Difference Between Intel Processor Generations
The last time I went to the computer shop to inquire about the latest prices of laptops, I was told the new laptop had the Intel fourth-generation processor. I asked the person the difference between first-generation and fourth generation, but he was unable to answer properly, saying the fourth generation was faster than the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations.
So I came home and wanted to know about the philosophy of processor generations on the Internet. To my surprise, there was no complete guide available, which could tell clearly about the Intel processor generations and their differences. After researching a lot, I have enough knowledge to write and document the differences I have found in this article.
First of all, many people think that Core i3, i5, and i7 are the processor generations. These are models or brands of processors from Intel. I will write another article later, as it requires a lot of discussion. Let me list all the major processor models released by Intel.
- Pentium 1, 2, 3, 4
- Pentium M and Celeron M for mobile devices
- Pentium Dual Core
- Core Solo
- Core Duo
- Core 2 Duo
- Core 2 Quad
- Core i3, i5, i7, i9
The concept of generations mainly comes after the release of the Core i series. The difference in processor micro-architecture is the main difference in processor generations. We will discuss these generations in detail below.
Click on the image below to open a visual timeline of Intel processor generations:Intel Processors generations
Intel Core Processor Names and Numbers
Intel core processor names and numbers
As you can see from the image above, the complete name of the processor can confuse you. That is why we are here to clear out any doubts about the information contained within the names of a Core processor.
The name of an Intel Core processor contains the following information:
- Brand Modifier
- Generation Indicator
- Product Line Suffix
The Brand signifies the overall product line. It could be any one of the following:
A Brand Modifier is only used in the Core series to signify the processor’s performance. You can find the following modifiers currently available (at the time of writing this post):
The higher the modifier, the greater its performance.
In the 4 or 5-digit processor number, you will find the generation of the processor in the 1st or the 1st and 2nd digits.
If the processor is from a generation with only one integer (for example 8th or 9th), then the numbers would be starting like 8XXX or 9XXX. However, if it is of the 10th or 11th generation, the numbers would be line 10XXX or 11XXX.
The generation signifies some of the processor’s attributes, such as when it was released, the size of the transistors used, cache type and size, etc.
The SKU signifies the model number, which is usually the last 3 digits in the product number. The higher the SKU, the more features the processor is likely to have.
That said, SKUs cannot be used to compare processors amongst different Intel brands or different generations.
Product Line Suffix
The suffix at the end also signifies the capabilities of a processor. This is an alphabet that highlights the key features of the processor. Below is a list of all the suffixes currently in use by Intel and their meaning:
- C: Desktop processor with high-end graphics
- F: High-performance processor used with discrete graphics cards (ex. Gaming)
- H: High-performance graphics
- K: Unlocked for overclocking
- M: Mobile
- Q: Quad-core
- R: Desktop processor, BGA1364 (mobile) package, high-end graphics
- S: Performance-optimized lifestyle
- T: Power-optimized for best desktop computing
- U: Ultra-low power for laptop efficiency
- X: Extreme unlocked for high desktop performance
- Y: Extreme low power
Let us now continue to discuss the different Intel Core generations.
Intel Processor Generations
Intel processor generations simply have an enhanced feature set and speed compared to previous generations. Let’s discuss each generation separately.
1st Generation Intel Processors – Nehalem
Nehalem was the Intel processor micro-architecture which was the successor to the initial Core architecture which had certain limitations like inability to increase the clock speed, inefficient pipeline, etc. Nehalem was released for production in 2010.
Nehalem used the 45-nanometer process as opposed to the 65nm or 90nm used by previous architects. Nehalem reintroduced hyper-threading technology which was left out mainly in the initial Core i3 processor models.
The Nehalem processor has a 64 KB L1 cache, 256 KB per core L2 cache and 4 MB to 12 MB L3 cache which is shared with all the processor cores. It supports 1156 LGA socket and 2-channel DDR3 RAM.
2nd Generation Intel Processors – Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge micro-architecture was introduced in 2011 to replace Nehalem architecture. Sandy Bridge uses the 32-nanometer process as opposed to 45 nm used in Nehalem. Sandy Bridge processor average performance enhancement as compared to Nehalem was about 11.3%.
Sandy Bridge uses the same 64 KB L1 cache and 256 KB per core for L2 cache but the difference is in the L3 cache. Normally the Sandy Bridge processor L3 cache was from 1MB to 8 MB. For extreme processors, it was from 10 MB to 15 MB. It uses 1155 LGA socket and 2-channel DDR3-1066 RAM.
3rd Generation Intel Processors – Ivy Bridge
Introduced in September 2012, Ivy Bridge processors are faster than Sandy Bridge processors and use the 22-nanometer process as opposed to 32 nm used in Sandy Bridge. This processor model consumes up to 50% less energy and will give 25% to 68% increase in performance as compared to Sandy Bridge processors.
The only problem with Ivy Bridge processors is that they may emit more heat as compared to Sandy Bridge processors.
Ivy Bridge architecture uses the same 1155 LGA socket with DDR3-1333 to DDR3-1600 RAM.
4th Generation Intel Processors – Haswell
Haswell was released by Intel in June 2013. It uses the same 22-nm process as Ivy Bridge. The performance improvement of Haswell as compared to the Ivy Bridge is from 3% to 8%. Haswell carries a lot of features from Ivy Bridge with some very exciting new features like support for new sockets (LGA 1150, BGA 1364, LGA 2011-3), DDR4 technology, a completely new cache design, etc.
The main benefit of Haswell is that it can be used in ultra-portable devices due to its low power consumption.
5th Generation Intel Processors – Broadwell
Broadwell was released by Intel in 2015. It uses 14-nm process technology which is 37% smaller in size than its predecessors. According to Intel, with the Broadwell CPU, the device’s battery life could be improved as long as 1.5 hours.
The Broadwell chips also feature faster wake times and improved graphics performance. It supports 1150 LGA sockets with 2-channel DDR3L-1333/1600 RAM.
6th Generation Intel Processors – Skylake
Intel introduced Skylake, the 6th generation processors in August 2015. Skylake is a redesign of the same 14-nm technology which was introduced in Broadwell, the 5th generation architecture.
7th Generation Intel Processors – Kaby Lake
Intel’s 7th generation processors, codenamed Kaby Lake, were introduced in 2016. Kaby Lake is essentially a refresh of Sky Lake architecture with few efficiencies and power improvements. It uses a 14-nm process architecture.
Kaby Lake is the first micro-architecture from Intel that does not come with an official driver for Operating Systems older than Windows 10.
Kaby Lake introduced a new graphics architecture to improve 3D graphics performance and 4K video playback. It uses 1151 LGA sockets and has dual-channel support for DDR3L-1600 and DDR4-2400 RAM slots.
8th Generation Intel Processors – Kaby Lake R
In 2017, Intel introduced a refresh of Kaby Lake processors as their new 8th generation release. The details are the same as mentioned in the 7th Generation Intel Processor but some 8th generation chipsets have support for DDR4-2666 RAM but lack DDR3L RAM support.
9th Generation Intel Processors – Coffee Lake
Coffee Lake processors were introduced by Intel in late 2017. With this architecture, Intel Core i9 processors were introduced.
Coffee Lake processors break the limit of 4 cores per CPU. The new processors can now support up to 8 cores per CPU.
Since the heat produced in these cores will be enormous, Intel attached the integrated heat spreader (IHS) to the CPU die instead of the thermal paste which is normally used in earlier processors.
It uses 1151 LGA sockets with altered pinouts to support more than 4 cores along with up to 16 MB of L3 cache.
10th Generation Intel Processors – Cannon Lake/Ice Lake
Cannon Lake, Intel’s 10th generation architecture, comes with all-new 10-nm technology. It was released in late 2017 but production properly started in 2018.
Ice Lake is produced as the 2nd generation of 10-nm processors.
They use BGA1526 sockets and come with DDR4 3200 and LPDDR4X 3733 support. This is the first CPU architecture that comes with integrated support for Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) and Thunderbolt 3.
11th Generation Intel Processors – Tiger Lake
The 11th generation Intel, Tiger Lake, is the third generation of 10-nm transistor technology, released on September 2, 2020. The Tiger Lake architecture has up to 19% performance gains compared to Ice Lake. L4 cache has been introduced in this generation for further performance boosts.
Furthermore, this was the first generation to feature Intel Iris Xe graphics with significant FPS boosts whilst gaming.
12th Generation Intel Processors – Alder Lake
The 12th generation of Intel Core processors is referred to as Alder Lake. It also has 10-nanometer transistor technology, but with hybrid capabilities. This means it is both designed for power and scalability with its P-cores and E-cores, which essentially means power core and efficiency cores, respectively.
This generation supports DDR5 memory, Thunderbolt 4 connectivity, and WiFi 6E (Gig+).
Intel claims the 12th generation provides an average of 13% performance gains in gaming and offers up to twice the performance of its predecessor in terms of content creation.
13th Generation Intel Processors – Raptor Lake
Intel’s 13th generation of processors is called “Raptor Lake.” It has 10nm Enhanced Superfin technology, which is an improvement on the previous 10nm technology used in Alder Lake.
For this generation, they have released the following SKUs:
- Core i9 13900k
- Core i9 13900
- Core i7 13700K
- Core i7 13700
- Core i5 13600k
- Core i5 13400
Of course, these are also available in other variants, such as the T series, but the main SKUs are listed above.
The high-end Core i9 13900K is the only processor which will have 24 cores (8 P-cores and 16 E-cores) and 32 threads, whereas Core i5 13400 will have 6 P-cores and 4 E-cores. 5 of these also have integrated GPUs and clock speeds between 1.6 GHz and 1.55 GHz, however, Core i5 13400 is the only variant with a different integrated GPU than the rest.
Users will also be able to overclock the integrated GPUs for the K series processors.
Raptor Lake support’s both DDR4 and DDR5 memory modules. DDR4 is supported up to 3200 MHz, whereas the DDR5 memory clock speed is supported up to 5600 MHz.
The Next Generations
The next generations of Intel Core processors are the 14th and 15th with the codenames Meteor Lake and Arrow Lake, respectively. They are planned to be released in the years 2023 and 2024.
The 14th gen Intel processor will adhere to a new socket type (LGA 2551) since Intel is known to change its types every 2 generations. This socket type will also support the 12th and 13th generation CPUs. These are expected to be 20% more efficient than the current processors and will be designed to tackle its competitors, the Ryzen Zen 5.
How to Check Processor Generation on your Windows PC
Type in msinfo32 in the Run Command box to open System Information.
Now, look for the information in front of “Processor”. Using the information above, you can now determine all the information regarding the processor, including its generation.Processor information
I hope the article will give insight into the processor generation, as well as clear up any confusion regarding it. I certainly hope this will help you decide which processor to opt for, depending on your needs and requirements.
I would love to have your view about these and if I have missed any features of any generation, it would be great to hear from you in the comments below.
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CPU platforms | Compute Engine Documentation
When you create a virtual machine (VM) on Compute Engine, you specify a
machine series and a machine type for the VM. Each machine series is associated with one
or more CPU platforms. If there are multiple CPU
platforms available for a machine type, you can select a
platform for the VM.
A CPU platform offers multiple physical processors, and each of these processors
are referred to as a core. For all processors available on
Compute Engine, a single CPU core
can run as multiple hardware multithreads through
Simultaneous multithreading (SMT),
which is known on Intel processors as
Intel Hyper-Threading Technology.
On Compute Engine, each hardware multithread is called a virtual CPU
The machine type of your VM specifies
its number of vCPUs, and you can infer its number of physical CPU cores using
the default vCPU per core ratio for that machine series:
- For the Tau T2D and Tau T2A (Preview)
machine series, VMs always have one vCPU per core.
- For all other machine series, VMs have two vCPUs per core by default.
- You can optionally
set a VM to have one vCPU per core instead of two vCPUs per core,
which might benefit some workloads. Importantly, when you do this, the
machine type of your VM no longer reflects the correct number of vCPUs.
number of physical CPU cores remains the same as it would be for the
default two vCPUs per core ratio, and the number of vCPUs is half of value
indicated by the machine type.
- You can optionally
For Arm processors, Compute Engine uses one thread per
core. Each vCPU maps to a physical core with no
SMT, which results in greater performance per vCPU.
The following table describes the Arm processors that are available
for Compute Engine VMs.
|CPU processor||Processor SKU||Supported machine series||All-core sustained frequency (GHz)|
For most x86 processors, each vCPU is implemented as a single hardware thread.
The Tau T2D machine series is the exception, with one vCPU representing one
On Intel Xeon processors,
Intel Hyper-Threading Technology supports multiple threads running concurrently on each core. The specific size and shape of your
VM instance determines the number of its vCPUs.
|CPU processor||Processor SKU||Supported machine series||Base frequency (GHz)||All-core turbo frequency (GHz)||Single-core max turbo frequency (GHz)|
|Intel Xeon Scalable Processor (Ice Lake)
|Intel® Xeon® Platinum 8373C Processor||
|Intel Xeon Scalable Processor (Cascade Lake)
|Intel® Xeon® Gold 6268CL Processor||
|Intel® Xeon® Gold 6253CL Processor||
|Intel® Xeon® Platinum 8280L Processor||
|Intel® Xeon® Platinum 8273CL Processor||
|Intel Xeon Scalable Processor (Skylake)
|Intel® Xeon® Scalable Platinum 8173M Processor||
|Intel Xeon E7 (Broadwell E7)||Intel® Xeon® E7-8880V4 Processor||
|Intel Xeon E5 v4 (Broadwell E5)||Intel® Xeon® E5-2696V4 Processor||
|Intel Xeon E5 v3 (Haswell)||Intel® Xeon® E5-2696V3 Processor||
|Intel Xeon E5 v2 (Ivy Bridge)||Intel® Xeon® E5-2696V2 Processor||
|Intel Xeon E5 (Sandy Bridge)||Intel® Xeon® E5-2689 Processor||
*N2 machine types that have 80 or more vCPUs use the Intel Ice Lake
AMD processors provide optimized performance and scalability using SMT.
In almost all cases, Compute Engine uses two threads per core, and each vCPU
is one thread. Tau T2D is the exception where Compute Engine uses one
thread per core and each vCPU maps to a physical core. The specific size and
shape of your VM instance determines the number
of its vCPUs.
|CPU processor||Processor SKU||Supported machine series||Base frequency (GHz)||Effective frequency (GHz)||Max boost frequency (GHz)|
|AMD EPYC Milan
|AMD EPYC 7B13||
|AMD EPYC Rome
|AMD EPYC 7B12||
The previous tables describe the hardware specifications of the CPUs that are
available with Compute Engine, but keep the following points in mind:
- Frequency: A PC’s frequency, or clock speed, measures the number of cycles
the CPU executes per second, measured in GHz (gigahertz). Generally, higher
frequencies indicate better performance. However, different CPU designs handle
instructions differently, so an older CPU with a higher clock speed can be
outperformed by a newer CPU with a lower clock speed because the newer
architecture deals with instructions more efficiently.
For more information about CPU clock cycles and performance, see
Clock rates and system performance,
- Base frequency: The frequency at which the CPU runs when the system is
idle or under light load. When running at its base frequency, the CPU draws
less power and produces less heat.
- A VM’s guest environment reflects the base frequency, regardless of what
frequency the VM is actually running at.
- A VM’s guest environment reflects the base frequency, regardless of what
- All-core turbo frequency: The frequency at which each CPU typically
runs when all cores in the socket are not idle at the same time. Different
workloads place different demands on a system’s CPU. Boost technologies
address this difference and help processes adapt to the workload demands by
increasing the CPU’s frequency.
- Most VMs get the all-core turbo frequency, even if only the base frequency
is advertised to the guest environment.
- Ampere Altra Arm processors can provide more predictable performance because
the frequency for Arm processors is always the all-core turbo frequency.
- Most VMs get the all-core turbo frequency, even if only the base frequency
- Max turbo frequency: The frequency a CPU targets when stressed by a
demanding application like a video game or design modeling application. It’s
the maximum single-core frequency a CPU achieves without overclocking.
- Processor power management technologies: Intel processors support multiple
technologies to optimize the power consumption. These technologies are divided
into two categories, or states:
- C-states are states when the CPU has reduced or turned off selected functions.
C-state is only supported for C2 machine types.
- P-states provide a way to scale the frequency and voltage at which the
processor runs so as to reduce the power consumption of the CPU.
For VMs other than C2, C-State and P-State are not supported currently, so
idling virtual CPUs within the guest environment might not work as expected.
- C-states are states when the CPU has reduced or turned off selected functions.
- Learn more about Machine families.
- Learn more about Virtual machine instances.
- Learn more about Images.
- Learn how to Specify a minimum CPU platform.
Try it for yourself
If you’re new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how
Compute Engine performs in real-world
scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and
Try Compute Engine free
Intel’s new fourth-gen ‘Haswell’ processors: What you need to know (FAQ)
Intel has officially revealed its next-generation lineup of desktop and mobile processors in the Core i3, i5, and i7 family, also known as «fourth-generation» or code-named «Haswell.» The two-part announcement started over the weekend with Intel’s quad-core enthusiast-level processors, and now the veil has been lifted on dual-core desktop and mobile processors, too.
This FAQ will mainly focus on the dual-core processors and what they’ll do for mobile systems. For a detailed rundown on the quad-core processors, check out our hands-on look.
What is it?
Haswell is Intel’s code name for the fourth generation of Core i-series processors, those ubiquitous chips found in nearly every laptop, desktop, and (Windows) tablet out there. The last generation, code-named «Ivy Bridge,» was released mid-2012. The newest CPUs come in a variety of types: desktop-based quad-core processors, dual-core mainstream processors, lower-power longer-battery-life ultrabook processors, and processors aimed specifically at tablets.
The Razer Blade 14 has a fourth-gen quad-core i7.
When can I get PCs with these new processors?
You can get PCs with the higher-end quad-core processors first, but these are expensive, high-performance machines. Intel leads with the high end first, then releases the middle-range processors (in other words, the ones you’d want to buy) later on. A number of systems will pop up over the next few months, but by the fall most PCs should have them — not all, though.
How do I know if a PC has it?
You’ll never see «Haswell» anywhere on an actual product box, so strike that from your memory. They’re still all Core i3, i5, and i7 processors, ranging from i3 (slowest) to i7 (fastest), with a variety of speeds and types for each. Just make sure the first number after the «i7» or «i5» is a 4, as in «Core i7-4650U.» If it were an older third-gen processor, that four-digit number would start with a 3. More specifically, Intel has also created four classes of mobile processor based on PC type: «H» for high-end quad-core processors, «M» for mainstream quad-core and dual-core laptops and some desktops, «U» for lower-power ultrabooks, and «Y» for super-low-power tablets and detachable hybrids. It’s confusing, but that’s why we compare different PCs with benchmark tests.
What do these new dual-core processors do?
While they’re faster than last year’s processors, the real impact will be giving ultrabooks and tablets better battery life and graphics performance. We haven’t tested any of the newer dual-core processors yet, but Intel claims up to 3 hours better battery life for ultrabooks, and significantly better graphics for gaming over last year’s equivalent third-gen Ivy Bridge processors.
Does this mean new Haswell ultrabooks and tablets will play lots of games well?
Well, keep your expectations in check, but yes, both tablets and ultrabooks (and laptops and desktops) with Intel’s newest integrated graphics should handle gaming, video encoding, and graphics-based tasks a lot better. Keep in mind, though, that different fourth-gen processors have different levels of Intel graphics. The Iris-level pro graphics aren’t the same as what you’ll be getting on a new Haswell tablet. Last year’s Intel HD4000 integrated graphics were a nice bump up from the previous HD3000 graphics, but weren’t as good as higher-end dedicated graphics options from Nvidia and AMD.
How good will battery life on new ultrabooks and tablets be? A full day?
We hope so, but stay tuned for actual tests. Intel claims between 2 and 3 hours of battery life gain in its test slides.
Will these new processors add any new features to ultrabooks?
A few. Wi-Di 4.1 is built into new Haswell processors. Wi-Di, Intel’s wireless display technology for beaming video and sound to a TV or monitor, has been around for several years, but the latest version features less lag and a new touch-friendly interface for touch PCs. Of course, you’ll still need to find a TV or plug-in adapter that’s compatible with Wi-Di. Also, according to Intel, fourth-gen Haswell ultrabooks will have faster wake-from-sleep times (under 3 seconds) and perceptual computing interfaces built in, using the Webcam and microphone to record gestures and voice. How those will work remains to be fully seen, but were teased at CES.
The new Acer Aspire S7.
Will all new ultrabooks have touch?
Intel is making touch screens a requirement on all fourth-gen Intel Core i-series ultrabooks. Now, that doesn’t mean all slim laptops will be touch-enabled; it just means that those that don’t won’t be called «ultrabooks.» Expect the majority to be touch, especially as prices drop, but a good handful of PCs will likely stick around without any touch at all.
Should I wait to get a PC with one?
If you’re considering an ultrabook or tablet and want really good battery life or graphics, then yes, those gains could be worth waiting for. For mainstream laptops, that remains to be seen. You’re always better off getting newer hardware, but the difference in a larger laptop might not be as dramatic. As always, you could try buying a laptop with a last-gen Intel processor online and see if there are any discounts.
How much will these systems cost?
Prices will vary, of course, but Intel says two-in-ones, meaning those ultrabook/tablet convertibles, sporting a fourth-gen dual-core Haswell processor could cost as little as $399 by the holidays. Most PCs will probably cost the equivalent of what the previous systems did: in other words, a little more power without a markup. But don’t forget, prices will drop even more once Bay Trail (see below) tablets and laptops hit; Bay Trail notebooks could cost as little as $199, or $299 for touch versions.
The Acer Iconia W3 is a new 8-inch Windows 8 tablet, but uses a non-next-gen Atom chip.
Will Kindle-size Windows tablets be coming soon?
Not many — yet. You’ll have to wait for Bay Trail. Intel’s Atom processors are a brand category that’s hung around since Netbooks and are targeted at entry-level, ultra-low-power devices. Atom is being reinvented and rebranded in the fall, and the code name for these processors is «Bay Trail.» Expect these to appear in 11-inch-and-under tablets and laptops, most likely at bargain prices. Right now, Atom CPUs are in many lower-priced and smaller Windows 8 tablets, including the newly announced Acer Iconia W3 8-inch tablet, so you might see a few smaller tablets floating around. ..but «Haswell» is meant for larger devices. It’s a lot like last year’s divide between faster Core i5/i7 Windows 8 tablets and those with Atom CPUs.
Will the new MacBooks have these processors?
Apple’s WWDC keynote is in one week, so we’ll see if they show up there. Stay tuned.
Detailed Specifications of the Intel Xeon E5-2600v3 «Haswell-EP» Processors
Articles > Detailed Specifications of the Intel Xeon E5-2600v3 “Haswell-EP” Processors
This article provides in-depth discussion and analysis of the 22nm Xeon E5-2600v3 series processors (formerly codenamed “Haswell-EP”). “Haswell” processors replace the previous 22nm “Ivy Bridge” microarchitecture and are available for sale as of September 8, 2014. Note: these have since been superceded by Xeon E5-2600v4 Broadwell-EP Processors.
Important changes available in E5-2600v3 “Haswell-EP” include:
- Up to 18 processor cores per socket (with options for 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-cores)
- Support for DDR4 memory speeds up to 2133MHz
- Advanced Vector Extensions version 2. 0 (AVX2 instructions):
- allow 256-bit wide operations for both integer and floating-point numbers (the older AVX instructions supported only floating-point operations)
- introduce Fused Multiply Add FMA3 instructions, which allow a multiply and an accumulate instruction to be completed in a single cycle (potentially doubling throughput for floating-point applications – up to 16 FLOPS per cycle)
- add support for additional instructions, including Gather and vector shift
- Improved energy efficiency with Per Core P-States and independent uncore frequency control
With a product this complex, it’s very difficult to cover every aspect of the design. Here, we concentrate primarily on the performance of the processors for HPC applications.
Exceptional Computational Performance
The Xeon E5-2600v3 processors introduce the highest performance available to date in a socketed CPU. For the first time, a single CPU is capable of more than half a TeraFLOPS (500 GFLOPS). This is made possible through the use of AVX2 with FMA3 instructions. The plot below compares the peak performance of these CPUs with and without FMA instructions:
The colored bars indicate performance using only AVX instructions; the grey bars indicate theoretical peak performance when using AVX with FMA. Note that only a small set of codes will be capable of issuing almost exclusively FMA instructions (e.g., LINPACK). Most applications will issue a variety of instructions, which will result in lower than peak FLOPS. Expect the achieved performance for well-parallelized & optimized applications to fall between the grey and colored bars.
Intel Xeon E5-2600v3 Series Specifications
The tabs below compare the features and specifications of the new model line. Intel has divided the CPUs into several groups:
- Standard: cost-effective CPUs with moderate performance
- Advanced: CPUs offering the highest performance for most applications
- High Core Count: ideal for well-parallelized applications; CPUs providing the highest number of processor cores (sometimes sacrificing clock frequency in favor of core count)
- Frequency Optimized: ideal for non-parallel/single-threaded applications; CPUs with the highest clock speeds (sacrificing number of cores in order to provide the highest frequencies)
Although these processors introduce significant performance increases, technical readers will see that many of the changes are incremental: increased core counts, improved DDR memory speed, etc. However, processor clock speeds/frequencies have not seen significant improvements.
In fact, in some cases the CPU frequency has been lowered from the previous models. Processor frequency and Turbo Boost behavior have changed significantly with this release. Those metrics are discussed in further detail in the next section.
|Model||AVX Frequency||AVX Turbo Boost||Core Count||Memory Speed||L3 Cache||QPI Speed||TDP (Watts)|
|E5-2699v3||1.90 GHz||3.30 GHz||18||2133 MHz||45MB||9.6 GT/s||145W|
|E5-2697v3||2.20 GHz||3.30 GHz||14||35MB||145W|
|E5-2695v3||1. 90 GHz||3.00 GHz||120W|
|E5-2683v3||1.70 GHz||2.70 GHz|
|E5-2690v3||2.30 GHz||3.20 GHz||12||30MB||135W|
|E5-2680v3||2.10 GHz||3.10 GHz||120W|
|E5-2670v3||2.00 GHz||2.90 GHz|
|E5-2687Wv3||2.70 GHz||3.50 GHz||10||25MB||160W|
|E5-2660v3||2.20 GHz||3.10 GHz||105W|
|E5-2650v3||2.00 GHz||2.80 GHz|
|E5-2667v3||2.70 GHz||3.50 GHz||8||20MB||135W|
|E5-2640v3||2.20 GHz||3.40 GHz||1866 MHz||8 GT/s||90W|
|E5-2630v3||2.10 GHz||3.20 GHz||85W|
|E5-2643v3||2. 80 GHz||3.50 GHz||6||2133 MHz||9.6 GT/s||135W|
|E5-2620v3||2.10 GHz||3.20 GHz||1866 MHz||15MB||8 GT/s||85W|
|E5-2637v3||3.20 GHz||3.60 GHz||4||2133 MHz||9.6 GT/s||135W|
|E5-2623v3||2.70 GHz||3.50 GHz||1866 MHz||10MB||8 GT/s||105W|
HPC groups do not typically choose Intel’s “Basic” and “Low Power” models – those skus are not shown.
Clock Speeds & Turbo Boost in Xeon E5-2600v3 series “Haswell” processors
With each new processor line, Intel introduces new architecture optimizations. The design of the “Haswell” architecture acknowledges that highly-parallel/vectorized applications place the highest load on the processor cores (requiring more power and thus generating more heat). While a CPU core is executing intensive vector tasks (AVX instructions), the clock speed may be reduced to keep the processor within its power limits (TDP).
In effect, this may result in the processor running at a lower frequency than the “base” clock speed advertised for each model. For that reason, each “Haswell” processor model is assigned two “base” frequencies:
- AVX mode: due to the higher power requirements of AVX instructions, clock speeds may be somewhat lower while executing AVX instructions *
- Non-AVX mode: while not executing AVX instructions, the processor will operate at what would traditionally be considered the “stock” frequency
* a CPU core will return to Non-AVX mode 1 millisecond after AVX instructions complete
AVX and Non-AVX Turbo Boost
Just as in previous architectures, “Haswell” CPUs include the Turbo Boost feature which causes each processor core to operate well above the “base” clock speed during most operations. The precise clock speed increase depends upon the number & intensity of tasks running on each CPU. With the “Haswell” architecture, Turbo Boost speed increases also depend upon the types of instructions (AVX vs. Non-AVX).
The two plots below show that processor clock speeds can be categorized as:
- All cores on the CPU actively running Non-AVX instructions
- All cores on the CPU actively running AVX instructions
- A single active core running Non-AVX instructions (all other cores on the CPU must be idle)
- A single active core running AVX instructions (all other cores on the CPU must be idle)
Clock Speeds for All-Core Operation
Clock Speeds for Single-Core Operation
Note that despite the clear rules stated above, each value is still a range of clock speeds. Because workloads are so diverse, Intel is unable to guarantee one specific clock speed for AVX or Non-AVX instructions. Users are guaranteed that cores will run within a specific range, but each application will have to be benchmarked to determine which frequencies a CPU will operate at.
When examining the differences between AVX and Non-AVX instructions, notice that Non-AVX instructions typically result in no more than a 100MHz to 200MHz increase in the highest clock speed. However, AVX instructions may cause clock speeds to drop by 300MHz to 400MHz if they are particularly intensive.
Recall that AVX2 introduces support for both integer and floating-point instructions, which means any compute-intensive application will be using such instructions (if it has been properly designed and compiled). HPC users should expect their processors to be running in AVX mode most of the time.
Top Clock Speeds for Specific Core Counts
When workloads leave some CPU cores idle, the Xeon E5-2600v3 processors are able to use that headroom to increase the clock speed of the cores which are performing work. Just as with other Turbo Boost scenarios, the precise speed increase will depend upon the CPU model. It will also depend upon how many CPU cores are active.
We advise users to consider how many CPU cores their application is able to saturate. The tabs below detail the peak Turbo Boost frequencies for each CPU model, sorted by the number of active cores:
All of the above plots show CPU frequencies for applications utilizing AVX instructions. The colored bars indicate the worst-case scenario – CPUs will run at least this fast. The grey bars indicate the expected clock speeds for most workloads.
Cost-Effectiveness and Power Efficiency of Xeon E5-2600v3 CPUs
The “Haswell-EP” processors have nearly the same price structure and power requirements as earlier Xeon E5-2600 products, so their cost-effectiveness and power-efficiency should be quite attractive to HPC users. Savvy readers may find the following facts useful:
- Although v3 Xeons follow the same price steps as their v2 counterparts, three High-Core-Count models were late additions. These models are higher performing and carry higher prices than previous E5-2600 models.
- The power requirement (TDP) for each model has increased by 5 Watts over the previous generation. This is due to integration of the Voltage Regulator Modules (VRMs) which were previously placed on the motherboard. Thus, CPU TDP increases 5W and motherboard TDP decreases 5W.
- The following graphs depict the cost-effectiveness and power-efficiency of only the CPU itself. In many cases, HPC users will find that once they’ve taken the full platform and cluster design into account, the cost-effectiveness of a higher core count CPU may be more beneficial than these plots demonstrate.
Performance vs. Price
Performance vs. Power
Summary of features in Xeon E5-2600v3 “Haswell-EP” processors
In addition to the capabilities mentioned at the top of this article, these processors include many of the successful features from earlier Xeon designs. The list below provides a summary of relevant technology features:
- Up to 18 processor cores per socket (with options for 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-cores)
- Support for Quad-channel ECC DDR4 memory speeds up to 2133MHz
- Direct PCI-Express (generation 3.0) connections between each CPU and peripheral devices such as network adapters, GPUs and coprocessors (40 PCI-E lanes per socket)
- Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX 2.0):
- effectively double the throughput of integer and floating-point operations with math units expanded from 128-bits to 256-bits
- introduce Fused Multiply Add (FMA3) instructions which allow a multiply and an accumulate instruction to be completed in a single cycle (effectively doubling the FLOPS/clock from 8 to 16 for each core of a CPU)
- add support for additional instructions, including Gather and vector shift
- F16C 16-bit Floating-Point conversion instructions accelerate data conversion between 16-bit and 32-bit floating point formats
- Turbo Boost technology improves performance under peak loads by increasing processor clock speeds. With version 2.0, (introduced in “Sandy Bridge”) clock speeds are boosted more frequently, to higher speeds and for longer periods of time. With “Haswell”, top clock speeds depend upon the type of instructions (AVX vs. Non-AVX).
- Dual Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) links between processor sockets improve communication speeds for multi-threaded applications
- Improved energy efficiency with Per Core P-States and independent uncore frequency control
- Intel Data Direct I/O Technology increases performance and reduces latency by allowing Intel ethernet controllers and adapters to talk directly with the processor cache
- Advanced Encryption Standard New Instructions (AES-NI) accelerate encryption and decryption for fast, affordable data protection and security
- 32-bit & 64-bit Intel Virtualization Technology (VT/VT-x) for Directed I/O (VT-d) and Connectivity (VT-c) deliver faster performance for core virtualization processes and provide built-in hardware support for I/O virtualization.
- Intel APIC Virtualization (APICv) provides increased virtualization performance
- Hyper-Threading technology allows two threads to “share” a processor core for improved resource usage. Although useful for some workloads, it is not recommended for HPC applications.
Intel Processor Comparison Chart i3, i5, i7, i9
Intel processors have been differentiated in the i3, i5, i7, and i9 product lines for ages, but what exactly is behind them? Here we explain the most important properties of all Intel CPUs and introduce you to the intel processor comparison chart i3, i5, i7, and i9 for every price range.
You will also learn how Intel processors differ, how you can read the model name and which processor series is suitable for which purpose. Because if you buy wildly, you are definitely choosing the wrong Intel CPU. And although AMD has caused a lot of wind with its Ryzen CPUs, Intel processors still belong in every CPU ranking.
Intel Processor Comparison Chart i3, i5, i7, i9 : Overview And General Differences
Before we go into the details for the individual Intel processors, we would like to introduce you to the rough differences and application areas of the various model series. The following table summarizes the most important things:
|Power||low||medium||high-very high||very high|
|Operation Area||Casual gaming, office work, surfing||Serious gaming, video editing (but with limitations)||High-end gaming, video rendering without restrictions||Everything is possible, especially gaming & streaming etc. at the same time|
|Cores||up to 4||up to 6||up to 8||8-18 (X row)|
|Threads||up to 4||up to 12||up to 8||8-18 (X row)|
|Cache||Max 8 MB||Max 12 MB||Max 16 MB||Max 20 MB|
As you can see, the Intel processors differ from “small” (i3) to “large” mainly in terms of their performance potential and price. However, the individual processors still have a few details, which we will now briefly discuss.
Understand Model Names And Generations
But before we go into the specifics you should understand how to “read” the processor names of Intel CPUs.
As you can see in the picture above, this is quite easy. Using the example of the Intel Core i5-8700K, we can easily see what an Intel CPU can actually do and where it belongs:
- The first part always describes the processor type (Intel Core series) and the processor type (i5).
- In this case, the first number describes the processor generation, the 8th – the larger this number, the newer the CPU.
- The model number follows this. The following applies here: The higher this is, the more powerful the CPU is.
- Finally, various suffixes such as K, HK, T, which characterize the CPU’s special properties. We’ll explain these in a moment.
The following names refer to the desktop CPUs from Intel, corresponding processor generations can be enumerated as follows:
- Sandy Bridge
- Ivy Bridge
- Kaby Lake
- Coffee Lake
- Coffee Lake Refresh
- Comet Lake
We also want to list the most important suffixes below :
- A K at the end means that the CPU is overclockable (unlocked)
- G or G1-G7: CPU contains an integrated graphics unit. In the case of processors with an integrated GPU, the model is referred to here
- Q: Without an integrated GPU
- H: High performance, optimized for mobile processors
- HK: high performance and overclockable (mobile processors)
- HQ: high performance for laptops, four cores
- S: special edition
- T: Energy-efficient CPU desktop
- U: energy efficient (mobile)
- Y: Extremely energy-saving (mobile)
- X: Extreme series for high-end desktop PCs and workstations
Now that you understand Intel processors’ names let’s get into the series’ specifics.
Intel Core i3 Processors
We start at the bottom and work our way up. The Core i3 is the budget processor from Intel. Although Core i3 processors are the cheapest and slowest of the Core family, they are still suitable for basic applications and casual gaming.
The technology behind Core i3 processors in the current 10th generation comprises a four-core basis (older generations only had 2 processor cores here), Hyper-Threading support, and virtualization. Core i3 processors also support 64-bit versions of Windows.
However, there are also a few restrictions here. For example, the Core i3 processors do not support Intel’s Turbo Boost technology and have less cache than their Core i5, Core i7, and Core i9. The cache is an important specification that enables the processor to perform certain tasks more efficiently.
Accordingly, the Intel Core i3 is ideal for everyone who needs less power. Because although i3 CPUs are now quite high-performance, their performance is insufficient for demanding games or computing-intensive applications. Therefore, this CPU series is best suited for entry-level PCs used for e-mails, word processing, light gaming, and simple Internet surfing.
Intel Core i5 Processors
Core i5 is the mid-range processor from Intel. As an upgrade to the Core i3, Core i5 processors definitely offer you more power, whether for gaming or multitasking scenarios. Because depending on the type of applications you are running, you will notice a noticeable difference in speed.
When gaming, you’ll notice the difference between an i3-10100 and an i5-10400 is great (10-25 FPS depending on the game), but if you edit multiple files in Photoshop, you’ll find that the Core i5 can do such tasks faster.
The Core i5 series comes with 6 cores, 12 MB cache, and Hyper-Threading in the current generation. You will benefit from the six cores, especially with multithreaded tasks. Also, with the i5-10600K, you get a processor that you can overclock (there is none in the Core i3 series). Should you have the necessary change, we definitely recommend a Core i5 instead of the rather limited Core i3 processors.
Intel Core i7 Processors
Next up, we have the Intel Core i7 line of processors. Core i7s were the top chips of all processors in the Core series for many years, until the Core i9 and Core X series came out. Nevertheless, the Core i7 series is still quite expensive and clearly in the high-end segment, not just in price.
In the current 10th generation, the i7 series has octa-core performance, virtualization support, Hyper-Threading, and Turbo Boost technology. Also, faster DDR4 RAM of up to 2933 MHz is supported here, with the i3 and i5 only clock rates of up to 2666 MHz are possible.
The main areas of application for Core i7 processors are large multitasking and heavyweight multimedia tasks, high-end gaming, and computationally intensive things such as video editing and rendering. You’ll also see the benefits of an i7 when running multiple virtual machines or editing 4K videos.
i7 processors also have a larger built-in cache that makes repetitive tasks more efficient. Larger caches also mean better multitasking performance.
Should you buy an i7 processor? For the vast majority of you, this is certainly not necessary. For gaming, in particular, it would be much smarter to go with something like an i5-10600K and spend the savings on a better graphics card, more RAM, or even a faster SSD hard drive. However, if you occasionally do CPU-intensive tasks or target 1440p or 4K gaming, the i7 series is an excellent choice.
Intel Core i9 Processors
Finally, we have the ultimate processor series: The Intel Core i9. Initially, there was only the X series for the special LGA2066 socket, but now there are also “normal” i9 CPUs for the LGA1151 socket or currently the new LGA1200.
The X series represents a separate processor series of the Core i9, which was specially designed for computationally intensive application areas and is less useful for gaming. Accordingly, processors with an “X” in their name really only make sense if the system is designed for maximum multitasking performance.
In contrast, the “normal” Core i9 CPUs represent Intel’s processor lineup’s absolute spearhead. At the moment, they are still the most powerful gaming CPUs. Now with 10 instead of just 8 cores, the 10th generation Core i9 CPUs with their 20 MB cache and clock speeds of up to 5. 3 GHz offer plenty of power reserves.
In gaming and multithreaded tasks, you get an upgrade compared to a Core i7, but only at an extreme surcharge. Some games can take advantage of the extra threads, and certain benchmarks also benefit from the extra performance from these costly chips. Still, in most cases, the benefit is minimal.
So if you want to equip a workstation for rendering, video editing, or other intense tasks that can use many cores, then a Core i9 is worth considering. Gamers who really want to get the last FPS out will be happy with this – if the budget is not an issue. But an i7 9700K, i5 10600K or i7 10700K is much cheaper and with similar performance. For almost all gamers, the Core i7 is the better choice.
Intel Processors the 10th Generation in Detail
In the following, we would like to introduce you to the differences between the CPU models within the latest generation. This gives you a good idea of how big the distance between the different rows i3, i5, i7, and i9 actually is. We leave out the X series, especially since it is not relevant for gamers.
|Max Base Clock||3.8 GHz||4.1 GHz||3.8 GHz||3.7 GHz|
|Max Turbo Boost Rate||unsupported||unsupported||5.1 GHz||5.2 GHz|
|Single Core Turbo||up to 4.6 GHz||up to 4.8 GHz||up to 5 GHz||up to 5.1 GHz|
|Max Cores / Threads||4/8||6/12||8/16||10/20|
|Cache||Max 8 MB||Max 12 MB||Max 16 MB||Max 20 MB|
|RAM||Up to DDR4-2666||Up to DDR4-2666||Up to DDR4-2993||Up to DDR4-2993|
Even with the 10th generation, Intel cannot compensate for its weaknesses outside of gaming and the price-performance compared to the Ryzen 3000 chips from AMD. Nevertheless, some interesting processors are especially interesting for us gamers (more on this below in the recommendations). Unfortunately, even the tenth Intel-Gen cannot yet support PCIe 4.0 and also needs a new mainboard for these CPUs that supports the LGA1200 socket (such as mainboards with the Z490 chipset).
9th Generation Intel Processors in Detail
The 9th generation of Intel CPUs is still relevant in 2020. With the appearance of the 10th generation, prices were reduced and, above all, mainboards for the “old” 1151 socket are becoming cheaper and cheaper. That’s why we wanted to show you the most important differences within this era again.
|Max Base Clock||4 GHz||3.7 GHz||3.6 GHz||3.6 GHz|
|Max Turbo Boost Rate||4.6 GHz||4.6 GHz||4.9 GHz||5. 0 GHz|
|Max Cores / Threads||4/4||6/6||8/8||8/16|
|Cache||Max 8 MB||Max 9 MB||Max 12 MB||Max 16 MB|
|RAM||Up to DDR4-2400||Up to DDR4-2666||Up to DDR4-2666||Up to DDR4-2666|
A clear difference between the tenth and ninth generation is obvious: i3, i5, and i7 CPUs did not have hyperthreading. About the architecture, 14nm was set here, which can also be seen in the latest series. Nevertheless, Intel’s current generation of processors experienced some innovations, which differentiates them from the 9th generation. But if you can find cheap CPUs from Intel’s ninth-generation somewhere, then these are still a solid base.
The Best Intel Processors : Our Recommendations
Now that you have all the details about the latest Intel processors, it is time for us to give you some recommendations. We rummaged through all the price points to show you the right Intel CPU for YOUR budget. Let’s take off!
Best Intel Processor For Gaming & Price Performance: i5-10600K
- Clock rate: 4.1GHz / 4.8GHz
- Cores & Threads: 6/12
- Socket: FCLGA1200
- TDP: 125W
Intel fans will struggle to find something better in terms of value for money because this thing is absolutely awesome. In fact, it’s so good that the i7-10700K is almost completely irrelevant to current pricing – especially since the 10600K offers pretty much the same performance for less money.
This highly anticipated CPU comes with 6 cores and 12 threads, which means that Intel fans have two fewer cores than the similarly priced 3700X alternative. Although Ryzen has the edge in general benchmarks and multitasking benchmarking, the same cannot be said for games.
The Intel i5-10600K is unbeatable from a gaming standpoint and offers fantastic single-core performance that even comes close to that of the mighty i9-10900K. The i5-10600K can have a base clock frequency of 4.10 GHz or a boost frequency of 4.80 GHz across all cores. Thanks to several different factors, the i5-10600K can be easily trimmed to the level of the i9-10900K with a simple overclock. Of course, you can’t get around a Z490 motherboard for this, but if it’s done right, it’s worth it!
The i5-10600K can even perform some moderately intensive multithreaded tasks such as video rendering and 3D modeling thanks to the additional hyperthreading. All in all, our absolute top recommendation among the Intel CPUs!
- Excellent single-core performance
- Excellent value for money
- Slightly overclocked to the i9-10900K level
- 10% faster than Ryzen alternative for the same price
- New socket requires a new 400 motherboard
Best Affordable Intel Processor: i5-10400F
- Clock rate: 2. 9GHz / 4.3GHz
- Cores & Threads: 6/12
- Socket: FCLGA1200
- TDP: 65W
Yes, we know there is also the i3-10100, but the i5-10400F offers you so much more for only 40 €. For the most part, we think it’s the best option for anyone on a budget. When it comes to multitasking scenarios, he doesn’t clear as much, but you’re at the forefront when it comes to gaming.
The 10400F is a 6-core processor without a GPU that offers hyperthreading support like the other 10th generation Intel CPUs. It has a base clock frequency of 2.90 GHz, which can be increased to 4.30 GHz immediately.
It’s a pretty good choice for gamers for less intense titles like CS: GO, Rainbow Six Siege, and the like. But even with CPU-heavy titles like AC: Odyssey or Hitman 2, you can easily reach your 90FPS here. In a direct comparison with the Ryzen 3600, the i5-10400F is even slightly ahead, making it a pretty interesting prospect for Intel fans.
But it also has its drawbacks. First of all, it is not overclockable, which means that you have to be satisfied with the boost clock of 4.30 GHz. Also, you don’t get an integrated GPU here, which, of course, means you have additional costs. However, as a gamer, you should install a dedicated graphics card anyway, which makes this unnecessary.
- Quite cheap to have
- Good value for money
- Faster than Ryzen 5 3600
- No integrated GPU
- No overclocking
Most Powerful Intel CPU For Enthusiasts: i9-10900K
- Clock rate: 3.7GHz / 5.3GHz
- Cores & Threads: 10/20
- Socket: FCLGA1200
- TDP: 125W
This 10-core chip with 20 threads is at the top of the performance Olympus. It has a base clock rate of 3.70 GHz and a maximum single-core turbo frequency of 5.30 GHz when the new Velocity Boost algorithm is used. With strong overclocking, even 5.3 GHz can sometimes be reached on all cores.
Intel’s 10-core CPU offers a TDP of 125 watts, but tests show that it can reach up to 325 watts when overclocked. So if you want to get the most out of your Core i9, you need a powerful cooler.
Despite the high power consumption, the Core i9-10900K doesn’t disappoint for the price. It is currently the fastest gaming CPU on the market and, therefore, also the best Intel processor. In some cases, it even outperforms AMD’s Ryzen 9 3900X, a 12-core chip with 24 threads for productivity tasks.
The Core i9-10900K includes 20MB of L3 cache and Intel’s built-in UHD Graphics 630 GPU, although it would be a waste to use those for anything other than testing Windows. When you combine this CPU with a powerful graphics card, you get the most powerful gaming PC that you can buy today.
- Great gaming performance
- Lots of overclocking possible
- Can handle intense multitasking scenarios
- Needs very good cooling
- Extremely expensive
- High power consumption
Best Intel CPU for Workstations: i9-10980XE
- Clock rate: 3. 0GHz / 4.6GHz
- Cores & Threads: 18/36
- Socket: FCLGA2066
- TDP: 165W
If you really want to build a high-end workstation with an Intel CPU (we rather recommend AMD), then check out this beast. Intel’s leading CPU for multithreaded tasks is the i9-10980XE – an update of the 9980XE.
Intel’s latest 18-core comes with 36 threads, a base clock frequency of 3.0 GHz, and a boost clock of 4.60 GHz on all cores. This is Intel’s answer to AMD’s latest Threadripper CPUs that keep the multitasking benchmarks tight. While the 10980XE still lags a bit behind its Ryzen counterpart, it’s still Intel’s best CPU when it comes to heavy multitasking workflows.
In terms of benchmarks, the i9-10980XE only marginally outperforms the Ryzen 9 3950X in the standard configuration for Adobe Premiere and Blender’s tasks. Apart from that, users will notice a decent performance jump when overclocking to over 4.5 GHz compared to the similarly positioned Ryzen. In other workflow benchmarks such as Cinebench, AIDA 64, and Handbrake, however, the I9-10980XE loses out.
So if you really want to stay with Intel and need a processor for compute-intensive scenarios, then the i9-10980XE is definitely the right processor.
- Excellent multitasking performance
- Good overclocking potential
- Beats all Intel processors when multitasking and rendering
- Extremely expensive
- Less ideal for gaming
Haswell Core i3 vs. i5 vs. i7
Read this article at https://www.pugetsystems.com/guides/475
Written on June 2, 2013 by Matt Bach
Always look at the date when you read a hardware article. Some of the content in this article is most likely out of date, as it was written on June 2, 2013. For newer information, see our more recent articles.
Intel has been using the i3, i5, and i7 naming scheme for their CPUs for quite a while now, but what these labels mean tends to slowly change over time as new features are introduced or older ones get replaced. On top of this, the naming scheme between desktop and mobile CPUs is often different as well. In this article, we will go over what differentiates i3, i5, and i7 processors for both mobile and desktop Haswell CPUs.
The biggest thing you need to know in regards to the i3, i5, and i7 naming scheme is that it is primarily a way for Intel to separate their CPUs into three performance tiers:
Intel Core i7: High-end
Intel Core i5: Mainstream
Intel Core i3: Entry-level
There are a few differences in features (notably Hyperthreading, cache size, and number of cores), but as we will show later in this article there is actually very little that differentiates an i5 CPU from an i7 CPU. The biggest thing that this naming scheme gives you is a starting place when choosing a CPU. If you use your computer for basic tasks like surfing the web, then an i3 CPU is likely a great choice. If you use your computer for a variety of tasks that require a bit more power (including gaming), than an i5 CPU might be a better choice. If you run multiple applications that require a lot of CPU power, then an i7 CPU is probably right for you.
|Frequency||Turbo Boost||Cores||Hyperthreading||Smart Cache||TDW||Graphics|
|Core i7||2.0-3.5GHz||4||8MB||35-84W||Intel HD 4600|
|Core i5||3.0-3.4GHz||4||4-6MB||35-84W||Intel HD 4600|
|Core i3||2. 4-3.6GHz||2||3-4MB||35-54W||Varies|
Overall, the chart above can be summarized with the following:
- The CPU frequency and thermal output (TDW) is largely not determined by the Core i_ name
- Core i5 and i7 both have Turbo Boost while the i3 does not
- Core i5 and i7 CPUs have 4 cores, while i3 CPUs only have 2
- Core i5 CPUs lack Hyperthreading
- Core i7 CPUs have more Smart Cache than i5 CPUs, which in turn have more cache than i3 CPUs
- Core i5 and i7 CPUs have the same graphics, although the speed of that graphics will depend on the individual CPU. Core i3 CPUs have variable graphics depending on the price-point of the CPU.
So while i7 CPUs do have overall better specifications than i5 CPUs, there is actually quite a bit of overlap between the two except that i5 CPUs do not support Hyperthreading. Especially in terms of frequency and thermal output, the two lines really are not very different. For i3 CPUs, the main difference is that they only have two cores, a smaller cache, do not support Turbo Boost and have overall lower thermal output than i5 and i7 CPUs.
|Frequency||Turbo Boost||Cores||Hyperthreading||Smart Cache||TDW||Graphics|
|Core i7||2.7-3.0 GHz||4||6-8MB||47-57W||Intel HD 4600|
|1.5-2.8 GHz||2||3MB||17-57W||Intel HD 4600|
|1.4-2.6 GHz||2||3MB||13-45W||Intel HD 4600|
Currently, there are no Haswell Core i3 or i5 mobile CPUs available for consumers. The values in the chart above are our prediction based on previous generations.
Overall, the chart above can be summarized with the following:
- There is a lot of overlap in CPU frequency and thermal output (TDW) between i3, i5 and i7 CPUs. Core i7 CPUs will have a slightly higher top-end frequency and wattage, while i3/i5 CPUs have lower bottom-end frequency and wattage.
- All Haswell mobile CPUs released so far have both Turbo Boost and Hyperthreading (although i3 is likey to not support Turbo Boost)
- Core i7 CPUs have 4 cores, while i5 and i3 CPUs (should) only have 2
- Core i7 CPUs have more Smart Cache than i5 and i3 CPUs
- All CPUs have the same graphics core (although i3 and i5 is unconfirmed), although the speed of that graphics will depend on the individual CPU
In this case, the main advantage of the Core i7 CPUs is that they have 4 cores, but at the same time they also have an overall higher thermal output. Core i5 and i3 CPUs are actually very similar to each other except that the i3 CPUs are likely to not support Turbo Boost and have slightly lower frequency and power draw than the i5 CPUs.
The main thing to remember is that i7 CPUs are at the high end of the product line, i5 CPUs are in the middle, and i3 CPUs are entry level. This gives you a decent starting place to look for a CPU based on what you will be using your computer for, but you will likely need to look at the individual specs for multiple CPUs to determine which is actually the right fit for you. While there are a few things that the i3/i5/i7 naming scheme tells you, it is really no substitution for actually looking at the specifications of individual CPUs. The Intel Ark is one way to do so, and it allows you to select multiple CPUs to compare side by side. Additionally, if you are in the market for a new computer based on these CPUs, our sales staff is always happy to answer questions at [email protected]
Tags: Haswell, Core i3, Core i5, Core i7
Intel Haswell (Core i3 / i5 / i7-4xxx) — the fourth generation of the Core
June 2013. Just like their predecessors from the Ivy Bridge line, these processors are manufactured on a 22nm process with Tri-gate transistors. The graphics core is GT3, DDR3L RAM is supported.
Even though the Haswell architecture is based on Ivy Bridge, it still has some important changes so that their performance has increased by 10%. Along with minor improvements like a faster cache, Intel has also added support for AVX2, FMA3, and TSX.
The integrated graphics have also changed. Depending on the model and class, it may include 10, 20 or 40 cores (Ivy Bridge has 6 or 16). The fastest graphics model, Iris Pro Graphics 5200, includes 128 MB of memory.
Due to the higher performance, the power consumption of standard dual-core and quad-core processors has also increased (37, 47, 57 watts depending on the model). But the energy-efficient processors of the line (ULV index) now consume 2 watts less, and now they have a TDP of only 15 watts. Also appeared processors with a power consumption of 28 watts, designed for installation in ultrabooks with a diagonal of 14″.
3. Basic clock frequency, GHC
4. TURBO, GHC
5. cache L3, MB
7. ACTIONA graphics, MHz
8. Price, USD
|Q, X, M Series with Intel HD Graphics 4600|
|Core i7-4800MQ||4/8||2. 7||3.7||8||47||400-1300||378|
|Q Series with Intel Iris Pro 5200 graphics|
|Core i7-4950HQ||4/8||2. 4||3.6||6||47||200-1300||N/A|
|U Series with Intel Iris 5100|
|U Series with Intel HD Graphics 5000|
|Core i7-4650U||2/4||1. 7||3.3||4||15||200-1100||454|
|U Series with Intel HD Graphics 4400|
|Core i3-4010U||2/4||1. 7||N/A||3||15||200-1000||287|
|Y Series with Intel HD Graphics 4200|
|Pentium and Celeron with Intel HD Graphics|
M — mobile processor
X — Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition series
Q — quad-core processor.
E — there is an option for built -in systems
U — processors with reduced energy consumption
y — processors with super -low energy consumption
Table of comparison of laptops 2014
Table of comparison of processors for tablets and smartphones 2014 9000
. Haswell (2013-14) | Ivy Bridge (2012)
Sandy Bridge (2011) | Clarksfield and Arrandale (2010) | Merom and Penryn
Intel Pentium and Pentium Dual-Core | Core Duo (Yonah) and Core Solo
Pentium M | Celeron Dual-Core and Celeron M | Atom
Richland (2013) | Trinity (2012) | Llano (2011) | Bobcat (2011)
Section: Components, ArticlesTags: Intel, components, platforms, processors
Line of mobile processors Intel Haswell
Models, frequencies, TDP, conclusions
In the previous article we talked about the positioning of Intel Haswell processors. Processors are divided into three large series depending on their energy efficiency (mobile M, ultra-mobile U, ultra-mobile Y), as well as three large lines of Core i3, Core i5, Core i7, depending on performance — but there are lines within each series. We also examined the positioning of processors, their applicability for various tasks, and approximately estimated the theoretical performance ratio between them. In the same article, you can find a brief description of how Intel Turbo Boost technology works.
This article will discuss the detailed characteristics of the fourth generation Intel Core processors released to the market: their frequencies, technical parameters, etc.
i7 processors, M-series
Core i7 series represented by quad-core eight-thread and dual-core four-thread processors. The volume of the L3 cache, depending on the modification, can be either 6 or 8 MB for quad-core and 4 MB for dual-core models. The nominal TDP of such processors ranges from 37W to 57W. Of the entire line, only three processors have an Iris Pro 5200 graphics core with 128 MB eDRAM on board. As expected, top graphics will be a very rare occurrence. It is worth noting that processors with such graphics have 6 MB of L3 cache — probably, the reduction in the L3 cache volume is caused by the need to keep the processor in the designated TDP.
Cache reduction, although theoretically leads to a decrease in performance, but in practice it is not only insignificant (no more than 3-5%), but also manifests itself only in a limited range of tasks, such as archivers, compilers or software for scientific calculations. But there is an additional buffer of 128 MB eDRAM, which caches requests to the RAM of both the processor and the video card, while providing a total bidirectional bandwidth of 100 GB / s, which largely compensates for the relatively low memory bandwidth (25.6 GB / s ).
Other processors received HD4600 graphics.
Here is a summary table of currently available processors in the line.
|Name||Number of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||cores, MHz||Rated. TDP W||L3 Cache MB||L4 Cache MB|
|4850HQ||4/8||2.3/3.5||Iris Pro 5200||200-1200||47||6||128|
|4800MQ||4/8||2.7/3.7||HD4600||400-1300||47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47|
|4750HQ||4/8||2. 0/3.2||IRIS PRO 5200||200-1200||37||6|
|4702MA 4702MA 4/0048 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702MA 4702M .2/3.2||HD4600||400-1150||37||6||—|
|Name||Number of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||cores, MHz||Nominal TDP, BT||Cache volume L3, MB|
Processors of the line of line
9000 9000 9000 Core -series — the lack of support for Turbo Boost technology, i. e. they have a relatively low maximum frequency, which will definitely affect performance. There are only two models in the line today, both equipped with HD4600 graphics.
|Title||Number of cores / threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||Graphics frequency. cores, MHz||Rated. TDP, BT||Cache volume L3, MB|
Ultra Mobile U-series
i7-series processors, U-series
Core i7 U-series processors have only two cores and four threads, i.e. similar in architecture to the Core i5 M-series, not Core i7 , despite the formally the same ruler. The third level cache is only 4 MB. Of the four processors presented, three use 5xxx graphics, one uses HD4400. The nominal TDP of the U-series is in the range of 15-28 watts.
|Name||No. of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||Graphics frequency. cores, MHz||Rated. TDP, TTP||Cache volume L3, MB|
|Name||Number of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||cores, MHz||Nominal TDP, TT||Cache volume L3, MB|
|4250U||2/4||1.3/2.6||HD5000||200-1000||15||3||4200u||2/4||1. 6/2, 6||HD4400||200-1100||15||3|
Interestingly, there are already two “professional” solutions with a TDP of 28 W and a high nominal frequency. They differ among themselves in the maximum frequencies of operation of all components — the older model will be consistently faster. But the difference in performance shouldn’t be very big, so the difference in price will determine their attractiveness.
There are only three «mainstream» models with a TDP of 15 W. In my opinion, all three are focused on working only with integrated graphics, and therefore the use of the HD4400 core in the younger 4200U model looks strange. Older models have more productive and expensive HD5000 graphics, pairing which with an external solution is just wasteful. In my opinion, this is not quite the right combination of characteristics. It made sense to put a relatively powerful processor with a lower graphics model (i.e. 4200U with higher frequencies) in the line to be paired with external graphics.
Finally, the 4250U looks strange — it has high-performance (for integrated) graphics, but at the same time relatively low operating frequencies, only 1.3 GHz at nominal. But I think this model will be the most affordable and, quite likely, at the initial stage will be the most common in mainstream solutions. Although this is just my guess.
i3 series processors, U-series
Surprisingly, architecturally speaking, the i3 series is essentially the same as the i5 — it’s also dual-core, quad-threaded processors that have 3MB of L3 cache and a TDP in the 15-28W range. They have Hyper-Threading, but they do not support Turbo Boost, which will greatly affect processor performance.
|Name||Number of cores / threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||Graphics frequency. cores, MHz||Rated. TDP, BT||Cache volume L3, MB|
|4005u 9005u 9005u 9005u||40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 40048 4005U||HD4400||200-1100||15||3|
Surprising fact, but this line also has a model with Iris 5100! I don’t know why this video core is needed in Core i3. The corresponding model 4158U, by the way, has a TDP of 28 W and will require more powerful cooling, but the gain in operating frequency is not fundamental — only 200 MHz.
The rest of the processors are clearly budget solutions with lower graphics versions.
i7-series processors, Y-series
Since the emphasis in the Y-series is on energy efficiency (low consumption and low heat) at any cost, performance is not even mentioned somehow. Therefore, there is only one Core i7 processor in the line, and also with 4 MB of third-level cache.
|Name||No. of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||Graphics frequency. cores, MHz||Rated. TDP, TT||SDP, W||Cache volume L3, MB|
|4610Y||2/4||1.7/2.9||HD4200||20048||9004 900 900 900 9004 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 9AT||4|
It is worth noting that the processor has an absolutely incredible Turbo Boost — an increase in frequency by as much as 1200 MHz. True, a TDP of 11.5 W is unlikely to allow it to work at such a frequency for a long time. The processor is equipped with HD4200 graphics with frequencies up to 850 MHz. Don’t expect anything from her.
Processors of the i5 line, Y-series
The main difference between this line of i5 and i7 is the third-level cache cut to 3 MB and lower operating frequencies.
|Name||Number of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||cores, MHz||Rated. TDP, W||SDP, W||L3 cache size, MB|
|430051||2/4||1.3||HD4200||20051 900 11.5||6||3|
|420051||2/4||1. 4/1.9||HD4200||20051||11.5 11.5 11.5||6||3|
But, as expected, the line is much wider, because the Core i5 in this segment will be more in demand. The table shows that everything in these processors is sacrificed for energy efficiency and low TDP: both base and overclocking frequencies, and the version of the video core … On the other hand, if this processor is enough for office tasks, and at the same time it does not need a fan, then for many users it will become a dream processor. The main thing is that the performance is enough …
i3 Y-series processors
i3 Y-series processors have the same basic parameters as Core i5: two cores and four threads, 3 MB L3 cache. But they lack Turbo Boost technology.
|Name||Number of cores/threads||Processor frequency, GHz||Integrated graphics version||cores, MHz||Rated. TDP, W||SDP, W||L3 cache size, MB|
|4010Y||1.3||HD4200||20051||11.5 9004 6 6||3|
|4200Y||2/4||1.4 /4 /4 /4 /4/4/ 1.9||HD4200||200-850||11.5||6||3|
High performance frequencies are not to be expected. However, no one is waiting for it — these processors are designed for tablets for working with the Internet, nothing more. In terms of speed, they will probably be close to the Celeron 887 or 1007 with slightly better graphics and lower power consumption. It seems to me that a system with a Y-series Core i3 will subjectively feel less responsive than a similar Core i5, but this is just an assumption.
Intel Core i7 M series
These processors stand apart in the line. They have twice as many cores and threads as all other Intel Core processors. They consume a lot of energy (especially at overclocking frequencies) and require a noticeably more efficient cooling system. At a minimum, laptops under them will be noticeably thicker.
At the same time, it is important to understand that the Core i7 M-series processors are designed for professional use and resource-intensive tasks that are optimized for eight threads and can work with them. Otherwise, buying a Core i7 does not make much sense, because for significantly more money it will not be possible to take advantage of its advantages due to the lack of software optimization, and it will be good to empty the battery and heat the surrounding space. For home applications and games, it’s better to take the Core i5 with higher frequencies — the system will turn out to be more versatile, and the performance loss will be small. And by the way, the case will be noticeably thinner, and the laptop itself will be noticeably quieter.
Thus, if we need a solution that is balanced in all respects, then the choice will have to be made from three lines: Intel Core i7 U-series, as well as Intel Core i5 M and U series.
Intel Core i5 M series; Intel Core i5 and Intel Core i7 U series
The Core i5 M series is a good choice for a general purpose laptop such as a home desktop laptop. It provides a good level of performance, and most likely will be able to work at maximum frequencies for a long time. The HD4600 video core is integrated into it, which copes well with consumer tasks (except for games), and it looks good paired with an external video card. But this processor has a relatively high TDP and, apparently, power consumption. So it will stand in relatively large laptops, for which performance is more important than autonomy or portability.
If you need high performance only occasionally, but still need it, then you should look at the Core i7 U-series. In good conditions (when Turbo Boost is working at its best), these processors will provide about the same level of performance as the Core i5 M-series. But at the same time they are noticeably more economical at low and medium loads, and they can be installed in thin and light models with good autonomy. However, these processors are quite expensive, besides, due to high overclocking frequencies, they will consume a lot of energy, so the cooling system will be very noisy under heavy load, and the laptop case and the processor itself will get very hot (this problem was clearly visible on previous generations of Intel core). Haswell should be more energy efficient, but I don’t think things will change drastically.
The Intel Core i5 U-series should be a good choice for thin and light laptops that are mainly used for office applications and other light tasks. With a sufficient level of performance, it has good energy efficiency, which allows you to put it in thin laptops and have a good level of autonomy.
Intel Core i3
As for other lines, the Core i3, both M- and U-series, should be chosen only if the budget is very limited, and for this you are ready to put up with lower performance and / or lower energy efficiency than older lines. For the most part, laptop platforms are the same for all processor lines, which makes it possible to save money by getting a laptop that is good in all respects, just with a cheaper and slower processor.
Which integrated graphics do you prefer?
A separate question is the performance of integrated graphics, and whether it is worth paying attention to whether HD4xxx or 5xxx is installed in a particular processor. A difficult question, which depends primarily on the tasks. The vast majority of users will simply not notice the difference. For laptops with an external graphics adapter, HD4xxx graphics are preferred: they are cheaper and heat up less (i.e. less load on the cooling system, Turbo Boost works more efficiently).
Iris 5200, although very interesting from a technological point of view, is likely to appear only in a narrow circle of professional notebooks without external graphics. And the HD5000 and Iris 5100 will be useful to a narrow circle of users who are actively working in those tasks where 40 GPUs will be in demand instead of 20. In games, their applicability is still limited to not the most modern games and only medium settings.
Y-series — a new word?
The new Y-series is quite an important step in the development of the industry, so it is worth dwelling on it in more detail. The fact is that due to the low TDP, these processors allow you to create fanless (i.e. passively cooled) tablets or ultrabooks (or shared ultrabooks, i.e. tablet + dock) running on Windows. And although the absolute performance level of these processors should be relatively low, this is not so important if the system is subjectively responsive enough and there are no annoying stutters in normal office applications. There is a division inside the line, and if the younger Core i3s are most likely suitable only for simple Internet tablets (they should be faster than the new Atoms, but by how much?), then the Core i5s, in principle, should cope with modern office tasks. But their main trump card is precisely high energy efficiency and low heat, which makes it possible to abandon the fan and thus significantly increase the comfort of work.
Testing Intel Haswell Core i7 and Core i5 processors in games (page 4)
Detailed analysis of the results
Let’s start the analysis of the results of processors with their confrontation in individual games.
Core i5-4670K and Core i7-4770K performance summary, where Core i7-4770K is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4670K and Core i7-4770 performance, where Core i7-4770 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i5-4670 performance summary with 100% Core i5-4670
Summary table of Core i5-4670K and Core i5-4570 performance, where Core i5-4570 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4670K and Core i5-4430 performance, where Core i5-4430 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i7-3770K performance summary, where Core i7-3770K is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i7-3770 performance summary, where Core i7-3770 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i5-3570K performance summary, where Core i5-3570K is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i5-3570 performance summary, where Core i5-3570 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i5-3550 performance summary, where Core i5-3550 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i5-3470 performance summary, where Core i5-3470 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4670K and Core i5-3450 performance, where Core i5-3450 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i5-3330 performance summary, where Core i5-3330 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Core i3-3250 performance summary, where Core i3-3250 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4670K and FX-8350 BE performance summary with FX-8350 BE as 100%
Core i5-4670K and FX-6350 BE performance summary with FX-6350 BE as 100%
Core i5-4670K and A10-6800K performance summary with A10-6800K as 100%
Core i5-4670K and A10-5800K performance summary with A10-5800K as 100%
Core i5-4670K and Phenom II X6 1100T BE performance summary, where Phenom II X6 1100T BE 9 is taken as 100%1858
Core i5-4430 and Core i7-4770K performance summary with 100% Core i7-4770K
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i7-4770 performance, where Core i7-4770 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i5-4670 performance, where Core i5-4670 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i5-4570 performance, where Core i5-4570 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i7-3770K performance, where Core i7-3770K is taken as 100%
Core i5-4430 and Core i7-3770 performance summary, where Core i7-3770 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i5-3570K performance, where Core i5-3570K is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i5-3570 performance, where Core i5-3570 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i5-3550 performance, where Core i5-3550 is taken as 100%
Summary table of Core i5-4430 and Core i5-3470 performance, where Core i5-3470 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4430 and Core i5-3450 performance summary, where 100% is taken from Core i5-3450
Core i5-4430 and Core i5-3330 performance summary, where Core i5-3330 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4430 and Core i3-3250 performance summary, where Core i3-3250 is taken as 100%
Core i5-4430 and FX-8350 BE performance summary with FX-8350 BE 9 as 100%1858
Core i5-4430 and FX-6350 BE performance summary with FX-6350 BE as 100%
Core i5-4430 and A10-6800K performance summary, where A10-6800K is taken as 100%
Core i5-4430 and A10-5800K performance summary with A10-5800K as 100%
100% Phenom II X6 1100T BE
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Red or blue? Comparison of processors Intel and AMD
The main element of any PC is the processor that performs all computing operations, and the overall performance depends on the performance of which. And if the manufacturers of video cards and motherboards are a dime a dozen, then only two companies are engaged in the production of processors — Intel and AMD. Their eternal battle has become as classic as the confrontation between Sub-Zero and Scorpio, Real Madrid and Barcelona, Lannisters and Starks.
In this article, we will compare the key features of the two systems and try to answer the age-old question of which one is cooler.
How is processor performance determined?
In order to better understand how the processors of both companies differ, let’s start with the basic concepts of performance. What exactly determines the power and what characteristics to look for when choosing?
Everything is simple here: the higher the maximum frequency, the more productive the CPU (note: the central processing unit). If you need performance in games and heavy applications, then we advise you to focus on the border of 3.5 GHz. That’s the number you’ll see in the minimum system requirements for new toys like Red Dead Redemption 2 and Outer World. Although, for games, the performance of the video card will still be more important. Usually Intel processors were ahead here, but now the situation is approximately equal.
Cores and threads
Perhaps the main parameter for today when choosing. For comfortable gameplay in 2019, you need at least a quad-core CPU. For simple tasks like surfing the net, two will suffice. For complex calculations such as audio-video rendering, 8 or more cores are ideally needed. It is also worth remembering about multithreading — these are additional virtual cores that help out a lot in heavy tasks. Here the picture is better with AMD, which adds multithreading even to low-cost 9-caliber processors.2148 AMD Ryzen 5 Summit Ridge 1400 BOX .
Process and architecture
To simplify, here you can follow a simple rule, the newer the better. For example, the once top fourth generation Intel Core i7 Haswell i7-4770K now shows almost the same performance as the budget eighth generation Intel Core i3 Coffee Lake i3-8100 BOX .
Intel has the most up-to-date line of Coffee Lake Refresh at the moment. As the name suggests, this is essentially a cosmetic update to the previous Coffe Lake series, only with slightly increased clock speeds and better prices. You can see an overview of the most interesting processors in this series in the article “Coffee Lake Refresh revision: which Intel processor to choose in 2019year.» AMD recently debuted a completely new Zen 2 architecture (read about it in the article «Comparison of AMD X470 and X570 chipsets what’s new?»), On the basis of which the company was able to introduce the first mainstream processors with 12 and 16 cores — AMD Ryzen 9 Matisse 3900X BOX Price from 13 442 to 16 671 UAH. and AMD Ryzen 9 Matisse 3950X BOX Price from 21 999 to 53 171 UAH .. However, the previous generation of Ryzen still set the heat and run on simpler and cheaper motherboards.
Key difference between AMD and Intel
Over the past 10 years, AMD has been labeled «cheap and cheerful» while Intel has been associated with high quality and performance. After the release of breakthrough Ryzen processors, the situation changed: AMD ceased to be associated with cheapness and poor performance, and Intel received a magic pendel that forced it to look for new strategies and reduce prices.
The lines have blurred in 2019, but a quick look still reveals one key difference. As a rule, Intel relies on higher nominal frequencies, AMD attracts potential buyers with the number of cores and multithreading. As sales show, those who want to vote in rubles for the second option are much more. From the report of the largest German online store MindFactory.de for October 2019year, we can see that Ryzen CPUs are sold almost 4 times more than Intel — 78% versus 22%. But this does not mean that AMD is cooler than Intel and you can disagree. Both companies have their strengths and weaknesses, as well as hit models and frankly unsuccessful processors.
Game performance comparison
As the review and tests show, the differences between modern CPU models from competing companies are no longer so significant. Intel is still the king of gaming systems, but its dominance is not that significant. With top-end GTX 1080 Ti graphics cards, top-end Intel processors like the i7-8700K have better performance in most modern games. In the future, it is possible that the situation will change in favor of AMD processors with a large number of threads due to improved multi-threading support in new games.
When comparing average FPS at Ultra graphics settings and FullHD resolution, Intel processors are on average 10% faster than their direct competitors from AMD. However, the size of the gap depends on the game itself. For example, in Shadow of the Tomb Raider Intel Core i9 Coffee Lake Refresh i9-9900K BOX gives an average of 17 FPS more than AMD Ryzen 9 Matisse 3900X BOX Price from 13,442 to 16,671 UAH. — 131 FPS vs 114 FPS. And in Assassin’s Creed Odyssey, on the contrary, the gap is reduced to a measly 4 FPS. At the same time 9The 900K can be found on sale for almost $100 less than the 3900X.
So is Intel still the king of gaming? Not really. In terms of the «dollar to FPS» ratio (note: price to performance ratio), AMD CPUs are in the lead in most cases. Below you can see a comparison table that collects the average frames per second from 8 popular games in 2019, as well as how much one FPS costs.
As you can see, out of 11 models, there are only 3 Intel processors in the top. The remaining 8 are representatives of the «red» camp. Moreover, budget models like AMD Ryzen 5 Summit Ridge 1600 BOX 14 nm and high-performance CPUs of caliber AMD Ryzen 7 Pinnacle Ridge 2700X BOX turn out to be profitable. more expensive and faster in games» is again confirmed. But the gap is not significant.
Performance comparison at work
And here the most interesting begins. The fact is that for a long time Intel confidently left AMD behind both in games and in work applications. And if you looked into the working PC of a famous music producer, hardened video editor or experienced graphics specialist, then with a probability of 99% you would see a powerful Core i7 or Core i9 there. Intel chips have become synonymous with fast and reliable performance — Apple and other PC and laptop manufacturers use only them, and specialized software manufacturers Steinberg, Adobe, Ableton, Output, or Waves optimize their software with Intel in mind.
In 2019, the situation has become much more complicated. With more cores and threads (for the same price), processors like the Ryzen 3600X caliber have more power headroom than a comparable Intel CPU. But due to software optimization for Intel, this difference is not always fully disclosed. For example, in tests on plug-in loading in Reaper, identical Intel chips outperform AMD competitors by almost 30%.
In the table below you can see the general results of the SYSmark 2018 synthetic test. They should be taken seriously because they are not considered conditional “parrots”, but the system performance when performing various user scenarios such as working in Acrobat Pro, Photoshop, BowPad, Excel or PowerPoint. As you can see, the new processors with the Zen 2 microarchitecture have significantly improved their results — if a year ago the eight-core Ryzen 7 2700X in SYSmark 2018 did not fall far short of modern Core i5 processors, the new six-core Ryzen 5 3600X and Ryzen 5 3600 confidently outperform the direct competitor in the face of the six-core Core i5 and almost overtake the higher-end Core i7-8700K, which costs $150 more.
What is even more interesting, this pattern is observed in any test that simulates everyday work with content, rendering, complex calculations, etc. Apparently, such a breakthrough happened due to the fact that AMD implemented in Zen 2 the full execution of AVX2 instructions and doubled L3 cache. Compared to previous generations, the performance of the new six-core AMD relative to the Ryzen 5 2600X increased by an average of 20% and reached the level of the eight-core Ryzen 7 1800X of the previous generation. Impressive result!
How else do Intel and AMD processors differ?
In general terms, the ability to overclock the processor and RAM even on budget boards should also be added to the treasury of AMD’s advantages. And a free multiplier, which greatly simplifies the overclocking process. Intel, on the other hand, often plays around with artificial limitations, when only processors with the “K” index can be overclocked, and only on motherboards with top-end chipsets of the “Z” series. However, the latest lines of both companies already have an outrageous Turbo Boost and it’s not so easy to squeeze something out of them. Especially when it comes to the «stones» of the upper and top level.
Intel has one tricky feature that does not paint it. Namely, systematic socket updates every few years. The most relevant at the moment is the LGA 1151 v2 socket, but it has already run off its 2 years and with a high probability we will see an updated socket with the release of the new Comet Lake generation. All this greatly complicates the upgrade process, if after 3-4 years you want to change the processor to a more modern one, then most likely you will have to spend money on a new motherboard. And this is actually the floor of the computer.
In contrast, AMD updates when it’s needed and still uses the AM4 platform introduced in 2016. Given that the new top 12 and 16-core Ryzen processors are running on the same socket, the end user is left with a big win. Of course, putting such a monster on a budget motherboard three years ago will not work, but the available room for maneuver cannot but rejoice.
There are times when the system needs to do without a video card or «sit out» on the integrated graphics before buying a discrete one. This option is quite real, especially if you are not an avid gamer. Intel processors, with the exception of top models, have an integrated Intel UHD Graphics graphics core. Its performance is not as good as that of competitors, but it is enough for 4K output, hardware video decoding, browsing and light tasks.
At the same time, AMD processors with integrated Vega graphics set the bar high: they do a good job with not too voracious multiplayer games like Dota 2, World of Tanks, CS:GO and Fortnite, delivering 50-60 FPS in FullHD resolution and medium graphics settings. Even cooler, the Vega 8 is the first integrated graphics card to run GTA 5 and The Witcher 3 at the bare minimum. In general, the performance here is almost at the level of the GT 1030 and far ahead of the integrated graphics in Intel processors.
From all of the above, you might get the impression that AMD is better than Intel in everything (integrated graphics, number of cores + multithreading, price), but in fact this is a rap vs. rock debate and a lot depends on personal preferences. For example, integrated graphics are more useful for budget or office PCs where there is no discrete graphics card. If you have it, then there is not much point in overpaying for Vega or Intel UHD. Multithreading drags in heavy applications, but in games it practically does not affect FPS.
So everything comes down to price. And you know what? The situation here is also ambiguous. It used to be: Intel is expensive and powerful, AMD is cheap and cheerful. But Ryzen chips have changed everything, AMD is no longer dumping like a desperate one, and Intel, under the yoke of competition, decently reduces prices. Especially on inexpensive processors. Therefore, the latest generation Core i3 and Core i5 for the most part feel great in the initial and middle price segment. For example, the new Core i3-9100F looks like perhaps the most interesting option under $100.
But the top Core i7 and Core i9 in terms of price and performance are now losing to the new Ryzen Matisse. Core i9 is especially hard hit: at the end of 2019, AMD will release the first 16-core Ryzen 3950X processor, which will tear in heavy applications. And all this for the price of $750. There will be nothing to justify the draconian prices for top Intel multi-cores.
Also, when choosing, it is important to look not only at the price of the processor, but also at the cost of the entire platform in the assembly: processor + motherboard + RAM. And if in the budget segment the spread is not so strong, then for top-end processors the skew in prices does not benefit Intel.
With that said, for low-end builds we’d go with personal preference, for high-end gaming PCs we’d go with something like the Intel Core i7 Coffee Lake Refresh i7-9700K BOX , and for high-end workstations we’d go for the AMD Ryzen 7 Matisse 3800X BOX Price from UAH 9,674 to UAH 18,693 and higher.
Xeon E5 2600 v3 processor series for socket 2011-3. Models, specifications, features and even more.
- Can be used in single socket and dual socket systems
- Low stock frequency
- Main focus on multi-core performance, even with 18 cores available
- Multiplier locked
- Solder under the cover
- The frequency limit for RAM is 2133 MHz (and even less for younger models), but do not forget about the four-channel
- XMP profiles are not supported
- Some models can work with both ddr4 and ddr3 (there are boards with ddr3, for example Huananzhi X99-AD3)
- Many engineering models of different steppings, we will talk about them separately
- The most important — it is possible to block turbo boost on all cores (only for QS and pre-QS)
|Model||Cores / Threads||2365||Кэш L3||TDP|
|Xeon e5 2603 v3||6 / 6||1. 6 Ггц||—||15 Мб||85 W|
|Xeon e5 2608L v3||6 /12||2.0 GHz||—||15 MB||52 W|
|XEON E5 2609 V3||6/6||—||—||
|Xeon e5 2618L v3||8 / 16||2.3 Ггц||3.4 Ггц||20 Мб||75 W|
|Xeon e5 2620 v3||6 / 12||2.4 Ггц||3.2 Ггц||15 Мб||85 W|
|Xeon e5 2622 v3||8 / 16||2.4 Ггц||3.4 Ггц||20 Мб||85 W|
|Xeon e5 2623 v3||4 / 8||3.0 Ггц||3.5 Ггц||10 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2628 v3||8 / 8||2. 5 Ггц||3.0 Ггц||20 Мб||85 W|
|Xeon e5 2628L v3||10 / 20||2.0 Ггц||2.5 Ггц||25 Мб||75 W|
|Xeon e5 2629 v3||8 /16||2.4 GHz||—||20 MB||85 W|
|XEON E5 2630 V3|
|Xeon e5 2630L v3||8 / 16||1.8 Ггц||2.9 Ггц||20 Мб||55 W|
|Xeon e5 2637 v3||4 / 8||3.5 GHz||3.7 Ггц||15 Мб||135 W|
|Xeon e5 2640 v3||8 / 16||2.6 Ггц||3.4 Ггц||20 Мб||90 W|
|Xeon e5 2643 V3||6 /12||3. 4 GHz||3.7 GHz||20 MB||135 W|
|XEON E5 2648L 2648L||75 W|
|Xeon e5 2649 v3||10 / 20||2.3 Ггц||3.0 Ггц||25 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2650 v3||10 /20||2.3 GHz||3.0 GHz||25 MB||105 W|
|XEON E5 2650L V3||12/24||2.5 GGC 9004 2.5 GGC|
|Xeon e5 2652 v3||10 / 20||2.3 Ггц||2.8 Ггц||25 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2658 v3||12 / 24||2.2Ггц||2.9 Ггц||30 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2658A v3||12 / 24||2. 2 Ггц||2.9 Ггц||30 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2660 v3||10 / 20||2.6 Ггц||3.3 Ггц||25 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2663 v3||10 / 10||2.8 Ггц||3.5 Ггц||25 Мб||120 W|
|Xeon e5 2666 v3||10 / 20||2.9 Ггц||3.5 Ггц||25 Мб||135 W|
|Xeon e5 2667 v3||8 / 16||3.2 Ггц||3.6 Ггц||20 Мб||135 W|
|Xeon e5 2669 v3||12 / 24||2.3 Ггц||3.1 Ггц||30 Мб||120 w|
|Xeon E5 2670 V3||12/24||2.3 GHz||3.1 GHz||30 MB||120 W|
|XEON E5 2673 V30048 2. 4 Ггц||3.1 Ггц||30 Мб||105 W|
|Xeon e5 2675 v3||16 / 32||1.8 Ггц||2.3 Ггц||40 Мб||110 W|
|Xeon e5 2676 v3||12 / 24||2.4 Ггц||3.1 Ггц||30 Мб||120 W|
|Xeon e5 2678 v3||12 / 24||2.5 Ггц||3.3 Ггц||30 Мб||120 W|
|Xeon e5 2680 v3||12 / 24||2.5 Ггц||3.3 Ггц||30 Мб||120 W|
|Xeon e5 2683 v3||14 /28||2.0 GHz||3.0 GHz||35 MB||120 W|
|XEON E5 2685 V3||2.6 GGC|
|Xeon e5 2686 v3||18 / 36||2. 0 Ггц||3.5 Ггц||45 Мб||120 W|
|Xeon e5 2687W v3||10 / 20||3.1 GHz||3.5 GHz||25 MB||160 W|
|Xeon E5 2690 V3||12/24||3.5 GGC||Xeon e5 2695 v3||14 / 28||2.3 Ггц||3.3 Ггц||35 Мб||120 W|
|Xeon e5 2696 v3||18 / 36||2.3 Ггц||3.8 Ггц||45 Мб||145 W|
|Xeon e5 2697 v3||14 / 28||2.6 Ггц||3.6 Ггц||35 Мб||145 W|
|Xeon e5 2698 v3||16 / 32||2.3 Ггц||3.6 Ггц||40 Мб||135 W|
|Xeon e5 2698A v3||16 / 32||2. 8 Ггц||3.2 Ггц||40 Мб||165 W|
|Xeon e5 2698B v3||16 / 32||2.0 Ггц||3.4 Ггц||40 Мб||135 W|
|Xeon e5 2699 v3||18 / 36||2.3 GHz||3.6 GHz||45 MB||145 W|
90,000 comparison of the new generation of new generation of Gen9 servers HPE Proliant and Integrity
More recently, Gen9 servers have entered the information technology market. More productive, more powerful, more scalable, say the experts. But what gives the end user an increase in performance, power and versatility in a wide variety of tasks? Consider the new line of powerful new Intel E5-2600v4 processors, which are equipped with the latest generation of servers.
The main changes are the increase in the number of cores and cache memory, which brings an instant increase in power, performance and speed to users of server solutions. But along with the positive criteria, there is an undeniably disappointing moment. The maximum processor frequency, as in the Haswell-EP (v3) line, remains unchanged and does not exceed 3.6 Hz.
Comparison of E5-2600v4 processor lines with E5-2600v3 generation processors:
Xeon E5-2600v3 (Haswell-EP)
Xeon E5-2600v4 (Broadwell-EP)
Number of cores
Up to 18
Up to 22
Up to 45 Mb
Up to 55 Mb
Up to 3. 6 Hz
Maximum memory speed
Judging by the physical parameters of the processor, by moving to 14nm manufacturing technology from 22nm, Intel managed to increase the number of computational threads per socket, top-level cache and get an increase in cores from 18 to 22. In this way, Intel developers have achieved performance improvements when running workloads.
The powerful new Intel Xeon processor E5-2600v4 family offers flexibility, versatility and power for a variety of data center workloads. This line of processors is designed to help IT meet the ever-increasing demand for increased performance, flexibility, operational efficiency, on-demand scalability, and security across all of their servers, storage, and network infrastructure while minimizing total cost of ownership.
At the same time providing a huge range of new technologies for efficient virtualization, better use of your resources and data protection. The Intel Xeon E5-2600v4 product line is designed to help enterprises, telecom and cloud service providers get the performance they need from every new server, accelerating their transition to the efficiency of a new generation of software infrastructure.