chemical reagents, reagents and processes of low-tonnage chemistry» (Ufa, 2008), X International conference on chemistry and physical chemistry of oligomers «Oligomers-2009″(Volgograd, 2009), III Russian Conference «Actual problems of petrochemistry» (Zvenigorod, 2009).

    Publications. The main material of the dissertation is presented in 11 publications, including 3 patents of the Russian Federation, 1 article in a journal recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission, and 7 articles of Russian and international conferences.

    Structure and scope of the dissertation

    The thesis is presented on 138 pages of typewritten text, consists of an introduction, literature review (Chapter 1), experimental part (Chapter 2), discussion of the results (Chapter 3, 4), conclusions, list of references and applications, includes 18 tables, 17 figures . The bibliographic list includes 122 titles.

    Main content of the work

    The relevance of the work and the purpose of the study are substantiated in the introduction.

    The first chapter is a review of literature data on methods for obtaining higher chlorinated hydrocarbons and their use. Taking into account

    shortcomings of existing methods, the task was set to utilize production wastes into target products — chlorohydrocarbons and reduce their cost.

    The review presents data on the methods of disposal and neutralization of chlorine-containing waste. Catalysts for the process of liquid-phase hydrogenolysis, possible reasons for their deactivation, and the influence of process conditions on the activity and stability of catalysts are considered.

    Solving this problem allows you to simultaneously solve the problem of waste disposal and environmental protection from pollution.

    The second chapter presents the methods of setting up experiments: the utilization of α-olefins by the method of chlorination, the utilization of organochlorine wastes by liquid-phase hydrogenolysis, and methods for the analytical control of the initial substances and the products obtained. To assess the quality of the obtained chlorinated hydrocarbons, the following indicators were used: density, viscosity, thermal stability, mass fraction of chlorine, color, iodine number, melt flow index, tensile strength, the group composition of the obtained substances was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Chromatograms were interpreted using the “internal standard” method.

    The third chapter presents the results of research on methods of waste disposal from the production of oligomerization of ethylene a — olefins of the C14-C32 fraction with the production of chlorohydrocarbons.

    In connection with the depletion of world reserves of oil and other hydrocarbon raw materials, the involvement of α-olefin wastes of the C14-C32 fraction in the production of chlorinated hydrocarbons provides significant savings in raw materials, materials and the release of target products — chlorinated hydrocarbons analogues of liquid chlorinated paraffins, competitive in price in the world market. In practice, these wastes are incinerated, as they do not have a qualified use.

    Processing of α-olefins of C14-C32 fraction. containing (wt.%): fraction C20-C26 not less than 85%, light C18 and below not more than 5%, heavy C2a and above not more than 10%, paraffins not more than 0.6%, by chlorination at a temperature of 35-105 ° FROM,

    chlorine supply rate of 0.1-0.6 g/min we obtain liquid chlorohydrocarbons — analogues of liquid chlorinated paraffins KhP-470 with a degree of chlorination of 45-49 wt.%. Chlorination of a-olefins is carried out in two stages:

    — addition chlorination on the double bond at a temperature of 35-55°C:
    9(1)

    — substitutional chlorination of the obtained product to the required chlorine content in chlorohydrocarbons at a temperature of 40-105°C:

    S „N2pS12 + 6S12 — S „N2p.6S18 + 6NS1, (2)

    where n=14-32.

    The end of the first stage was determined by the iodine number. When the value of the iodine number is less than 1 g per 100 g of the product, the temperature in the reactor was raised to carry out substitutional chlorination. After reaching the required degree of chlorination (chlorine was determined by the Schöniger method), at a temperature of 50–60°C, nitrogen was supplied to the reaction mass to remove the dissolved acid gases and stabilize the chlorohydrocarbons.

    Iron compounds present in the initial С14-С32 a-olefins reduce chlorine conversion, cause the decomposition of chlorohydrocarbons with the release of hydrogen chloride, leading to the production of colored products with a high “color” index. In order to reduce the undesirable effect, complexing agents are used: urotropine, tributyl phosphate (TBP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA). Processing of a-olefins in the presence of tributyl phosphate leads to the production of high-quality and stable chlorohydrocarbons. The quality indicators of chlorohydrocarbons are shown in table 1.

    • In the presence of urotropine, a chlorine content of 48.75% is achieved at a temperature of 100-105°C in 20 hours, producing dark chlorohydrocarbons with an iodine color scale of 3-4. In the presence of tributyl phosphate, the processing time of α-olefins is 16 hours, with the production of chlorohydrocarbons with a color on the iodine scale equal to 1-2. It has been established that urotropin exhibits a low stabilizing effect. The use of an effective tributyl phosphate stabilizer makes it possible to increase the conversion of chlorine, improve the quality of the target product in terms of «color on the iodine scale» and «mass fraction

    acids in terms of HCl. The absence of the need for preliminary purification of processed raw materials from iron compounds will reduce the total amount of wastewater and waste and reduce the technogenic impact on the environment.

    Table 1 — Efficiency of stabilizers in the process of processing a-olefins of fraction C i4 — C32 by the method of two-stage thermal chlorination

    Stabilizer and its amount from a-olefins, % wt. Processing temperature of α-olefins, gs Total chlorination time, h Chlorine content in chlorocarbons, % wt. Chlorine conversion, wt %. Chlorohydrocarbons color according to iodine scale, Mr-jy 100 cm3

    OFK-0.02 85-95 19 48.0 98.0 1-2

    TBP -0.04 40-50 3* 21.0 98.5 1

    TBP-0.04 40-50 6* 28.5 98.6 1

    TBP-0.04 85-95 9 34.7 98.0 2

    TBP-0.1 95-105 16 48.8 99.6 1-2

    TBP-0.04 85-95 18.5 48.5 98.0 1

    TBP -0.1 85-95 16.5 47.2 98.7 1-2

    Urotropin -0.02 40-50 3* 14.3 97.0 1-2

    Urotropin -0.02 40-50 6* 23.0 97.0 2

    Urotropin -0.02 85-95 9 29.5 95.0 2

    Urotropine -0.02 80-85 16 41.0 95.6 2-3

    Urotropine -0.04 85-95 18 45.5 95.5 2-3

    Urotropin -0.04 100-105 20 48.75 96.0 3-4

    Urotropin -0.04 85-95 21 48.50 96.0 3

    * Duration of addition chlorination.

    It has been established that in the presence of urotropine, chlorohydrocarbons are cloudy with opalescence. It has been shown that the use of tributyl phosphate as deactivators of iron compounds and stabilizers in the processing of α-olefins and in the processes of extraction and stabilization of chlorohydrocarbons makes it possible to: — increase the conversion of chlorine from 96. 0% to 99.6%;

    — significantly improve the indicator «color» (color reduction to 1-2 units on the iodine scale), «thermal stability in terms of HC1» (improvement in thermal stability by 10-20%), which significantly improves the quality and consumer potential of the products obtained.

    Figure 1 shows the dependences of the duration of processing of α-olefins with the production of chlorohydrocarbons in the presence of TBP and urotropine. It has been shown that in the presence of tributyl phosphate, the processing time is 1.25 times shorter than in the presence of urotropin.

    Duration of processing of a-olefins, h

    Figure 1 — Chlorine content and processing time of a — olefins from stabilizers

    Processing of C14-C32 α-olefins by radical chlorination in the presence of an initiator taken in an amount of 0.1-0.3% of the mass of α-olefins leads to a 1.5-fold reduction in time compared to the thermal process of processing. As an initiator, dicetylperoxydicarbonate (liladox) or azo-bis-isobutyronitrile (porophore) is used in the form of a 0. 5-2.0% solution in chlorohydrocarbons with a mass content of chlorine of 5-15%. The processing temperature of α-olefins in the presence of an initiator does not exceed 75°C, which makes it possible to obtain chlorohydrocarbons with a color on the iodine scale equal to 1-2, turbidity in chlorohydrocarbons in the presence of urotropine remains (table 2).

    Table 2 — Efficiency of the initiator in the processing of a-olefins Cu — C32

    by chlorination

    Initiator and its amount by weight of α-olefin, % Processing temperature, °С Processing time, h Chlorine content in chlorohydrocarbons, % Chlorine conversion, % Color of chlorohydrocarbons according to iodine scale, mg-12/100cm3

    *0.2 40-45 11.5 47.2 98.7 1

    *0.2 55-60 11.0 48.1 99.0 1

    ♦0.3 70-75 10.5 48.6 99.0 1

    ♦0.1 40-45 11.0 46.2 98.0 1

    «0.3 70-75 13.0 53.3 98.5 1

    **0.2 55-60 12.0 48.3 97.0 1-2

    **0.2 70-75 12.0 48.7 97.0 2-3

    **0D 55-60 12. 5 47.1 96.0 2

    **0.3 55-60 12.0 48.5 97.5 2

    **0.1 40-45 13.5 47.0 96.2 1-2

    Conditions: a-olefins 0.25 mol; liladox initiator; complexing agent: *tributyl phosphate -0.04%; **Urotropin — 0.04%.

    Chlorohydrocarbons are characterized by low thermal stability and can decompose under the influence of energy: temperature and light during storage and processing. This produces toxic compounds such as chlorine, hydrogen chloride, phosgene and organic acids.

    An effective method for the stabilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons has been developed, which ensures the production of a commercial product with high thermal stability.

    Stabilizing system, including % wt.: hydrogen chloride acceptor — epoxy resin (10-20), antioxidant — ionol (0.1-3), complexing agent — urotropine or tributyl phosphate (0.01-0.04) and chlorohydrocarbon fractions Si-C32 (80-90) — allows you to get a stabilizing effect, which in its action exceeds the effect of individual components. F V

    g» …… h (

    1

    1

    —♦—Chlorohydrocarbons -th—Chloroparaffins (KhP-470)

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Content of chlorohydrocarbons and HP-470 in PVC composition, g

    Figure 2 — Dependence of the indicator «strength at break» on the content of secondary plasticizer in the composition of the cable compound

    From Figure 2 it follows that the replacement of the secondary plasticizer KhP-470 with the product of processing of a-olefins — chlorohydrocarbons (HC) leads to an increase in tensile strength by 10-11% in the concentration range of the secondary plasticizer from 10 g to 28.4 g per 100 g PVC.
    9—Chlorohydrocarbons -e—Chloroparaffins (KhP-470)

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Content of chlorohydrocarbons and HP-470 in PVC composition, g

    Figure 3 — The dependence of the indicator «relative elongation at break» on the content of the secondary plasticizer

    When KhP-470 is replaced by chlorinated hydrocarbons, the “relative elongation at break” index increases by 9% in the range of secondary plasticizer concentrations from 10 g to 28. 4 g per 100 g of PVC (Figure 3).

    Replacement of KhP-470 with chlorinated hydrocarbons in the formulation of adhesive produced on the basis of perchlorovinyl resin in the production of adhesive PVC tape makes it possible to increase the «stickiness» index, increase the «survivability» of the adhesive and reduce the cost of products based on PVC.

    The proposed method for recycling ethylene oligomerizacin production wastes into chlorinated hydrocarbons makes it possible to increase the efficiency of chlorine use, reduce the formation of hydrogen chloride, obtain colorless, transparent liquid chlorohydrocarbons that combine saturated hydrocarbons with different chain lengths and degrees of chlorination.

    After positive laboratory tests, technological regulations No. 03-04 with a capacity of 1800 tons per year of chlorohydrocarbons were developed. A technological scheme for the utilization of α-olefins into chlorohydrocarbons has been developed (Figure 4).

    Industrial production was organized using the unloaded capacities of workshop No. 20 of OAO Kaustik, Sterlitamak.

    1-sump; 2-filter; 3-reactor; 4,6 — traps; 5-refrigerator; 7 scrubber; 8-apparatus for degassing; 9-device for stabilization

    The fourth chapter presents the results of research on the disposal of real wastes of JSC «Kaustik» organochlorine production of vinyl chloride, epichlorohydrin and perchlorethylene by liquid-phase hydrogenolysis.

    Production of one ton of vinyl chloride generates about 30 kg of waste, the main components of the waste are (composition A) % wt.: 3.0 chloroform,

    43.0 1,2-dichloroethane; 35.0 1,1,2-trichloroethane; 12.0 perchlorethylene, 3.0 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and 4.0 tar. In the process of obtaining one ton of epichlorohydrin, up to 450 kg of waste is formed (composition B) wt %: 2.32 monochloropropene fraction; 61.58 dichloropropene fraction; 30.5 1,2,3-trichloropropane; 5,6 chloroethers. Wastes from the production of perchlorethylene, formed in the amount of 150 kg per ton of perchlorethylene, are a mixture of polychlorides (composition B) wt %: 36. 07 hexachloroethane; 24.47 hexachlorobutadiene; 4.94 pentachlorobenzene; 34.52 hexachlorobegool.

    Utilization of organochlorine waste was carried out in a flow-through quartz reactor with a stationary catalyst bed. Cheap and readily available petroleum products were used as a high-temperature inert solvent: transformer oil AMT-300, vacuum gas oil (TKIP.=350-500°C) or heavy gas oil (TYuSH=360-500°C), obtained by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. As catalysts, industrial palladium-containing catalysts were tested: KPG, FPC-1, IK-53-1 — Pd/sibunit catalyst with a Pd content of 0.5-2 wt%, and nickel-silicate catalysts obtained by precipitation of basic nickel carbonate on kieselguhr with subsequent filtration, washing, drying, tableting and reductive decomposition. The catalysts contain 25 to 50% nickel. According to this technology, industrial catalysts are produced at Sintez Kauchuk OJSC (Sterlitamak). Typically, hydrogenolysis catalysts are reductively treated with hydrogen prior to use. The catalyst was placed in the reactor, then the heating of the reactor was switched on with the simultaneous supply of nitrogen. Within 6 hours the temperature of the reactor gradually increased to 250°C. In the next 6 hours, the reactor temperature increased to 400°C. Nitrogen purge

    was carried out until the complete cessation of the release of adsorbed water. Then the nitrogen supply was turned off and hydrogen was introduced into the reactor, the supply of which was carried out until the evolution of water and hydrogen chloride ceased.

    Hydrogen and a solution or hydrogen and a finely dispersed suspension of solid organochlorine waste in a 5-10-fold excess of a high-boiling solvent relative to the mass of organochlorine waste and at a hydrogen:organochlorine waste molar ratio of 20-40:1 are fed in parallel streams to the lower part of the reactor. The temperature of the process is 250-350°C, the contact time is 15-20 s. The reaction products, which are a mixture of hydrocarbons, low-chlorinated chlorohydrocarbons, unreacted hydrogen and evolved hydrogen chloride, are removed from the top of the reactor and subjected to separation by known methods.

    The results of testing the catalysts are shown in Table 3.

    supported palladium and nickel catalysts

    Waste composition Catalyst Temperature «C Solvent H2: XO mol Solvent: XO mass Conversion % Composition of reaction products %

    A R

    А IK-53-1 350 vacuum gas oil 20:1 5:1 96.8 2 C2 -89.0; 2HE, HV-11.0

    A pa/AbO3 350 vacuum gas oil 20:1 5:1 94.0 2 C, -92.0; 2 HE, HV-8.0

    A FPK-1 350 vacuum gas oil 20:1 5:1 93.0 2 С2 -75.0; 2 HE, HV-25.0

    A 1ShU2 350 vacuum gas oil 20:1 5:1 90.3 2C2 -87.0; g XE, XV-13.0

    B IK-53-1 350 vacuum gas oil 20:1 5:1 97.4 2 С3 -86.8; Chloroprenes — 2.3; Dichloropropenes-10.9

    B RFALO3 350 vacuum gas oil 20:1 5:1 90.0 2 C3 -88.0; Chloroprenes — 2.0; Dichloropropenes-10.0

    V IK-53-1 300 vacuum gas oil 40:1 5:1 93.4 2 С2-23.0; CE, CV-2.6; 2 C, -38.6; Chlorobenzene-3.8; Benzene-32.0

    B P<3/A1203 350 vacuum gas oil 40:1 5:1 95. 0 2 C2-22.0; CE, HV-3.6; 2 C4-38.6; Chlorobenzene-5.3; Benzene-30.5

    Hydrogenolysis of vinyl chloride production waste (composition A), at 350°C with

    96.8% conversion results in -89% ethane and ethylene, ethyl chloride and

    vinyl chloride — 11%. Hydrogenolysis of epichlorohydrin production waste (composition B) with conversion 97.4% leads to the production of propane and propylene (88%), chloropropenes (2%), dichloropropenes (10%). To achieve a high conversion of perchlorcarbons, hydrogenolysis is carried out with an excess of hydrogen relative to the organochlorine waste, equal to 40:1. As a result of the processing of solid waste from the production of 1,1,2,2-tetrachlorethylene (composition B) with a conversion of 95%, ethane, ethylene, butane, butylenes, mono- and dichloro derivatives of butylenes, a mixture of benzene and chlorobenzenes with a low chlorine content were obtained. Palladium catalysts carry out the above hydrodechlorination reactions with the predominant formation of saturated hydrocarbons: ethane, propane.

    Tests in laboratory conditions have established that the period of stable operation of palladium catalysts is no more than 80 hours.

    In the course of research, a highly active and stable alloyed Ni-Al-Ti catalyst was selected, which is produced in industry according to TU 64-11-25-90. The catalyst has increased strength and high activity in the temperature range (100-400°C). Pd-containing catalysts are quite expensive and lose their activity relatively quickly due to the blocking of the active sites of the catalyst surface by tarry and coke-like by-products present in real waste.
    9Cah3n + 2HCl (5)

    The conversion of the initial chlorohydrocarbon raw material is 90-97%.

    Ni-Al-Ti catalyst has been successfully tested in the recycling of organochlorine waste.

    4

    6 a

    VI

    G- ,_1 Solvent

    90°C *-

    > 4-

    Organochlorine waste

    ▼ HC1(g)

    I»,

    Water

    8

    1-hydrogen; 11-nitrogen; W-gas phase for combustion; GU-liquid products for the extraction of target fractions; Y-solid waste; U1-solvent with unreacted organochlorine waste

    1-mixer; 2-reactor; 3-refrigerator; 4-phase separator; 5-buffer capacity; 6-

    pump; 7-capacity for suspension preparation; 8-absorber

    Figure 5 — Schematic diagram of the recycling process

    organochlorine waste by hydrogenolysis

    The process of disposal of organochlorine waste by the method of liquid phase

    catalytic hydrogenolysis is carried out in a fixed bed reactor

    catalyst and circulation circuit.

    During hydrogenolysis, spent catalyst activation

    carried out by partial chlorination of aluminum with hydrogen chloride,

    formed as a by-product during the disposal of organochlorine

    waste:

    In this case, hydrogen chloride reacts mainly with aluminum only from the surface. Such an alloy catalyst has a high stability and makes it possible to carry out the reaction in a flow system. The temperature of the process is 250-350°C at a contact time of 25-30 s and a molar ratio of hydrogen: organochlorine waste equal to 20-40:1. Reaction products representing

    2A1 + 6HC1 -> 2A1C1z + ZH2

    (6)

    is a mixture of unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons (ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, benzene), chlorohydrocarbons, unreacted hydrogen and released hydrogen chloride, is removed from the upper part of the reactor and subjected to separation by known methods. The circulation of a high-boiling hydrocarbon solvent with unreacted waste and aluminum chloride is carried out along the circuit: buffer tank — circulation pump — reactor — buffer tank. As a result, the catalyst will be continuously regenerated by washing off the resinous and coke-like by-products that poison the catalyst from the surface. As aluminum chloride accumulates, it is removed from the reaction mass by filtration, the solvent with unreacted waste is returned to the process. A solution of aluminum chloride in -water can be used in the process of washing heat exchange equipment. The results of the process of utilization of organochlorine wastes in the presence of alloyed Ni-A1-«P catalyst are shown in tables 4,5,6.

    Table 4 — Results of the organochlorine waste disposal process (composition A)

    Composition of waste, % t, °C Conversion, % Composition of hydrogenolysis products, wt %.

    s2n4 s2n6 С2Н3С1 С2Н5С1

    A 250 68.0 62.0 13.0 5.2 19.8

    A 280 90.0 78.8 8.2 5.4 7.6

    A 300 93.4 82.8 6.2 7.6 3.4

    A 350 96.0 82.9 9.1 5.7 2.3

    Table 5 — Results of the process of utilization of organochlorine waste (composition B)

    Composition t, Con- Composition of hydrogenolysis products, % wt.

    waste, % °с version, % С3Нб С3Н8 ХСзН5С1 2 С3Н4С12 СзН6С12

    B 250 76.8 62.7 7.3 5.0 21.3 3.7

    B 280 80.0 67.8 6.2 4.2 19.4 2.4

    B 300 88.4 72.8 5.0 6.3 14.7 1.2

    B 350 94.0 82.1 3.3 4.0 10.1 0.5

    Table 6 — Results of the organochlorine waste disposal process (composition B)

    Composition T, Con- Composition of hydrogenolysis products, % wt.

    waste, % C version, % C2H4 C2H6 C2H3C1 C2H5C1 C4H8 C4H10 C6H5C1 C6n6

    V 250 78.2 26.5 2.8 2.1 1.0 20.7 3.9 12.7 30.3

    V 330 90.5 29.3 2.7 2.3 0.8 21.8 2.8 8.3 32.0

    B 350 95.0 28.9 3.1 2.3 1.3 21.6 3.0 5.3 34.5

    Disposal of vinyl chloride production waste (Table 4) takes place at 280-350°C in the presence of hydrogen with a high conversion (96%). The products of catalytic hydrogenolysis of waste are ethane and ethylene-92%, (with the predominant production of ethylene), ethyl chloride and vinyl chloride-8%. Hydrogenolysis of epichlorohydrin production waste (Table 5) with a conversion of 94% leads to the production of propylene and propane-93. 4%, (with the predominant production of propylene), monochloropropenes (4%), dichloropropenes (2.6%). As a result of hydrogenolysis of solid wastes from the production of perchlorohydrocarbons (table 6) at 300-330°C and a conversion of 95%, ethane, ethylene, butane, butylenes, mono- and dichloro derivatives of butylenes, a mixture of benzene and monochlorobenzene were obtained.

    The activity of the Ñi-Al-Ti catalyst remained high during 250 hours of operation in a laboratory plant. The products of catalytic hydrogenolysis of waste after absorption of hydrogen chloride by water can be used as valuable hydrocarbons or as fuel components. In the temperature range of 280-350°С alloy Ni-Al-Ti catalyst ensures the flow of the process of utilization of organochlorine wastes with the predominant production of ethylene

    ♦ Composition A ■Ch>-Cos1ave Composition B

    250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 Process temperature, ‘C

    Figure 6 — The degree of conversion of waste from the duration of hydrogenolysis on alloyed Na-A1-Tl catalyst

    Figure 6 shows that as the temperature increases from 250 to 350°C, the degree of waste conversion increases, regardless of their composition.

    100 90 83

    70

    i

    9¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡to 1

    8%-£ l

    —IK-53-1 CHE-KPG •Nk-FPK-1 —Si~Ni.AI.Ti

    b 9 12 15 Contact time, s

    18

    21

    Figure 7 — Dependence of waste conversion (composition A) on the duration of hydrogenolysis on Pc1- and Na-A1-Ti containing catalysts

    Figure 7 shows the dependences of waste conversion (composition A) on various P<1- and M1-A1-Tl-containing catalysts. The most active of the studied catalysts is Pd/sibunit (IK-53-1). However, as a result of research, it was found that during a long test Na-A1-T1-containing alloy catalyst remains stable while maintaining high activity.

    Hydrogenolysis in an inert high-boiling hydrocarbon solvent medium can be organized on an industrial scale for real organochlorine wastes in a wide range, both in composition and in physical state (from liquid to solid). As a result of the recycling process, organochlorine waste from the production of vinyl chloride, epichlorohydrin and perchlorocarbon is converted into hydrocarbons and hydrogen chloride with high yields. The obvious advantage of the proposed method is the option of converting them into a mixture of products, the disposal of which does not cause difficulties. With the introduction of the process of waste disposal by hydrogenolysis, the production of vinyl chloride, epichlorohydrin and perchlorethylene becomes practically waste-free.

    21

    Terminals

    1 For the first time, a resource-saving process for recycling waste from the production of oligomerization of ethylene α-olefins С14-Сз2 with the production of a commercial product — chlorinated hydrocarbons with a capacity of 1800 tons per year (RF patent No. 2242453, 2004 and RF patent No. 2248962,2005).

    2 Chlorohydrocarbons with a chlorine content of 47 ± 2 wt.% obtained from the waste products of ethylene oligomerization of a-olefins С14-С32 meet the requirements of TU 2493?277-00203312-2007 «Chlorinated liquid paraffins grades KhP — 470A and KhP — 470B» with amendments No. 1-3.

    3 An environmentally friendly method for stabilizing chlorinated hydrocarbons has been developed and put into production. The selected stabilizing composition makes it possible to obtain a stabilizing effect, which in its action exceeds the action of individual components (RF patent No. 2237053, 2004).

    4 The use of a chlorohydrocarbon plasticizer obtained from a-olefin waste in polyvinyl chloride compositions makes it possible to improve the processability of processing by reducing the stickiness of granules, to significantly increase the indicators of «tensile strength», «relative elongation at break», «fire resistance» and «specific volume resistance» .

    5 High-temperature inert solvents for liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of industrial wastes were found: AMT-300 transformer oil, vacuum gas oil and heavy gas oil.

    6 Highly active and self-regenerating in the process of liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of industrial organochlorine waste alloyed Ni-Al-Ti catalyst was selected. It has been established that the hydrogenolysis of wastes and the activation of the spent catalyst are carried out in one reactor by washing out the inactive aluminum component, which acts as a protective layer, from the surface of the alloyed catalyst after its interaction with hydrogen chloride.

    7 Calculation of the hazard class of organochlorine wastes and products of the hydrogenolysis process. It has been established that after the disposal of waste, the hazard class is reduced from class II to class IV.

    The content of the work is presented in the following publications:

    1 Pat. 2237053 Russian Federation. A method for stabilizing chlorinated hydrocarbons / M.M. Zalimova, Yu.K. Dmitriev, T.V. Karpova, M.M. Muratov, T.R. Zalimov; dec. 04/07/2003; publ. 27.09.2004, Bull. No. 27.-S. 341.

    2 Pat. 2242453 Russian Federation. The method of obtaining chlorohydrocarbons / M.M. Zalimova, Yu.K. Dmitriev, T.V. Karpova, T.R. Zalimov, F.V. Biktimirov, G.V. Moiseev; dec. 04/07/2003; publ. December 20, 2004, Bull. No. 35. — S. 628.

    3 Pat. 2248962 Russian Federation. The method of obtaining chlorohydrocarbons / M.M. Zalimova, S.G. Khismatullin, Yu.K. Dmitriev, Z.G. Rasulev,

    I.N. Mullakhmetov, P.P. Dashkin, T.V. Karpova, T.R. Zalimov, F. V. Biktimirov; dec. 04/07/2005; publ. 03/27/2005, Bull. No. 9. — S. 992.

    4 Zalimov T.R. The method of obtaining liquid chlorohydrocarbons and their use in polymer compositions / T.R. Zalimov, M.M. Zalimova, Z.G. Rasulev,

    T.V. Karpova, I.N. Fedotova // Synthesis, study of properties, modification and processing of macromolecular compounds: materials of the 11th International Conference of Students and Postgraduates. — Kazan, 2005.-p. 48.

    5 Zalimov T.R. Synthesis of chlorohydrocarbons and their application in PVC compositions / M.M. Zalimova, Z.G. Rasulev, A.T. Gilmutdinov, T.R. Zalimov, I.N. Fedotova // 0ligomers-2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Oligomers. — Odessa, 2005. — S. 309.

    6 Zalimov T.R. New effective lubricants for PVC /

    M.M. Zalimova, F.I. Afanasiev, I.N. Fedotova, T.R. Zalimov // Petrochemistry, oil refining and catalysis: Proceedings of the XVIII Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry. — Moscow, 2007. — S. 353.

    7 Zalimov T.R. The method of neutralization of industrial organochlorine waste / M.M. Zalimova, F.I. Afanasiev, T.R. Zalimov, G.G. Yagafarova // Alternative sources of chemical raw materials and fuels: materials of the First All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference. — Ufa, 2008. — P. 80-82.

    8 Zalimov T.R. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of organochlorine wastes on nickel-containing catalysts / M.M. Zalimova, T.R. Zalimov, G.G. Yagafarova // Chemical reagents, reagents and processes of low-tonnage chemistry: materials of the XXI International Scientific and Technical Conference. -Ufa, 2008.- S. 179-181.

    9 Zalimov T.R. Chlorocarbons based on waste products of ethylene oligomerization in PVC compositions / T.R. Zalimov, G.G. Yagafarova, M.M. Zalimova // 0ligomers-2009: Proceedings of the X International Conference on Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Oligomers. — Volgograd, 2009. — S. 313.

    10 Zalimov T.R. Processing of industrial organochlorine wastes by catalytic liquid-phase hydrodechlorination / T. R. Zalimov, F.I. Afanasiev, M.M. Zalimova, G.G. Yagafarova // Ecology and Industry of Russia. — M.: Publishing house of CJSC «Kalvis». — November 2009. — S. 31-34.

    11 Zalimov T.R. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of industrial organochlorine wastes / M.M. Zalimova, T.R. Zalimov, G.G. Yagafarova // Actual problems of petrochemistry: materials of the III Russian Conference. -Zvenigorod, 2009. — S. 120-121.

    Signed for publication on 11/17/09. Offset paper. Format 60×84 1/16. Headset «Times». Screen printing. Conv. oven l. 1. Circulation 90. Order 259. Printing house of the Ufa State Oil Technical University

    Printing house address: 450062, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, st. Kosmonavtov, 1

    Contents of the thesis, candidate of technical sciences, Zalimov, Timur Raisovich

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    INTRODUCTION

    1 LITERATURE REVIEW

    1.1 Methods of obtaining chlorparafins

    1.1.1 Chlorination of paraffin hydrocarbons

    1. 1.2 The reactionary ability of paraffin hydrocarbons

    1.1.3 Methods for initiating chlorination

    1.1.4 Chlorination of

    1.1.5 Chlorinating Olefinov and their chlorineur

    1.2 Methods for disposal of waste from organochlorine production

    1.2.1 Waste disposal

    1.2.2 Waste treatment by oxidation

    1.2.3 waste processing by chlorination

    1.2.4 Waste processing by pyrolysis

    1.2.5 Waste processing by hydrodechlorization

    2 Experimental part

    2.1 Characteristics of the materials used in the work

    2.2 Methods of experiments for the surveillance of survival A -olefins by chlorination

    2.2.1 Determination of the mass fraction of chlorine in chlorohydrocarbons

    2.2.2 Method for determining thermal stability 9

    2.2.3 Determination of the mass fraction of acids

    2.2.4 Determination of the density of the chlorovers’ density

    2.2.5 Determination of the color of the product

    2. 3 Methods for the implementation of chlorological waste disposal by catalytic liquid -fiber -type hydrogenolysis

    2.4 Methodology for Activation of catalysts

    900 2.5 2. obtained chlorohydrocarbons in

    PVC compositions

    2.5.1 Determination of brittleness temperature

    2.5.2 Determination of loss in mass on heating

    2.5.3 Determination of hardness

    2.5.4 Determination of water absorption

    2.5.5 Determination of softening point

    2.5.6 Determination of density at break

    2.5.6 Determination of elongation. and tensile strength

    2.5.8 Determination of appearance

    2.5.9 Determination of specific volume electrical resistance

    2.5.10 Determination of technological properties of plastic compound

    2.5.11 Determination of thermal stability

    2.5.12 Determination of the fluidity of the melt

    3 The results of experimental studies

    3.1 Study of the process of derivatives of oligomerization of ethylene of the A-Olefins of the faction C14-C32 method of chlorination

    3. 2 Study

    3.3 Technological scheme of waste disposal of ethylene oligomerization — a-olefins of C14-C32 fraction with production of chlorohydrocarbons

    4 decrease in technogenic exposure

    chlorological waste on the environment

    4.1 Disposal of industrial chloroscope waste

    Conclusions

    Introduction Dissection on Biology, on the technogenic effect of oligomeries of ethylene and chlorological production of chlorological production on the environment » environmental pollution has now acquired global significance. Scientific and technological progress and the growth of industrialization with the concentration of production, chemicalization of all aspects of human life and the associated rapid growth of chemical industry enterprises — all this has created broad prerequisites for progressive environmental pollution.

    The expansion of the production of organochlorine compounds is closely related to the problem of waste disposal and reducing their negative impact on the environment. The solution to this problem can be achieved by reducing the generation of waste through the introduction of new energy-saving and science-intensive technologies, modernization and reconstruction of existing industries; disposal of liquid and solid wastes, as well as improvement of methods for neutralization of organochlorine wastes.

    The need for raw materials is constantly growing in the world, the rapid rise in prices for raw materials, materials, energy sources poses the question of the most efficient use of production waste before developers. Ecologically clean technologies, recovery processes, as well as processes for processing waste into secondary raw materials, or target products are technologies for remediating the environment from technogenic impacts.

    The currently existing methods of disposal of organochlorine wastes by thermal combustion or chlorinolysis (high-temperature chlorination) are not effective, they are accompanied by the formation of secondary toxicants. The most universal and promising method for the disposal of organochlorine wastes is the method of catalytic hydrodechlorination or hydrogenolysis in the presence of available molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenolysis is characterized by an obvious resource-saving potential; it allows the conversion of environmentally hazardous compounds into useful products without the release of toxic substances.

    GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORK

    Relevance of the topic. Protecting the environment from man-made pollution is one of the global environmental problems. The solution to this problem is possible only by an integrated approach, solving the problem of reducing the amount of waste in the environment or using waste as secondary raw materials. The importance of the problem of using secondary resources becomes more acute, since the reserves of mineral and organic raw materials are limited, their extraction is shifting to hard-to-reach places. In this regard, the disposal of ethylene oligomerization waste in order to produce target products is an urgent problem.

    Increasing production and consumption of organochlorine products inevitably leads to an increase in the generation and accumulation of waste. At present, the organochlorine wastes of the Sterlitamak JSC «Kaustik» are subject to incineration, part of the wastes is subjected to high-temperature oxidative destruction in a chlorine environment to obtain an organochlorine solvent perchlorethylene. Thermal combustion produces highly toxic products such as chlorine, nitrogen oxides, phosgene and dioxins. In addition, this method leads to the irreversible loss of hydrocarbons, the release of carbon dioxide into the environment and the rapid wear of equipment.

    The most versatile and promising method of recycling and reducing the technogenic impact of organochlorine waste in terms of preventing damage to the environment and public health without the threat of obtaining side toxic substances is the method of liquid-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination or hydrogenolysis using available molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenolysis has an obvious resource-saving potential. One of the urgent problems of the industrial use of the hydrogenolysis method is the search for a catalytic system that includes both optimal conditions for the process and an active and stable catalyst.

    Purpose of work. Development of an integrated approach to the disposal of ethylene oligomerization wastes and industrial organochlorine wastes of JSC «Kaustik» in order to reduce the impact of man-made factors on the environment and obtain useful products.

    To achieve this goal, the following tasks were solved:

    — to develop and introduce into industrial production a resource-saving process for the disposal of waste from the oligomerization of ethylene a — olefins of the C14-C32 fraction with the production of stable chlorohydrocarbons — analogues of liquid chlorinated paraffins;

    — to develop and introduce into industry formulations of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) compositions using chlorohydrocarbons as multifunctional additives with the properties of a secondary plasticizer and lubricant;

    -develop an industrial process for the disposal of waste from the production of vinyl chloride, epichlorohydrin and perchlorethylene by liquid-phase hydrogenolysis;

    — search for an active and stable catalyst for the hydrogenolysis process.

    Scientific novelty

    1 For the first time, an environmentally friendly method for recycling waste from ethylene oligomerization by two-stage thermal and initiated chlorination was developed to obtain the target product — chlorohydrocarbons, analogues of liquid chlorinated paraffins (KhP-470). It was found that in the presence of a radical initiator, the time of utilization of a-olefins by chlorination decreases by 1.5 times.

    2 A stabilizing composition has been developed, including wt %: hydrogen chloride acceptor — epoxy resin (10-20), antioxidant -ionol (0.1-3), complexing agent — urotropine or tributyl phosphate (0.010.04) and chlorohydrocarbons of the C14- fraction С32 (80-90), which increases the stability of chlorohydrocarbons and prevents pollution of the environment by degradation products during their use and storage.

    3 It has been established that chlorohydrocarbons have plasticizing properties in PVC compositions. The thermal stability of PVC — compositions when using chlorinated hydrocarbons instead of HP-470 in various formulations increases by 1. 2-1.4 times. With the introduction of chlorinated hydrocarbons into the formulation of cable plastic compound in an amount of 15-30%, the manufacturability of plastic compound processing is improved by reducing the stickiness of the granules, the indicators «strength at break», «relative elongation at break» by 15-20% increase.

    4 High-temperature inert solvents for liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of industrial wastes were found: AMT-300 transformer oil, vacuum gas oil or heavy gas oil.

    5 Highly active and self-regenerating under the conditions of the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis alloy Na-A1-T1 catalyst was selected. It has been established that the hydrogenolysis of wastes and the activation of the spent catalyst are carried out in one reactor by washing out the inactive aluminum component, which acts as a protective layer, from the surface of the alloyed catalyst after its interaction with hydrogen chloride.

    Practical value

    1 For the first time in Russia in Sterlitamak JSC «Kaustik» a resource-saving environmentally safe process of recycling waste from the production of oligomerization of ethylene a-olefins С14-С32 with the production of chlorinated hydrocarbons with a degree of chlorination of 47 ± 2% of mass, with a capacity of 1800 tons per year.

    2 The resulting chlorohydrocarbons comply with the technical requirements of TU 2493-277-00203312-2007 with amendments No. 1-3 «Chlorinated liquid paraffins of grades HP-470A and HP-470B». On their basis, formulations of PVC compositions were developed and introduced into production (adhesive PVC tape, cable plastic compound grade OM-40 using stabilized chlorohydrocarbons instead of chlorinated paraffins KhP — 470). 9Th is a catalyst that has been successfully tested in the recycling of organochlorine waste.

    Work approbation. The results of the work were reported and discussed at the 11th International Conference of Students and Postgraduates «Synthesis, Study of Properties, Modification and Processing of Macromolecular Compounds» (Kazan, 2005), the 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Oligomers «0ligomers-2005» (Kazan, 2005). Odessa, 2005), XVIII Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry «Petrochemistry, Oil Refining and Catalysis» (Moscow, 2007), First All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference «Alternative Sources of Chemical Raw Materials and Fuels» (Ufa , 2008), XXI International scientific and technical conference «Chemical reagents, reagents and processes of low-tonnage chemistry» (Ufa, 2008), X International conference on chemistry and physical chemistry of oligomers «Oligomers-2009″(Volgograd, 2009), III Russian Conference «Actual problems of petrochemistry» (Zvenigorod, 2009).

    Publications. The main material of the dissertation is presented in 11 publications, including 3 patents of the Russian Federation, 1 article in a journal recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission, and 7 articles of Russian and international conferences.

    Structure and scope of the dissertation

    The dissertation is presented on 138 pages of typewritten text, consists of an introduction, a literature review (chapter 1), an experimental part (chapter 2), a discussion of the results (chapter 3, 4), conclusions, a list of references and an appendix, includes 18 tables, 17 figures. The bibliographic list includes 122 titles.

    Conclusion Thesis on the topic «Ecology», Zalimov, Timur Raisovich

    104 CONCLUSIONS

    1 For the first time developed and introduced into industrial production JSC «Kaustik», Sterlitamak, a resource-saving process for recycling waste from the production of ethylene oligomerization of a-olefins С14-С32 with the production commercial product — chlorinated hydrocarbons with a capacity of 1800 tons per year (RF patent No. 2242453, 2004 and RF patent No. 2248962, 2005).

    2 Chlorohydrocarbons with a chlorine content of 47 ± 2 wt.% obtained from the waste products of ethylene oligomerization of a-olefins С14-С32 meet the requirements of TU 2493-277-00203312-2007 «Chlorinated liquid paraffins grades KhP — 470A and KhP — 470B» with amendments No. 1-3.

    3 An environmentally friendly method for stabilizing chlorinated hydrocarbons has been developed and put into production. The selected stabilizing composition makes it possible to obtain a stabilizing effect, which in its action exceeds the action of individual components (RF patent No. 2237053, 2004).

    4 The use of a chlorohydrocarbon plasticizer obtained from a-olefin waste in polyvinyl chloride compositions makes it possible to improve the processability of processing by reducing the stickiness of granules, to significantly increase the indicators of «tensile strength», «relative elongation at break», «fire resistance» and «specific volume resistance» .

    5 High-temperature inert solvents for liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of industrial wastes were found: AMT-300 transformer oil, vacuum gas oil and heavy gas oil.

    6 Highly active and self-regenerating in the process of liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of industrial organochlorine waste alloyed N-A1-T1 catalyst was selected. It has been established that the hydrogenolysis of wastes and the activation of the spent catalyst are carried out in one reactor by washing out the inactive aluminum component, which acts as a protective layer, from the surface of the alloyed catalyst after its interaction with hydrogen chloride.

    7 Calculation of the hazard class of organochlorine wastes and products of the hydrogenolysis process. It has been established that after the disposal of waste, the hazard class is reduced from class II to class IV.

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    39. Application