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Intel Pentium D 925 @ HWBOT

World records achieved by overclocking a Intel Pentium D 925 processor. Click on view more to see the complete hall of fame.

Benchmark Worldrecord Links

3DMark CPU PROFILE MAX
n/a

Rankings


3DMark CPU PROFILE 1 THREAD
n/a

Rankings


3DMark11 Physics

1300 Points

(0pts)

Rankings


7-Zip

5593 MIPS

(6pts)

Rankings


Cinebench — 2003

970 cb

(15pts)

Rankings


Cinebench — R11. 5

1.65 cb

(15pts)

Rankings


Cinebench — R15

140 cb

(15pts)

Rankings


Cinebench — R20

250 cb

(6pts)

Rankings


Cinebench — R23 Multi Core with BenchMate

624 cb

(6pts)

Rankings


Cinebench — R23 Single Core with BenchMate

314 cb

(6pts)

Rankings


CPU Frequency

7280 MHz

(50pts)

Rankings


Geekbench4 — Multi Core

3398 points

(15pts)

Rankings


Geekbench4 — Single Core

1916 points

(15pts)

Rankings


Geekbench5 — Multi Core

3328 points

(6pts)

Rankings


Geekbench5 — Single Core

2044 points

(6pts)

Rankings


Geekbench5 — Multi Core
n/a

Rankings


Geekbench5 — Single Core
n/a

Rankings


GPUPI for CPU — 100M

2min 56sec 637ms

(15pts)

Rankings


GPUPI for CPU — 1B

45min 19sec 119ms

(15pts)

Rankings


GPUPI v3. 3 for CPU — 100M

3min 10sec 395ms

(0pts)

Rankings


GPUPI v3.3 for CPU — 1B

59min 26sec 543ms

(0pts)

Rankings


3DMark — Time Spy Extreme (CPU)
n/a

Rankings


HWBOT x265 Benchmark — 1080p

1. 545 fps

(6pts)

Rankings


HWBOT x265 Benchmark — 4k

0.391 fps

(6pts)

Rankings


PCMark 7

3483 marks

(6pts)

Rankings


PCMark Vantage

7645 marks

(15pts)

Rankings


PCMark04

11552 marks

(15pts)

Rankings


PCMark10

1413 marks

(6pts)

Rankings


PCMark10 Express

1939 marks

(6pts)

Rankings


PCMark10 Extended

1219 marks

(6pts)

Rankings


PerformanceTest Mobile
n/a

Rankings


PiFast

32sec 390ms

(35pts)

Rankings


SuperPi — 1M

19sec 344ms

(50pts)

Rankings


SuperPi — 32M

17min 45sec 360ms

(35pts)

Rankings


wPrime — 1024m

13min 12sec 698ms

(35pts)

Rankings


wPrime — 32m

24sec 523ms

(50pts)

Rankings


XTU
n/a

Rankings


XTU 2. 0
n/a

Rankings


y-cruncher — Pi-10b

8h 39min 8sec 922ms

(6pts)

Rankings


y-cruncher — Pi-1b

1h 3min 34sec 500ms

(6pts)

Rankings


y-cruncher — Pi-2. 5b
n/a

Rankings


y-cruncher — Pi-25m

20sec 28ms

(0pts)

Rankings

Intel Pentium D 945 — HH80553PG0964MN / BX80553945 / BX80553945R-WWW.

NBCPU.COM


We specialized in CPU trade, contact us if you need bulk sale or purchase this kind of CPU,please do not hesitate to contact us :
Email :[email protected],Tel: +86 0755-82928539


Type:CPU Manufacturer:Intel
family:Pentium D microprocessors:Intel Pentium D 915 — HH80553PG0724MN / BX80553915 / BX80553915R

Type CPU / Microprocessor
Market segment Desktop
Family
Intel Pentium D
Model number    945
CPU part numbers

  • HH80553PG0964MN is an OEM/tray microprocessor
  • BX80553945 is a boxed microprocessor
  • BX80553945R is a boxed microprocessor
Frequency    3400 MHz
Bus speed    800 MHz
Clock multiplier    17
Package 775-land Flip Chip Land Grid Array (FC-LGA6)
1. 48″ x 1.48″ (3.75 cm x 3.75 cm)
Socket Socket 775 / LGA775 / T
S-spec numbers

  ES/QS processors Production processors
Part number QRLS SL9QB SL9QQ
BX80553945   + +
BX80553945R   +  
HH80553PG0964MN + + +
Architecture / Microarchitecture
Microarchitecture Netburst
Processor core    Presler
Core steppings    C1 (QRLS, SL9QB)
D0 (SL9QQ)
CPUIDs F64 (QRLS, SL9QB)
F65 (SL9QQ)
Manufacturing process 0. 065 micron
376 million transistors
Data width 64 bit
The number of cores 2
The number of threads 2
Floating Point Unit Integrated
Level 1 cache size    2 x 16 KB data caches
Level 2 cache size    2 x 2 MB 8-way associative cache
Features

  • MMX instructions
  • SSE / Streaming SIMD Extensions
  • SSE2 / Streaming SIMD Extensions 2
  • SSE3 / Streaming SIMD Extensions 3
  • EM64T / Extended Memory 64 technology / Intel 64   
  • NX / XD / Execute disable bit   
Low power features

  • HALT/Enhance HALT Powerdown mode
  • Stop Grant mode   
  • Enhanced SpeedStep technology   
Integrated peripherals / components
Integrated graphics None
Electrical / Thermal parameters
V core    1. 2V — 1.3375V
Minimum/Maximum operating temperature    5°C — 62.3°C (775_VR_CONFIG_05A)
Minimum/Maximum power dissipation    63.13 Watt (Stop Grant mode) / 118.75 Watt (775_VR_CONFIG_05A)
Thermal Design Power    95 Watt (775_VR_CONFIG_05A)
Notes on Intel Pentium D 945

  • Bus frequency is 200 MHz. Because the processor uses Quad Data Rate bus the effective bus speed is 800 MHz



other microprocessors











Intel Pentium D 950 — HH80553PG0964M / BX80553950 / BX80553950T

Intel Pentium D 960 — HH80553PG1044M / BX80553960

Intel Pentium D 903 — HH80553PE0724MN

Intel Pentium D 913 — HH80553PE0774MN

Intel Pentium D 923 — HH80553PE0834MN

Intel Pentium D 933 — HH80553PE0884MN

Intel Pentium D 970 — HH80553PG1124M

Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2140 — HH80557PG0251M / BX80557E2140 / BXC80557E2140

Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2160 — HH80557PG0331M / BX80557E2160 / BXC80557E2160

Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2180 — HH80557PG0411M / BX80557E2180 / BXC80557E2180

Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2200 — HH80557PG0491M / BX80557E2200 / BXC80557E2200

Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2210 — EU80571RG0491M / AT80571RG0491M / BXC80571E2210

Tel:+86 0755-83247530   Email:[email protected] com

NBCPU All rights reserved..

Intel Unveils DRM-enabled Pentium D

PC components

0

Intel on Thursday formally introduced two new chipsets designed for home and office PCs. Intel’s
Professional Business Platform, or the 945G Express Chipset, bundles networking and advanced
management technology, while the 945P includes more consumer-oriented features.
Intel 945P
The dual-core 64-bit Intel Pentium D processor powers the 945P platform. Pentium D is the second
dual core CPU of Intel following the Pentium Extreme Edition (XE) series. The main difference between
the Pentium D and the Extreme Edition (XE) chips is that the first does not support the
Hyper-Threading Technology, but allows users to perform two CPU intensive tasks at once. The Intel
Pentium D processor has two processing cores — or «brains» — and the Intel 945 Express Chipset
family with support for such consumer electronics-like features as surround-sound audio,
high-definition video and enhanced graphics capabilities .

With a home network and a PC based on Intel’s Pentium D processor and 945 Express Chipset,
multiple audio, video or gaming streams can be routed to different people in the home simultaneously.

«Intel’s new home and office platforms mark a new era in personal computing that matches the way
people are increasingly using their PCs to work, communicate, entertain and play,» said Robert
Crooke, vice president and general manager, Business Client Group, Intel’s Digital Enterprise Group.
«The new platforms are tailored for specific market segments and provide business and
consumer-friendly features.»

According to Intel, consumers can enjoy high audio quality on their PC with Intel High Definition Audio
that supports up to 7.1 surround-sound and the ability to send multiple audio streams to multiple
rooms or devices in the home simultaneously through the PC’s output jacks.

With the new Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) 950, 3-D graphics performance can increase
nearly two times over previous generations. It also enables delivery of vivid colors and enriched picture
quality on the PC, and support for a number of wide screen displays, including the latest high-definition
TV formats such as native 1080i. The Intel GMA 950 provides support for an optional Media Expansion
Card to bring TV shows right to the home PC, including capabilities for picture-in-picture to view two TV
channels at once, and personal video recorder features to watch, record or pause live TV.

The optional Intel Matrix Storage Technology adds improved support for new RAID 5 and 10 levels to
the previously supported RAID 0 and 1.

DRM — enabled !

Intel Pentium D series comes DRM-enabled and will, at least in theory, allow copyright holders to
prevent unauthorized copying and distribution of copyrighted materials from the motherboard rather
than through the operating system as is currently the case. This issue was «quitely» passed by Intel
but it is possibly the most important feature of the new chipset. Intel steered clear of mentioning the
new DRM technology.

Intel officialls have not yet given technical details of how embedded DRM would work saying it was not
in the interests of his company to spell out how the technology in the interests of security.

Intel 945G
Intel’s Professional Business Platform is based on the new Intel 945G Express Chipset and the
optional Intel PRO/1000 PM network adapter, and the recently introduced Intel Pentium 4 670, a new
3.8-GHz 64-bit processor with Hyper-Threading (HT) Technology. Several systems manufacturers will
also offer dual-core processor based PCs for businesses in addition to these offerings that are part of
Intel’s Stable Image Platform Program.
The Professional Business Platform combines the company’s security, management and
collaboration technologies, and packages them together at mainstream price points. The
enhancements include the introduction of Intel Active Management Technology (AMT), which will help
enable IT managers to monitor, install security patches or diagnose problems for all Intel AMT-enabled
PCs on their networks even if they are turned off or have a failed hard drive or operating system.

The Intel Professional Business Platform is part of the Intel Stable Image Platform Program (SIPP), a
program Intel introduced two years ago in which the hardware and driver image of the platform will not
change for at least 12 months from the start date of the program. This program benefits IT managers
because it can help reduce the number of PC configurations they have to manage and validate, with
the potential to significantly reduce the cost and complexity of maintaining their desktop systems and
the need to deploy new applications or security patches.

Intel’s Professional Business Platform also evokes improved models for the way people work together.
The combination of such technologies as Intel GMA 950, Intel High Definition Audio and HT
Technology opens the door to high-quality video, voice calling over the Internet (VoIP) and improved
online collaboration applications that can make geographic differences more transparent. The Intel
GMA 950 graphics engine is also targeted to support the graphics capabilities in Microsoft
Corporation’s next-generation of the Windows operating system, codenamed «Longhorn. »

Both of Intel’s new platforms for the home and office come with additional features including
Dual-Channel DDR2 at 667 MHz for higher speed memory and thus potentially faster PC performance,
Intel SpeedStep Technology, which can help enable quieter and more energy-efficient systems, the
Execute Disable Bit security feature that can help reduce the effects of some ?buffer overflow attacks?
when working with certain new operating systems, and Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology to
enable larger amounts of memory addressability for software that needs it.

Pricing and Availability
The new Pentium D will be available in three speeds: 2.8 GHz (820), 3 GHz (830) and 3.2 GHz (840).
Pricing for the chips will be less than half of AMD’s dual-core offerings, at $241, $316 and $530 USD
respectively, in 1,000-unit lots. The single-core Pentium 4 670 at 3.8 GHz is priced at $851 USD.
The Intel 945G and 945P Express Chipsets are priced at $42 and $38, respectively, in 1,000-unit
quantities.

Tags:
Intel

Pentium D 950 [in 1 benchmark]


Intel
Pentium D 950

Buy

  • Interface
  • Core clock speed
  • Max video memory
  • Memory type
  • Memory clock speed
  • Maximum resolution

Summary

Intel started Intel Pentium D 950 sales on January 2006. This is Presler architecture desktop processor primarily aimed at office systems. It has 2 cores and 2 threads, and is based on 65 nm manufacturing technology, with a maximum frequency of 3400 MHz and a locked multiplier.

Compatibility-wise, this is PLGA775 processor with a TDP of 130 Watt. It supports DDR1, DDR2, DDR3 memory.

It provides poor benchmark performance at


0.67%

of a leader’s which is AMD EPYC 7h22.


Pentium D
950

vs


EPYC
7h22

General info


Pentium D 950 processor market type (desktop or notebook), architecture, sales start time and pricing.

Place in performance rating 2571
Value for money 0.35
Market segment Desktop processor
Architecture codename Presler (2006−2007)
Release date January 2006 (16 years ago)
Current price $150 of 14999 (Xeon Platinum 9282)

Value for money

To get the index we compare the characteristics of the processors and their cost, taking into account the cost of other processors.

  • 0
  • 50
  • 100

Technical specs


Basic microprocessor parameters such as number of cores, number of threads, base frequency and turbo boost clock, lithography, cache size and multiplier lock state. These parameters can generally indicate CPU performance, but to be more precise you have to review its test results.

Physical cores 2 (Dual-core)
Threads 2
Base clock speed 3.4 GHz of 4.7 (FX-9590)
Boost clock speed 3.4 GHz of 5.8 (Core i9-13900K)
L1 cache 28 KB of 1536 (EPYC Embedded 3401)
L2 cache 4 MB of 12 (Core 2 Quad Q9550)
L3 cache 0 KB of 32768 (Ryzen Threadripper 1998)
Chip lithography 65 nm of 5 (Apple M1)
Die size 140 mm2
Maximum core temperature C1+D0=63 °C, B1=69 °C of 110 (Atom x7-E3950)
Number of transistors 376 million of 57000 (Apple M1 Max)
64 bit support +
Windows 11 compatibility
Unlocked multiplier
VID voltage range 1. 2V-1.3375V

Compatibility


Information on Pentium D 950 compatibility with other computer components and devices: motherboard (look for socket type), power supply unit (look for power consumption) etc. Useful when planning a future computer configuration or upgrading an existing one.

Note that power consumption of some processors can well exceed their nominal TDP, even without overclocking. Some can even double their declared thermals given that the motherboard allows to tune the CPU power parameters.

Number of CPUs in a configuration 2 of 8 (Opteron 842)
Socket PLGA775
Thermal design power (TDP) 130 Watt of 400 (Xeon Platinum 9282)

Technologies and extensions


Technological capabilities and additional instructions supported by Pentium D 950. You’ll probably need this information if you require some particular technology.

AES-NI
Enhanced SpeedStep (EIST) +
Enhanced SpeedStep (EIST) +
Turbo Boost Technology
Hyper-Threading Technology
Idle States +
Thermal Monitoring
Demand Based Switching
PAE 32 Bit
FSB parity

Security technologies


Processor technologies aimed at improving security, for example, by protecting against hacks.

TXT
EDB +

Virtualization technologies


Supported virtual machine optimization technologies. Some are specific to Intel only, some to AMD.

VT-d
VT-x +

Memory specs


Types, maximum amount and channel number of RAM supported by Pentium D 950’s memory controller. Depending on the motherboard, higher memory frequency may be supported.

Supported memory types DDR1, DDR2, DDR3 of 5200 (Ryzen 5 7600X)
ECC memory support

Benchmark performance


Single-core and multi-core benchmark results of Pentium D 950. Overall benchmark performance is measured in points in 0-100 range, higher is better.


Overall score

This is our combined benchmark performance rating. We are regularly improving our combining algorithms, but if you find some perceived inconsistencies, feel free to speak up in comments section, we usually fix problems quickly.


Pentium D 950
0.67

  • Passmark
Passmark

Passmark CPU Mark is a widespread benchmark, consisting of 8 different types of workload, including integer and floating point math, extended instructions, compression, encryption and physics calculation. There is also one separate single-threaded scenario measuring single-core performance.

Benchmark coverage: 68%


Pentium D 950
671


Relative perfomance


Overall Pentium D 950 performance compared to nearest competitors among desktop CPUs.



Intel Celeron E1400
100


AMD Athlon II X2 270u
100


AMD Athlon 64 X2 4200+
100


Intel Pentium D 950
100


Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2180
100


Intel Pentium E2180
100


AMD Athlon II X2 260u
98. 51

AMD equivalent


We believe that the nearest equivalent to Pentium D 950 from AMD is Athlon 64 X2 4200+, which is nearly equal in speed and higher by 7 positions in our rating.


Athlon 64
X2 4200+


Compare


Here are some closest AMD rivals to Pentium D 950:


AMD Athlon X2 BE-2400
101.49


AMD Athlon 64 X2 4200+
100


AMD Athlon II X2 270u
100


Intel Pentium D 950
100


AMD Athlon II X2 260u
98.51


AMD Athlon 64 X2 4800+
97.01


AMD Athlon 64 X2 4000+
97. 01

Similar processors

Here is our recommendation of several processors that are more or less close in performance to the one reviewed.


Celeron
E1400


Compare


Athlon 64
X2 4200+


Compare


Pentium Dual
Core E2180


Compare


Athlon X2
BE-2400


Compare


Core 2
Duo E4500


Compare


Athlon X2
BE-2350


Compare

Recommended graphics cards

These graphics cards are most commonly used with Pentium D 950 according to our statistics.


GeForce
9500 GT

6.7%


GeForce
8600 GT

6.7%


GeForce
8600 GTS

6.7%


GeForce GTX
750

6.7%


Radeon R7
Graphics

3.3%


GeForce GT
520

3.3%


Graphics Media
Accelerator (GMA) HD Graphics

3.3%


GeForce GT
1030

3. 3%


GeForce GTX
1050 Ti

3.3%


GeForce GT
630

3.3%

User rating


Here is the rating given to the reviewed processor by our users. Let others know your opinion by rating it yourself.


Questions and comments


Here you can ask a question about Pentium D 950, agree or disagree with our judgements, or report an error or mismatch.


Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.

001 for

power voltage, in 1.2 ~ 1.337 TDP, W 130/95 Know-in-thugs, million 376

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Crystal Square, sb. mm 280 Temperature limit °C 960XRyzen 9 3950XRyzen 9 3900XTRyzen 9 3900XRyzen 7 3800XTRyzen 7 3800XRyzen 7 3700XRyzen 5 3600XTRyzen 5 3600XRyzen 5 3600Ryzen 5 3400GRyzen 3 3300XRyzen 3 3200GRyzen 3 3100Athlon 3000GRyzen 7 2700XRyzen 7 2700Ryzen 5 2600XRyzen 5 2600Ryzen 5 2500XRyzen 5 2400GRyzen 5 2400GERyzen 3 2300XRyzen 3 2200GRyzen 3 2200GEAthlon 240GEAthlon 220GEAthlon 200GERyzen 7 1800XRyzen 7 1700XRyzen 7 1700Ryzen 5 1600XRyzen 5 1600 AFRyzen 5 1600Ryzen 5 1500XRyzen 5 1400Ryzen 3 1300XRyzen 3 1200 AFRyzen 3 1200FX-8350FX-8320FX-8150FX-8120FX-8100FX-6350FX-6100FX-4170FX-4100A10-7870KAthlon 5350A10-7850KAthlon X4 860KAthlon X4 760Kathlon X4 750Kathlon X4 740athlon X2 340A10-5800KA10-5700A8-5600KA8-5500A6-5400KA4-5300A8-3850A8-3650A6-3600A6-3500A4-3400A4-3300PHEL0T BEPhenom II X6 1075TPhenom II X6 1065TPhenom II X6 1055TPhenom II X6 1045TPhenom II X6 1035TAthlon II X4 650Athlon II X4 645Athlon II X4 640Athlon II X4 635Athlon II X4 630Athlon II X4 620eAthlon II X4 620Athlon II X4 615eAthlon II X4 615Athlon II X4 610eAthlon II X4 605eAthlon II X4 605Athlon II X4 600eAthlon II X3 460Athlon II X3 455Athlon II X3 450Athlon II X3 445Athlon II X3 440Athlon II X3 435Athlon II X3 425eAthlon II X3 425Athlon II X3 420Athlon II X3 420eAthlon II X3 415eAthlon II X3 410Athlon II X3 405eAthlon II X3 400Athlon II X2 265Athlon II X2 270uAthlon II X2 260Athlon II X2 255Athlon II X2 250eAthlon II X2 250Athlon II X2 245eAthlon II X2 245Athlon II X2 240eAthlon II X2 240Athlon II X2 235eAthlon II X2 220Athlon II X2 215Athlon II X2 210eAthlon II 160uSempron 180Sempron 150Sempron 145Sempron 140Sempron 130Athlon X2 7850Athlon X2 7750Athlon X2 7550Athlon X2 7450Athlon X2 6500 BEPhenom II X4 980 BEPhenom II X4 975 BEPhenom II X4 970 BE (Zosma)Phenom II X4 970 BEPhenom II X4 965 BEPhenom II X4 960T BEPhenom II X4 955 BEPhenom II X4 945Phenom II X4 940Phenom II X4 925Phenom II X4 920Phenom II X4 IIphenom 910 905ePhenom II X4 900ePhenom II X4 850Phenom II X4 840Phenom II X4 840TPhenom II X4 830Phenom II X4 820Phenom II X4 810Phenom II X4 805Phenom II X3 740 BEPhenom II X3 720Phenom II X3 715 BEPhenom II X3 710Phenom II X3 705ePhenom II X3 700ePhenom II X2 570 BEPhenom II X2 565 BEPhenom II X2 560 BEPhenom II X2 555 BEPhenom II X2 550 BEPhenom II X2 550Phenom II X2 545Phenom II X2 521Phenom II X2 511Phenom X4 9950 BEPhenom X4 9850 BEPhenom X4 9850Phenom X4 9750BPhenom X4 9750Phenom X4 9650Phenom X4 9600 Black EditionPhenom X4 9600BPhenom X4 9600Phenom X4 9550Phenom X4 9500Phenom X4 9450ePhenom X4 9350ePhenom X4 9150ePhenom X4 9100ePhenom X3 8850Phenom X3 8750 BEPhenom X3 8750BPhenom X3 8750Phenom X3 8650Phenom X3 8600BPhenom X3 8600Phenom X3 8550Phenom X3 8450ePhenom X3 8450Phenom X3 8400Phenom X3 8250eAthlon X2 BE-2400Athlon X2 BE-2350Athlon X2 BE-2300Athlon 64 FX-74Athlon 64 FX-72Athlon 64 FX-70Athlon 64 FX-62Athlon 64 FX-60Athlon 64 X2 6400+ Black EditionAthlon 64 X2 6400+ Athlon 64 X2 6000+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 6000+ (Windsor) Athlon 64 X2 5800+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 5600+ (Brisbane) X2 5400+ (Windsor)Athlon 64 X2 5200+ (Brisbane)Athlon 64 X2 5200+ (Windsor)Athlon 64 X2 5000+ Black EditionAthlon 64 X2 5000+ (Brisbane)Athlon 64 X2 5000+ (Windsor 2MB)Athlon 64 X2 5000+ (Windsor 1MB)Athlon 64 X2 4850eAthlon 64 X2 4800+ (Bris bane)Athlon 64 X2 4800+ (Windsor 2MB)Athlon 64 X2 4600+Athlon 64 X2 4450eAthlon 64 X2 4400+ (Brisbane) Windsor 1MB)Athlon 64 X2 4050eAthlon 64 X2 4000+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 4000+ (Windsor 2MB) Athlon 64 X2 3800+Athlon 64 X2 3600+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 4600+ (Toledo)Athlon 64 X2 4600+ (Manchester)Athlon 64 X2 4400+Athlon 64 X2 4200+ (Toledo)Athlon 64 X2 4200+ (Manchester) (Manchester)Athlon 64 LE-1660Athlon 64 LE-1640Athlon 64 LE-1620Athlon 64 LE-1600Athlon 64 4000+Athlon 64 3800+Athlon 64 3500+Athlon 64 3200+Athlon 64 3Athlon 64 FX-557 -55Athlon 64 FX-53Athlon 64 FX-51Athlon 64 4200+Athlon 64 4000+ (San Diego)Athlon 64 4000+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3800+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3800+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3700 +Athlon 64 (Manchester)Athlon 64 3500+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3500+ (San Diego)At hlon 64 3500+ (Winchester)Athlon 64 3500+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3500+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3200+ (Manchester)Athlon 64 3200+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3200+ (Winchester)Athlon 64 3000+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3000+ (Winchester)Athlon 64 3700+Athlon 64 3400+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3400+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3200+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3200+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3200+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3000+ ( Venice) Athlon 64 3000+ (Newcastle) Athlon 64 3000+ (Clawhammer) Athlon 64 2800+ (Newcastle) Athlon 64 2800+ (Clawhammer) +Sempron 3000+ (Palermo)Sempron 3400+Sempron 3300+Sempron 3100+ (Palermo)Sempron 3100+ (Paris)Sempron 3000+ (Palermo)Sempron 3000+ (Paris)Sempron 2800+Sempron 2600+ (Winchester)Sernpron 2600+ ( Palermo) Sempron 2500+Sempron 3000+Sempron 2800+ (Thorton) )Athlon XP 3200+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 3100+Athlon XP 3000+ (FSB400)Athlon XP 3000+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2900+Athlon XP 2800+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2800+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2800+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2700+Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2500+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2500+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2400+ (Thorton)Athlon XP 2400+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 2200 + (Thorton)Athlon XP 2200+ (Thorubbred)Athlon XP 2100+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 2100+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 2000+ (Thorton)Athlon XP 2000+ (Thorubbred)Athlon XP 2000+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1900+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1900+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1800+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1800+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1700+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1700+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1600+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1600 + (Palomino) Athlon XP 1500+ Athlon 1400 (FSB266) ATHLON 1400 (FSB200) Athlon 1333athlon 1300athlon 1200 (FSB266) Athlon 1200 (FSB200) Ath26 (FSB200) ATHLON (FSB200) ATHLON (FSB200) ATHLON (FSB200) Athlon (FSB200) Athlon (FSB200) Athlon (FSB200) Athlon) Athlon 950Athlon 900Athlon 850Athlon 800Athlon 750Athlon 700Duron 1800Duron 1600Duron 1400Duron 1300Duron 1200Duron 1100Duron 1000Duron 950 (Morgan)Duron 950 (Spitfire)Duron 900 (Morgan)Duron 900 (Spitfire)Duron 850Duron 800Duron 750Duron 700Duron 650Duron 600Athlon 1000 (Orion)Athlon 1000 (Thunderbird) Athlon 950 (Pluto) Athlon 900 (Thunderbird) Athlon 850 (Pluto) Athlon 850 (Thundebird) Athlon 800 (Pluto) Athlon 800 (Thunderbird) Athlon 750 (Pluto) Athlon 750 (Thunderbird) Athlon 700 (Pluto) Athlon 650 (Pluto) Athlon 650 (Argon) Athlon 650 (Thunderbird) Athlon 600 (Pluto) Athlon 600 (Argon) Athlon 550 (Pluto) -2 533 (CXT)K6-2 500 (CXT)K6-2 475 (CXT)K6-2 450 (CXT)K6-2 400 (CXT)K6-2 380 (CXT)K6-2 366 (CXT)K6- 2 350 (CXT)K6-2 350K6-2 333 (CXT)K6-2 333 (CXT)K6-2 333K6-2 300 (CXT)K6-2 300 (CXT)K6-2 300K6-2 266K6 300K6 266K6 233K6 200K6 166K5 PR166K5 PR150K5 PR133K5 PR120K5 PR100K5 PR90K5 PR75IntelPentium Gold G7400Celeron G6900Core i9-11900KCore i9-11900KFCore i9-11900Core i9-11900FCore i9-11900TCore i7-11700KCore i7-11700KFCore i7-11700Core i7-11700FCore i7-11700TCore i5-11600KCore i5-11600KFCore i5-11600Core i5-11600TCore i5-11500Core i5-11500TCore i5-11400Core i5-11400FCore i5-11400TCore i3-10325Core i3-10305Core i3-10305TCore i3-10105Core i3-10105FCore i3-10105TPentium Gold G6605Pentium Gold G6505Pentium Gold G6505TPentium Gold G6405Pentium Gold G6405TCore i9-10900KCore i9-10900KFCore i9-10900Core i9-10900FCore i7-10700KCore i7-10700KFCore i7-10700Core i7-10700FCore i5-10600KCore i5-10600KFCore i5-10600Core i5-10500Core i5-10400Core i5-10400FCore i3-10320Core i3-10300Core i3-10100Pentium Gold G6600Pentium Gold G6500Pentium Gold G6400Celeron G5925Celeron G5920Celeron G5905Celeron G5900Core i9-9900KCore i7-9700KCore i5-9600KCore i7-8700KCore i7-8700Core i5-8600KCore i5-8400Core i3-8350KCore i3-8100Pentium Gold G5400Core i7-7700KCore i7-7700Core i7-7700TCore i5-7600KCore i5- 7600Core i5-7600TCore i5-7500Core i5-7500TCore i5-7400Core i5-7400TCore i3-7350KCore i3-7320Core i3-7300Core i3-7300TCore i3-7100Core i3-7100TCore i7-6950XCore i7-6700KCore i7-6700Core i7-6700TCore i5-6600KCore i5-6600Core i5-6600TCore i5-6500Core i5-6500TCore i5-6400Core i5-6400TCore i3-6300Core i3-6300TCore i3-6100Core i3-6100TCore i7-5960XCore i7-5775CCore i5 -5675CCore i7-4960XCore i7-4930KCore i7-4820KCore i7-4790KCore i5-4690KCore i7-4770KCore i7-4770Core i5-4670KCore i5-4670Core i5-4570Core i7-3970XCore i7-3960XCore i7-3930KCore i7-3820Core i7-2700KCore i7-2600KCore i7-2600Core i7-2600SCore i5-3330Core i5-2500KCore i5-2500Core i5-2500SCore i5-2500TCore i5-2405SCore i5-2400Core i5-2400SCore i5-2390TCore i5-2320Core i5-2310Core i5-2300Core i3-2130Core i3-2125Core i3-2120Core i3-2105Core i3-2100Core i3-2100TPentium G860Pentium G850Pentium G840Pentium G632Pentium G630Pentium G622Pentium G620Celeron G540Celeron G530Celeron G440Core i7-990XCore i7-980Core i7 980XCore i7-975 ExtremeCore i7 970Core i7 965 ExtremeCore i7 960Core i7 950Core i7 940Core i7 930Core i7 920Core i7-880Core i7-875KCore i7-870Core i7-860SCore i7-860Core i5-760Core i5-750SCore i5-750Core i5-680Core i5-670Core i5-661Core i5- 660Core i5-655KCore i5-650Core i3-560Core i3-550Core i3-540Core i3-530Pentium G6960Pentium G6951Pentium G6950Atom D525Atom D510Atom D425Atom D410Atom 330Atom 230Core 2 Extreme QX9775Core 2 Extreme QX9770Core 2 Extreme QX9650Core 2 Quad Q9650Core 2 Quad Q9550sCore 2 Quad Q9550Core 2 Quad Q9505Core 2 Quad Q9450Core 2 Quad Q9400sCore 2 Quad Q9400Core 2 Quad Q9300Core 2 Quad Q8400sCore 2 Quad Q8400Core 2 Quad Q8300Core 2 Quad Q8200sCore 2 Quad Q8200Core 2 Duo E8600Core 2 Duo E8500Core 2 Duo E8400Core 2 Duo E8300Core 2 Duo E8200Core 2 Duo E8190Core 2 Duo E7600Core 2 Duo E7500Core 2 Duo E7400Core 2 Duo E7300Core 2 Duo E7200Core 2 Extreme QX6850Core 2 Extreme OX6800Core 2 Extreme QX6700Core 2 Quad Q6700Core 2 Quad Q6600Core 2 Extreme X6900Core 2 Extreme X6800Core 2 Duo E6850Core 2 Duo E6800Core 2 Duo E6750Core 2 Duo E6700Core 2 Duo E6600Core 2 Duo E6550Core 2 Duo E6540Core 2 Duo E6420Core 2 Duo E6400 (Allendale)Core 2 Duo E6400 (Conroe 2M)Core 2 Duo E6320Core 2 Duo E6300 ( Allendale)Core 2 Duo E6300 (Conroe 2M)Core 2 Duo E4700Core 2 Duo E4600Core 2 Duo E4500Core 2 Duo E4400Core 2 Duo E4300Pentium Dual-Core E6800Pentium Dual-Core E6700Pentium Dual-Core E6600Pentium Dual-Core E6500Pentium Dual-Core E6300Pentium Dual-Core E5800Pentium Dual-Core E5700Pentium Dual-Core E5500Pentium Dual-Core E5400Pentium Dual-Core E5300Pentium Dual-Core E5200Pentium Dual-Core E2220Pentium Dual-Core E2210Pentium Dual-Core E2200Pentium Dual-Core E2180Pentium Dual-Core E2160Pentium Dual-Core E21 4065 XEPentium D 960Pentium D 955 XEPentium D 950Pentium D 945Pentium D 940Pentium D 935Pentium D 930Pentium D 925Pentium D 920Pentium D 915Pentium D 840 XEPentium D 840Pentium D 830Pentium D 820Pentium D 805Pentium 4 EE 3. 73Pentium 4 EE 3.46Pentium 4 EE 3.4Pentium 4 EE 3.2Pentium 4 672Pentium 4 671Pentium 4 670Pentium 4 662Pentium 4 661Pentium 4 660Pentium 4 651Pentium 4 650Pentium 4 641Pentium 4 640Pentium 4 631Pentium 4 630Pentium 4 620Pentium 4 571Pentium 4 570JPentium 4 561Pentium 4 560JPentium 4 560Pentium 4 551Pentium 4 550JPentium 4 550Pentium 4 541Pentium 4 540JPentium 4 540Pentium 4 531Pentium 4 530JPentium 4 530Pentium 4 521Pentium 4 520JPentium 4 520Pentium 4 519KPentium 4 519JPentium 4 517Pentium 4 516Pentium 4 515JPentium 4 515Pentium 4 511Pentium 4 506Pentium 4 505JPentium 4 505Pentium 4 3.8FPentium 4 3.6FPentium 4 3.4FPentium 4 3.2FPentium 4 3.4EPentium 4 EE 3.4Pentium 4 3.4Pentium 4 3.2EPentium 4 EE 3.2Pentium 4 3.2 Pentium 4 3.06Pentium 4 3.0EPentium 4 3.0Pentium 4 2.8EPentium 4 2.8APentium 4 2.8CPentium 4 2.8Pentium 4 2.8Pentium 4 2.67Pentium 4 2.66Pentium 4 2.6CPentium 4 2.6Pentium 4 2.53Pentium 4 2.5Pentium 4 2.4EPentium 4 2.4APentium 4 2.4CPentium 4 2.4BPentium 4 2.4Pentium 4 2.26APentium 4 2. 26Pentium 4 2.2Pentium 4 2.0APentium 4 2.0Pentium 4 1.9Pentium 4 1.8 APentium 4 1.8 Pentium 4 1.7Pentium 4 1.6 APentium 4 1.6Pentium 4 1.5Pentium 4 1.4Pentium 4 2.0Pentium 4 1.9Pentium 4 1.8Pentium 4 1.7Pentium 4 1.6Pentium 4 1.5Pentium 4 1.4Pentium 4 1.3Pentium III-S 1400Pentium III 1400Pentium III 1333Pentium III-S 1266Pentium III 1200Pentium III-S 1133Pentium III 1133APentium III 1000BPentium III 1133Pentium III 1100Pentium III 1000EBPentium III 1000Pentium III 933Pentium III 900Pentium III 866Pentium III 850Pentium III 800EBPentium III 800Pentium III 750Pentium III 733Pentium III 700Pentium III 667Pentium III 650Pentium III 600EBPentium III 600EPentium III 550EPentium III 533EBPentium III 500EPentium III 1000BPentium III 1000Pentium III 933Pentium III 866Pentium III 850Pentium III 800EBPentium III 800Pentium III 750Pentium III 733Pentium III 700Pentium III 667Pentium III 650Pentium III 600BPentium III 600Pentium III 600EBPentium III 600EPentium III 550Pentium III 550EPentium III 533BPentium III 533EBPentium III 500Pentium III 450Pentium II Overdrive 333Pentium II Overdrive 300Pentium II 450Pentium II 400Pentium II 350Pentium II 333Pentium II 300APentium II 300Pentium II 266APentium II 266Pentium II 233Pentium Overdrive MMX 200Pentium Overdrive MMX 180Pentium Overdrive MMX 166Pentium Overdrive MMX 150Pentium Overdrive 166Pentium Overdrive 150Pentium Overdrive 125Pentium Overdrive 133Pentium Overdrive 120Pentium Pro 200MHz (1024 KB)Pentium Pro 200MHz (512 KB)Pentium Pro 200MHz (256 KB)Pentium Pro 180MHzPentium Pro 166MHzPentium Pro 150MHzPentium 233 MMXPentium 200 MMXPentium 166 MMXPentium 200Pentium 166Pentium 150Pentium 133Pentium 120Pentium 100Pentium 90Pentium 75Pentium 66Pentium 60Celeron G1101Celeron E3500Celeron E3400Celeron E3300Celeron E3200Celeron E1600Celeron E1500Celeron E1400Celeron E1200Celeron 450Celeron 445Celeron 440Celeron 430Celeron 420Celeron 220Celeron D 365Celeron D 360Celeron D 356Celeron D 352Celeron D 355Celeron D 351Celeron D 350Celeron D 346Celeron D 345JCeleron D 345Celeron D 341Celeron D 340JCeleron D 340Celeron D 336Celeron D 335JCeleron D 335Celeron D 331Celeron D 330JCeleron D 330Celeron D 326Celeron D 325JCeleron D 325Celeron D 320Celeron D 315Celeron D 310Celeron 2. 8Celeron 2.7Celeron 2.6Celeron 2.5Celeron 2.4Celeron 2.3Celeron 2.2Celeron 2.1Celeron 2.0Celeron 1.8Celeron 1.7Celeron 1400Celeron 1300Celeron 1200Celeron 1100ACeleron 1000ACeleron 1100Celeron 1000Celeron 950Celeron 900Celeron 850Celeron 800Celeron 766Celeron 733Celeron 700Celeron 667Celeron 633Celeron 600Celeron 566Celeron 533ACeleron 533Celeron 500Celeron 466Celeron 433 (S370)Celeron 433 (Slot 1)Celeron 400 (S370)Celeron 400 (Slot 1)Celeron 366 (S370)Celeron 366 (Slot 1)Celeron 333 ( S370) Celeron 333 (Slot 1) Celeron 300A (S370) Celeron 300A (SLOT 1) Celeron 300CELERON 266

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AmDryzen 9 7950XRYZEN 9 7900XRRYZEN 5 7600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN 76600XRYZEN5950XRyzen 9 5900XRyzen 7 5800X3DRyzen 7 5800XRyzen 7 5700XRyzen 7 5700GRyzen 5 5600XRyzen 5 5600Ryzen 5 5600GRyzen 5 5500Ryzen 7 PRO 4750GRyzen 7 PRO 4750GERyzen 5 PRO 4650GRyzen 5 PRO 4650GERyzen 3 PRO 4350GRyzen 3 PRO 4350GERyzen Threadripper 3960XRyzen 9 3950XRyzen 9 3900XTRyzen 9 3900XRyzen 7 3800XTRyzen 7 3800XRyzen 7 3700XRyzen 5 3600XTRyzen 5 3600XRyzen 5 3600Ryzen 5 3400GRyzen 3 3300XRyzen 3 3200GRyzen 3 3100Athlon 3000GRyzen 7 2700XRyzen 7 2700Ryzen 5 2600XRyzen 5 2600Ryzen 5 2500XRyzen 5 2400GRyzen 5 2400GERyzen 3 2300XRyzen 3 2200GRyzen 3 2200GEAthlon 240GEAthlon 220GEAthlon 200GERyzen 7 1800XRyzen 7 1700XRyzen 7 1700Ryzen 5 1600XRyzen 5 1600 AFRyzen 5 1600Ryzen 5 1500XRyzen 5 1400Ryzen 3 1300XRyzen 3 1200 AFRyzen 3 1200FX-8350FX-8320FX-8150FX-8120FX-8100FX-6350FX-6100FX-4170FX-4100A10-7870KAthlon 5350A10-7850KAthlon X4 860KAthlon X4 760KAthlon X4 750KAthlon X4 740Athlon X2 340A10-5800KA10-5700A8 -5600KA8-5500A6-5400KA4-5300A8-3850A8-3800Athlon II X4 631A6-3650A6-3600A6-3500 A4-3400A4-3300Phenom II X6 1100TPhenom II X6 1090T BEPhenom II X6 1075TPhenom II X6 1065TPhenom II X6 1055TPhenom II X6 1045TPhenom II X6 1035TAthlon II X4 650Athlon II X4 645Athlon II X4 640Athlon II X4 635Athlon II X4 630Athlon II X4 620eAthlon II X4 620Athlon II X4 615eAthlon II X4 615Athlon II X4 610eAthlon II X4 605eAthlon II X4 605Athlon II X4 600eAthlon II X3 460Athlon II X3 455Athlon II X3 450Athlon II X3 445Athlon II X3 440Athlon II X3 435Athlon II X3 425eAthlon II X3 425Athlon II X3 420Athlon II X3 420eAthlon II X3 415eAthlon II X3 410Athlon II X3 405eAthlon II X3 400Athlon II X2 265Athlon II X2 270uAthlon II X2 260Athlon II X2 255Athlon II X2 250eAthlon II X2 250Athlon II X2 245eAthlon II X2 245Athlon II X2 240eAthlon II X2 240Athlon II X2 235eAthlon II X2 220Athlon II X2 215Athlon II X2 210eAthlon II 160uSempron 180Sempron 150Sempron 145Sempron 140Sempron 130Athlon X2 7850Athlon X2 7750Athlon X2 7550Athlon X2 7450Athlon X2 6500 BEPhenom II X4 980 BEPhenom II X4 975 BEPhenom II X4 970 BE (Zosma)Phenom II X4 970 BEPhenom II X4 965 BEPhenom II X4 960T BEPhenom II X4 955 BEPhenom II X4 945Phenom II X4 940Phenom II X4 925Phenom II X4 920Phenom II X4 IIphenom 910 905ePhenom II X4 900ePhenom II X4 850Phenom II X4 840Phenom II X4 840TPhenom II X4 830Phenom II X4 820Phenom II X4 810Phenom II X4 805Phenom II X3 740 BEPhenom II X3 720Phenom II X3 715 BEPhenom II X3 710Phenom II X3 705ePhenom II X3 700ePhenom II X2 570 BEPhenom II X2 565 BEPhenom II X2 560 BEPhenom II X2 555 BEPhenom II X2 550 BEPhenom II X2 550Phenom II X2 545Phenom II X2 521Phenom II X2 511Phenom X4 9950 BEPhenom X4 9850 BEPhenom X4 9850Phenom X4 9750BPhenom X4 9750Phenom X4 9650Phenom X4 9600 Black EditionPhenom X4 9600BPhenom X4 9600Phenom X4 9550Phenom X4 9500Phenom X4 9450ePhenom X4 9350ePhenom X4 9150ePhenom X4 9100ePhenom X3 8850Phenom X3 8750 BEPhenom X3 8750BPhenom X3 8750Phenom X3 8650Phenom X3 8600BPhenom X3 8600Phenom X3 8550Phenom X3 8450ePhenom X3 8450Phenom X3 8400Phenom X3 8250eAthlon X2 BE-2400Athlon X2 BE-2350Athlon X2 BE-2300Athlon 64 FX-74Athlon 64 FX-72Athlon 64 FX-70Athlon 64 FX-62Athlon 64 FX-60Athlon 64 X2 6400+ Black EditionAthlon 64 X2 6400+ Athlon 64 X2 6000+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 6000+ (Windsor) Athlon 64 X2 5800+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 5600+ (Brisbane) X2 5400+ (Windsor)Athlon 64 X2 5200+ (Brisbane)Athlon 64 X2 5200+ (Windsor)Athlon 64 X2 5000+ Black EditionAthlon 64 X2 5000+ (Brisbane)Athlon 64 X2 5000+ (Windsor 2MB)Athlon 64 X2 5000+ (Windsor 1MB)Athlon 64 X2 4850eAthlon 64 X2 4800+ (Bris bane)Athlon 64 X2 4800+ (Windsor 2MB)Athlon 64 X2 4600+Athlon 64 X2 4450eAthlon 64 X2 4400+ (Brisbane) Windsor 1MB)Athlon 64 X2 4050eAthlon 64 X2 4000+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 4000+ (Windsor 2MB) Athlon 64 X2 3800+Athlon 64 X2 3600+ (Brisbane) Athlon 64 X2 4600+ (Toledo)Athlon 64 X2 4600+ (Manchester)Athlon 64 X2 4400+Athlon 64 X2 4200+ (Toledo)Athlon 64 X2 4200+ (Manchester) (Manchester)Athlon 64 LE-1660Athlon 64 LE-1640Athlon 64 LE-1620Athlon 64 LE-1600Athlon 64 4000+Athlon 64 3800+Athlon 64 3500+Athlon 64 3200+Athlon 64 3Athlon 64 FX-557 -55Athlon 64 FX-53Athlon 64 FX-51Athlon 64 4200+Athlon 64 4000+ (San Diego)Athlon 64 4000+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3800+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3800+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3700 +Athlon 64 (Manchester)Athlon 64 3500+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3500+ (San Diego)At hlon 64 3500+ (Winchester)Athlon 64 3500+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3500+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3200+ (Manchester)Athlon 64 3200+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3200+ (Winchester)Athlon 64 3000+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3000+ (Winchester)Athlon 64 3700+Athlon 64 3400+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3400+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3200+ (Venice)Athlon 64 3200+ (Newcastle)Athlon 64 3200+ (Clawhammer)Athlon 64 3000+ ( Venice) Athlon 64 3000+ (Newcastle) Athlon 64 3000+ (Clawhammer) Athlon 64 2800+ (Newcastle) Athlon 64 2800+ (Clawhammer) +Sempron 3000+ (Palermo)Sempron 3400+Sempron 3300+Sempron 3100+ (Palermo)Sempron 3100+ (Paris)Sempron 3000+ (Palermo)Sempron 3000+ (Paris)Sempron 2800+Sempron 2600+ (Winchester)Sernpron 2600+ ( Palermo) Sempron 2500+Sempron 3000+Sempron 2800+ (Thorton) )Athlon XP 3200+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 3100+Athlon XP 3000+ (FSB400)Athlon XP 3000+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2900+Athlon XP 2800+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2800+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2800+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2700+Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2600+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2500+ (FSB333)Athlon XP 2500+ (FSB266)Athlon XP 2400+ (Thorton)Athlon XP 2400+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 2200 + (Thorton)Athlon XP 2200+ (Thorubbred)Athlon XP 2100+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 2100+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 2000+ (Thorton)Athlon XP 2000+ (Thorubbred)Athlon XP 2000+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1900+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1900+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1800+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1800+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1700+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1700+ (Palomino)Athlon XP 1600+ (Thoroughbred)Athlon XP 1600 + (Palomino) Athlon XP 1500+ Athlon 1400 (FSB266) ATHLON 1400 (FSB200) Athlon 1333athlon 1300athlon 1200 (FSB266) Athlon 1200 (FSB200) Ath26 (FSB200) ATHLON (FSB200) ATHLON (FSB200) ATHLON (FSB200) Athlon (FSB200) Athlon (FSB200) Athlon (FSB200) Athlon) Athlon 950Athlon 900Athlon 850Athlon 800Athlon 750Athlon 700Duron 1800Duron 1600Duron 1400Duron 1300Duron 1200Duron 1100Duron 1000Duron 950 (Morgan)Duron 950 (Spitfire)Duron 900 (Morgan)Duron 900 (Spitfire)Duron 850Duron 800Duron 750Duron 700Duron 650Duron 600Athlon 1000 (Orion)Athlon 1000 (Thunderbird) Athlon 950 (Pluto) Athlon 900 (Thunderbird) Athlon 850 (Pluto) Athlon 850 (Thundebird) Athlon 800 (Pluto) Athlon 800 (Thunderbird) Athlon 750 (Pluto) Athlon 750 (Thunderbird) Athlon 700 (Pluto) Athlon 650 (Pluto) Athlon 650 (Argon) Athlon 650 (Thunderbird) Athlon 600 (Pluto) Athlon 600 (Argon) Athlon 550 (Pluto) -2 533 (CXT)K6-2 500 (CXT)K6-2 475 (CXT)K6-2 450 (CXT)K6-2 400 (CXT)K6-2 380 (CXT)K6-2 366 (CXT)K6- 2 350 (CXT)K6-2 350K6-2 333 (CXT)K6-2 333 (CXT)K6-2 333K6-2 300 (CXT)K6-2 300 (CXT)K6-2 300K6-2 266K6 300K6 266K6 233K6 200K6 166K5 PR166K5 PR150K5 PR133K5 PR120K5 PR100K5 PR90K5 PR75IntelPentium Gold G7400Celeron G6900Core i9-11900KCore i9-11900KFCore i9-11900Core i9-11900FCore i9-11900TCore i7-11700KCore i7-11700KFCore i7-11700Core i7-11700FCore i7-11700TCore i5-11600KCore i5-11600KFCore i5-11600Core i5-11600TCore i5-11500Core i5-11500TCore i5-11400Core i5-11400FCore i5-11400TCore i3-10325Core i3-10305Core i3-10305TCore i3-10105Core i3-10105FCore i3-10105TPentium Gold G6605Pentium Gold G6505Pentium Gold G6505TPentium Gold G6405Pentium Gold G6405TCore i9-10900KCore i9-10900KFCore i9-10900Core i9-10900FCore i7-10700KCore i7-10700KFCore i7-10700Core i7-10700FCore i5-10600KCore i5-10600KFCore i5-10600Core i5-10500Core i5-10400Core i5-10400FCore i3-10320Core i3-10300Core i3-10100Pentium Gold G6600Pentium Gold G6500Pentium Gold G6400Celeron G5925Celeron G5920Celeron G5905Celeron G5900Core i9-9900KCore i7-9700KCore i5-9600KCore i7-8700KCore i7-8700Core i5-8600KCore i5-8400Core i3-8350KCore i3-8100Pentium Gold G5400Core i7-7700KCore i7-7700Core i7-7700TCore i5-7600KCore i5- 7600Core i5-7600TCore i5-7500Core i5-7500TCore i5-7400Core i5-7400TCore i3-7350KCore i3-7320Core i3-7300Core i3-7300TCore i3-7100Core i3-7100TCore i7-6950XCore i7-6700KCore i7-6700Core i7-6700TCore i5-6600KCore i5-6600Core i5-6600TCore i5-6500Core i5-6500TCore i5-6400Core i5-6400TCore i3-6300Core i3-6300TCore i3-6100Core i3-6100TCore i7-5960XCore i7-5775CCore i5 -5675CCore i7-4960XCore i7-4930KCore i7-4820KCore i7-4790KCore i5-4690KCore i7-4770KCore i7-4770Core i5-4670KCore i5-4670Core i5-4570Core i7-3970XCore i7-3960XCore i7-3930KCore i7-3820Core i7-2700KCore i7-2600KCore i7-2600Core i7-2600SCore i5-3330Core i5-2500KCore i5-2500Core i5-2500SCore i5-2500TCore i5-2405SCore i5-2400Core i5-2400SCore i5-2390TCore i5-2320Core i5-2310Core i5-2300Core i3-2130Core i3-2125Core i3-2120Core i3-2105Core i3-2100Core i3-2100TPentium G860Pentium G850Pentium G840Pentium G632Pentium G630Pentium G622Pentium G620Celeron G540Celeron G530Celeron G440Core i7-990XCore i7-980Core i7 980XCore i7-975 ExtremeCore i7 970Core i7 965 ExtremeCore i7 960Core i7 950Core i7 940Core i7 930Core i7 920Core i7-880Core i7-875KCore i7-870Core i7-860SCore i7-860Core i5-760Core i5-750SCore i5-750Core i5-680Core i5-670Core i5-661Core i5- 660Core i5-655KCore i5-650Core i3-560Core i3-550Core i3-540Core i3-530Pentium G6960Pentium G6951Pentium G6950Atom D525Atom D510Atom D425Atom D410Atom 330Atom 230Core 2 Extreme QX9775Core 2 Extreme QX9770Core 2 Extreme QX9650Core 2 Quad Q9650Core 2 Quad Q9550sCore 2 Quad Q9550Core 2 Quad Q9505Core 2 Quad Q9450Core 2 Quad Q9400sCore 2 Quad Q9400Core 2 Quad Q9300Core 2 Quad Q8400sCore 2 Quad Q8400Core 2 Quad Q8300Core 2 Quad Q8200sCore 2 Quad Q8200Core 2 Duo E8600Core 2 Duo E8500Core 2 Duo E8400Core 2 Duo E8300Core 2 Duo E8200Core 2 Duo E8190Core 2 Duo E7600Core 2 Duo E7500Core 2 Duo E7400Core 2 Duo E7300Core 2 Duo E7200Core 2 Extreme QX6850Core 2 Extreme OX6800Core 2 Extreme QX6700Core 2 Quad Q6700Core 2 Quad Q6600Core 2 Extreme X6900Core 2 Extreme X6800Core 2 Duo E6850Core 2 Duo E6800Core 2 Duo E6750Core 2 Duo E6700Core 2 Duo E6600Core 2 Duo E6550Core 2 Duo E6540Core 2 Duo E6420Core 2 Duo E6400 (Allendale)Core 2 Duo E6400 (Conroe 2M)Core 2 Duo E6320Core 2 Duo E6300 ( Allendale)Core 2 Duo E6300 (Conroe 2M)Core 2 Duo E4700Core 2 Duo E4600Core 2 Duo E4500Core 2 Duo E4400Core 2 Duo E4300Pentium Dual-Core E6800Pentium Dual-Core E6700Pentium Dual-Core E6600Pentium Dual-Core E6500Pentium Dual-Core E6300Pentium Dual-Core E5800Pentium Dual-Core E5700Pentium Dual-Core E5500Pentium Dual-Core E5400Pentium Dual-Core E5300Pentium Dual-Core E5200Pentium Dual-Core E2220Pentium Dual-Core E2210Pentium Dual-Core E2200Pentium Dual-Core E2180Pentium Dual-Core E2160Pentium Dual-Core E21 4065 XEPentium D 960Pentium D 955 XEPentium D 950Pentium D 945Pentium D 940Pentium D 935Pentium D 930Pentium D 925Pentium D 920Pentium D 915Pentium D 840 XEPentium D 840Pentium D 830Pentium D 820Pentium D 805Pentium 4 EE 3. 73Pentium 4 EE 3.46Pentium 4 EE 3.4Pentium 4 EE 3.2Pentium 4 672Pentium 4 671Pentium 4 670Pentium 4 662Pentium 4 661Pentium 4 660Pentium 4 651Pentium 4 650Pentium 4 641Pentium 4 640Pentium 4 631Pentium 4 630Pentium 4 620Pentium 4 571Pentium 4 570JPentium 4 561Pentium 4 560JPentium 4 560Pentium 4 551Pentium 4 550JPentium 4 550Pentium 4 541Pentium 4 540JPentium 4 540Pentium 4 531Pentium 4 530JPentium 4 530Pentium 4 521Pentium 4 520JPentium 4 520Pentium 4 519KPentium 4 519JPentium 4 517Pentium 4 516Pentium 4 515JPentium 4 515Pentium 4 511Pentium 4 506Pentium 4 505JPentium 4 505Pentium 4 3.8FPentium 4 3.6FPentium 4 3.4FPentium 4 3.2FPentium 4 3.4EPentium 4 EE 3.4Pentium 4 3.4Pentium 4 3.2EPentium 4 EE 3.2Pentium 4 3.2 Pentium 4 3.06Pentium 4 3.0EPentium 4 3.0Pentium 4 2.8EPentium 4 2.8APentium 4 2.8CPentium 4 2.8Pentium 4 2.8Pentium 4 2.67Pentium 4 2.66Pentium 4 2.6CPentium 4 2.6Pentium 4 2.53Pentium 4 2.5Pentium 4 2.4EPentium 4 2.4APentium 4 2.4CPentium 4 2.4BPentium 4 2.4Pentium 4 2.26APentium 4 2. 26Pentium 4 2.2Pentium 4 2.0APentium 4 2.0Pentium 4 1.9Pentium 4 1.8 APentium 4 1.8 Pentium 4 1.7Pentium 4 1.6 APentium 4 1.6Pentium 4 1.5Pentium 4 1.4Pentium 4 2.0Pentium 4 1.9Pentium 4 1.8Pentium 4 1.7Pentium 4 1.6Pentium 4 1.5Pentium 4 1.4Pentium 4 1.3Pentium III-S 1400Pentium III 1400Pentium III 1333Pentium III-S 1266Pentium III 1200Pentium III-S 1133Pentium III 1133APentium III 1000BPentium III 1133Pentium III 1100Pentium III 1000EBPentium III 1000Pentium III 933Pentium III 900Pentium III 866Pentium III 850Pentium III 800EBPentium III 800Pentium III 750Pentium III 733Pentium III 700Pentium III 667Pentium III 650Pentium III 600EBPentium III 600EPentium III 550EPentium III 533EBPentium III 500EPentium III 1000BPentium III 1000Pentium III 933Pentium III 866Pentium III 850Pentium III 800EBPentium III 800Pentium III 750Pentium III 733Pentium III 700Pentium III 667Pentium III 650Pentium III 600BPentium III 600Pentium III 600EBPentium III 600EPentium III 550Pentium III 550EPentium III 533BPentium III 533EBPentium III 500Pentium III 450Pentium II Overdrive 333Pentium II Overdrive 300Pentium II 450Pentium II 400Pentium II 350Pentium II 333Pentium II 300APentium II 300Pentium II 266APentium II 266Pentium II 233Pentium Overdrive MMX 200Pentium Overdrive MMX 180Pentium Overdrive MMX 166Pentium Overdrive MMX 150Pentium Overdrive 166Pentium Overdrive 150Pentium Overdrive 125Pentium Overdrive 133Pentium Overdrive 120Pentium Pro 200MHz (1024 KB)Pentium Pro 200MHz (512 KB)Pentium Pro 200MHz (256 KB)Pentium Pro 180MHzPentium Pro 166MHzPentium Pro 150MHzPentium 233 MMXPentium 200 MMXPentium 166 MMXPentium 200Pentium 166Pentium 150Pentium 133Pentium 120Pentium 100Pentium 90Pentium 75Pentium 66Pentium 60Celeron G1101Celeron E3500Celeron E3400Celeron E3300Celeron E3200Celeron E1600Celeron E1500Celeron E1400Celeron E1200Celeron 450Celeron 445Celeron 440Celeron 430Celeron 420Celeron 220Celeron D 365Celeron D 360Celeron D 356Celeron D 352Celeron D 355Celeron D 351Celeron D 350Celeron D 346Celeron D 345JCeleron D 345Celeron D 341Celeron D 340JCeleron D 340Celeron D 336Celeron D 335JCeleron D 335Celeron D 331Celeron D 330JCeleron D 330Celeron D 326Celeron D 325JCeleron D 325Celeron D 320Celeron D 315Celeron D 310Celeron 2. 8Celeron 2.7Celeron 2.6Celeron 2.5Celeron 2.4Celeron 2.3Celeron 2.2Celeron 2.1Celeron 2.0Celeron 1.8Celeron 1.7Celeron 1400Celeron 1300Celeron 1200Celeron 1100ACeleron 1000ACeleron 1100Celeron 1000Celeron 950Celeron 900Celeron 850Celeron 800Celeron 766Celeron 733Celeron 700Celeron 667Celeron 633Celeron 600Celeron 566Celeron 533ACeleron 533Celeron 500Celeron 466Celeron 433 (S370)Celeron 433 (Slot 1)Celeron 400 (S370)Celeron 400 (Slot 1)Celeron 366 (S370)Celeron 366 (Slot 1)Celeron 333 ( S370)Celeron 333 (Slot 1)Celeron 300A (S370)Celeron 300A (Slot 1)Celeron 300Celeron 266

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Pentium D | it’s… What is a Pentium D?

Pentium D (pronounced: Pentium D ) is a series of dual-core processors from Intel’s Pentium 4 family.

Developed by the Intel R&D Center Haifa (Israel), first demonstrated May 25, 2005 at the Intel Spring Developer Forum (IDF).

The Pentium D has a NetBurst microarchitecture, like all Pentium 4 models (the letter «D» in the name stands for Dual — double, and indicates the presence of two cores). The Pentium D was the first dual-core x86-64 processor designed for personal computers, although in April 2005 AMD released the dual-core Opteron series processors for servers. Dual-core processors of other architectures existed before, such as the IBM PowerPC-970MP(G5).

In fact, AMD announced the development of dual-core processors before Intel. However, problems with increased heat dissipation in Pentium 4 processors were soon discovered. This forced Intel to change its policy, and in order to be the first to release dual-core processors, Intel began developing a core code-named Smithfield.

Contents

  • 1 Smithfield
  • 2 Presler
  • 3 Specifications for various cores
    • 3.1 Data relevant to all models
    • 3.2 Smithfield
    • 3.3 Presler
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Links

Smithfield

Processors were announced on May 25, 2005. Smithfield was developed in a hurry (soon after the release of the Intel processor [ source unspecified 382 days ] ), so the processors on this core were not very successful. The core consists of two Prescott crystals placed on the same substrate. The Smithfield, like the Prescott, was produced in 90 nm technology and had all the disadvantages of the Prescott core. In order for the processor to meet the requirements of a TDP of 130 W, it was decided to limit the maximum frequency to 3.2 GHz, and the younger model had a frequency of 2.6 GHz. As you know, the Prescott architecture, due to the presence of a long pipeline, is very frequency dependent, [ source unspecified 1202 days ] so lowering the frequency greatly reduced performance.

In addition, despite the reduced frequency, the presence of two cores led to a very large heat release. And since very few programs used the ability to distribute their functions to several threads, there was practically no benefit from using two cores. In terms of performance, the latest models based on the Smithfield core lagged significantly behind the latest models based on the Prescott core. Installing new processors required buying a new motherboard, as Smithfield had different VRM requirements than Prescott. And the first motherboards for Smithfield worked only with DDR2 memory, which was often slower than regular DDR. Competitive processors AMD Athlon 64 X2 were deprived of almost all these shortcomings. All this led to the fact that Pentium D processors were not popular, unlike AMD Athlon 64 X2, even though they were cheaper than AMD Athlon 64 X2 processors. Smithfield, like Athlon 64 X2, has a split L2 cache (that is, each core has its own L2 cache), which greatly simplifies development, but slightly reduces processor performance, in contrast to the common L3 cache for both cores.

Presler

The Presler core was produced using 65 nm technology, which made it possible to increase the frequency of the processors, however, the maximum TDP of the new processors remained at 130 W (this was before the release of the D0 core revision, which made it possible to increase the yield of good chips. Presler is deprived of support Hyper-Threading technology, supports Vanderpool virtualization technology, as well as C1E, EIST and TM2 (in later models on C1 and D0 steppings)

Processors were announced in the second half of January 2006, although sales of these CPUs were seen in Japanese stores in the first days of the same month.The series of these models was designated as 9×0. Models numbered 920, 930, 940 and 950 were originally scheduled to be released. And in April 2006, model number 960 was released, operating at a frequency of 3.6 GHz. Further, cheaper models 915 (2.8 GHz), 925 (3.0 GHz), 935 (3.2 GHz) and 945 (3.4 GHz) were added to them, which lack Vanderpool support.

The Presler-based processor is the last in the Pentium D line. The next processor built on the Conroe core and currently one of the most popular modifications in the middle price segment is the Intel Core 2 Duo.

In 2007, the Pentium D line was completely discontinued due to Intel’s abandonment of the NetBurst microarchitecture.

Specifications for various cores

Data relevant to all models

  • Register width: 64 bits
  • External bus width: 64 bits

Smithfield

  • First model announced: May 25, 2005
  • Released models: 805 (2.66 GHz), 820 (2.8 GHz), 830 (3.0 GHz), 840 (3.2 GHz)
  • Effective System Bus (FSB) Frequency (MHz): 800 (for models 820, 830, 840), 533 (for model 805)
  • L1 cache size (for each core): 16 KB (for data) + 12 thousand operations
  • L2 cache size (per core): 1024 KB
  • Rated supply voltage: 1.4 V
  • Number of transistors (millions): 230
  • Crystal area (sq. mm): 206
  • Max TDP: 130W
  • Process technology (nm): 90
  • Connector: LGA775
  • Housing: 775-pin FC-LGA4
  • Supported technologies: IA-32, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, EDB, EM64T

Presler

  • First model announced: January 2006
  • Released models: 915 (2. 8 GHz), 920 (2.8 GHz), 925 (3.0 GHz), 930 (3.0 GHz), 935 (3.2 GHz), 940 (3.2 GHz) , 945 (3.4 GHz), 950 (3.4 GHz), 960 (3.6 GHz)
  • Effective system bus frequency (FSB): 800 MHz
  • L1 cache size (per core): 16 KB (for data) + 12k operations
  • L2 cache size (per core): 2048 KB
  • Rated supply voltage: 1.25 — 1.4 V
  • Number of transistors (millions): 376
  • Crystal area (sq. mm): 140
  • Max TDP: 130W
  • Process technology (nm): 65
  • Connector: LGA775
  • Housing: 775-pin FC-LGA4
  • Supported technologies: IA32, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, EDB, EM64T, VT

See also

  • Pentium D Xeon
  • Pentium D Extreme Edition
  • List of Pentium D and Extreme Edition
  • microprocessors

  • List of Intel
  • microprocessors

Links

  • Detailed list of Pentium D processors with many photos
  • Reflections on Intel Processors (Russian)
  • Pentium D processor documentation (rus)
  • Electrical parameters of processors, in particular Intel Pentium D
  • Detailed processor specifications (eng. )

The evolution of Intel microprocessors — Mind Map

32-bit processors

Pentium (pronounced Pentium) is a trademark of several generations of microprocessors of the x86 family, manufactured by Intel Corporation since March 22, 1993. The Pentium is Intel’s fifth generation processor and has replaced the Intel 80486 (often referred to simply as the 486).

Pentium Pro (pronounced Pentium Pro) is the sixth generation Intel processor compatible with the x86 architecture. Was announced on November 1, 1995 years old, but became available a little later. Initially, it was planned to replace the entire Pentium line with this processor, but later Intel abandoned these plans and the processor was positioned mainly as a processor for servers and workstations. In addition, the processor could be used when assembling a multiprocessor configuration (up to 4 processors).

Intel Pentium II (Russian Intel Pentium two) is an x86-compatible Intel P6 microarchitecture processor announced on May 7, 1997 [1]. The Pentium II core is a modified P6 core (first used in Pentium Pro processors). The main differences from its predecessor are the first-level cache increased from 16 to 32 KB and the presence of a block of SIMD instructions MMX (which appeared a little earlier in the Pentium MMX), improved performance when working with 16-bit applications. In systems built on the basis of the Pentium II processor, SDRAM memory and the AGP bus [2] have found widespread use.

Celeron is a large family of low-end x86-compatible processors from Intel. Celeron processors were originally positioned as low-budget versions of older models and were intended to expand Intel’s market share through low-cost computers for home and office. One of the reasons for the low price is their lower performance compared to older models, which is achieved by two main methods: artificially lowering the processor bus frequency and blocking or cutting part of the L2 cache.

The first processor of the Celeron family was announced on April 15, 1998 and was based on the Pentium II. Later came processors based on the Pentium III, Pentium 4, Pentium M, Pentium D, Core 2 Duo and Core i3, i5, i7.

Intel Pentium III (in Russian colloquial speech — Intel Pentium three) is an x86-compatible microprocessor of the Intel P6 architecture, announced on February 26, 1999. The Pentium III core is a modified Deschutes core (which was used in Pentium II processors). Compared to its predecessor, the instruction set has been extended (the SSE instruction set has been added) and memory handling has been optimized. This made it possible to improve performance both in new applications using SSE extensions and in existing ones (due to the increased speed of working with memory). A 64-bit serial number has also been introduced, unique to each processor.

Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M (pronounced Pentium Em) is an x86 (i686) processor designed and manufactured by Intel for use in the Intel Centrino platform. The processor was originally developed for use in mobile computers, as indicated by the letter «M», mobile. Before its official release to the general public, it was codenamed «Banias». See also Pentium III.

Core (pronounced roughly Ko[p]) is a brand name for microprocessors manufactured by Intel. The Core processors are the successors to the previous generation processors represented by the Pentium and Celeron models. For servers, there are more «advanced» versions of Core processors under the Xeon brand.

In June 2009, the company announced that it was phasing out its many variants of the brand (eg Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Quad, Core 2 Extreme) in favor of three key brands: Core i3, Core i5 and Core i7[1].

Intel Pentium Dual-Core — x86 microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009. The processors are based on the 32-bit Yonah core or (with minor microarchitecture differences) the 64-bit Merom-2M, Allendale, Wolfdale-3M, Penryn-3M, and Penryn-L core, designed for mobile or desktop PCs.

32-bit processors: NetBurst microarchitecture

Intel Pentium 4 is a single-core x86-compatible microprocessor from Intel, introduced on November 20, 2000, which became the first microprocessor based on a fundamentally new architecture compared to its predecessors, the seventh generation (according to Intel classification) — NetBurst. In addition to various Pentium 4 variants, NetBurst architecture processors include dual-core Pentium D processors, as well as some Xeon processors designed for servers. In addition, some Celeron processors for low-end systems are Pentium 4 processors with partially disabled L2 cache.

Production of Pentium 4 processors was started in 2000. Since mid-2005, their gradual displacement into the lower price category by dual-core Pentium D processors began. production of all processors of the NetBurst architecture[1].

Xeon (pronounced «Zion» in Russian) is a line of server microprocessors manufactured by Intel. The name remains unchanged for several generations of processors. The name of early models consisted of the corresponding name from a number of desktop processors and the word Xeon, modern models have only Xeon in the name. In general, the server line of processors differs from processors for desktop PCs in increased cache memory and support for high-performance multiprocessor systems.

64-bit processor

Itanium (pronounced: Itanium) is an IA-64 microprocessor jointly developed by Intel and Hewlett-Packard. It was first introduced on May 29, 2001. Itanium production ceased in July 2002, concurrent with the release of Itanium 2. In November 2007, Intel renamed the Itanium 2 processor series back to Itanium. As of spring 2011, processors are assigned four-digit numbers, similar to the Intel Xeon.[1] In May 2017, the latest Itanium-architecture processor family for Hewlett Packard was released.

64-bit processors: EM64T — NetBurst microarchitecture

Pentium D — Intel’s Pentium 4 family of dual-core processors. Developed by the Intel Research and Development Center in Haifa (Israel), first demonstrated on May 25, 2005 at the Intel Spring Developer Forum (IDF).

The Pentium D has a NetBurst microarchitecture, like all Pentium 4 models (the letter D in the name stands for Dual, which indicates the presence of two cores). The Pentium D was the first dual-core x86-64 processor designed for personal computers, although in April 2005 AMD released the dual-core Opteron series processors for servers. Dual-core processors of other architectures existed before, for example, IBM PowerPC 970MP.

Pentium Extreme Edition (pronounced: Pentium Extreme Edition) is a brand of processors that Intel began releasing on November 23, 2003. The processors are intended mainly for enthusiasts, as well as for competition with AMD Athlon 64 FX processors. The processors are the oldest (and most expensive) in their family. Often the name of the processor is abbreviated and written as Pentium EE or Pentium XE.

64-bit processors: EM64T — Intel Core 9 microarchitecture0146

Core 2 is Intel’s sixth generation x86-64 microprocessor based on the Core processor architecture. It is a descendant of the Intel P6 microarchitecture, on which, starting with the Pentium Pro processor, most Intel microprocessors are built, excluding processors with the NetBurst architecture. Having introduced a new brand, Intel did not refuse the names Pentium and Celeron, in 2007, transferring them to the Core microarchitecture, Pentium Dual-Core processors (not to be confused with Pentium D) and Core Celeron (400th series) were available. Then the mobile and desktop series of products reunited (divided into Pentium M and Pentium 4 in 2003).

The first Core 2 processors were officially introduced on July 27, 2006. Just like their predecessors, Core processors, they are divided into Solo (single-core), Duo (dual-core), Quad (quad-core) and Extreme (dual or quad-core with an increased frequency and an unlocked multiplier) models. The processors received the following code names — Conroe (dual-core processors for the desktop segment), Merom (for portable PCs), Kentsfield (quad-core Conroe) and Penryn (Merom, made using a 45-nanometer process technology). Although Woodcrest processors are also based on the Core architecture, they were branded as Xeon[1]. Since December 2006, all Core 2 Duo processors have been manufactured on 300mm wafers at Fab 12 in Arizona, USA and at Fab 24-2 in County Kildare, Ireland.

Unlike the NetBurst architecture processors (Pentium 4 and Pentium D), the Core 2 architecture did not focus on increasing the clock speed, but on improving other processor parameters, such as cache, efficiency, and the number of cores. The power dissipation of these processors is significantly lower than that of the Pentium desktop line. With a TDP of 65W, the Core 2 had the lowest power dissipation of any desktop MP then commercially available, including Prescott (Intel) cores with a TDP of 130W and San Diego (AMD) cores with a TDP of 89Tue

Core 2 processors featured EM64T architecture support, Vanderpool x86 virtual machine technology, NX bit, and the SSSE3 instruction set. In addition, the following technologies were implemented for the first time: LaGrande Technology, Enhanced SpeedStep Technology (EIST) and Active Management Technology (iAMT2).

64-bit processors: EM64T — Nehalem microarchitecture

Intel Core i7 — Intel processor family with X86-64 architecture. The successor to the Intel Core 2 family, along with the Core i5 and Core i3. This is the first family to introduce the Intel Nehalem microarchitecture (1st generation). Subsequent generations of Core i7s were based on Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, Haswell, Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake, and Coffee Lake microarchitectures. The Core i7 designator also applies to the original processor family[1][2] tentatively named Bloomfield[3] launched in 2008[2]. The name Core i7 does not indicate the generation of the processor, it only continues to use the successful series of Core brands.[4]

Intel Core i5 is a family of x86-64 processors from Intel. It is positioned as a family of mid-range processors in terms of price and performance, between the cheaper Intel Core i3 and the more expensive Core i7. They have a built-in memory controller and support Turbo Boost technology (automatic overclocking of the processor under heavy CPU load)[1]. Many have an integrated GPU. Like other processors for LGA 1156/LGA 1155 sockets, the Core i5s are connected to the chipset via the DMI bus.

The first Core i3 processors were released on January 7, 2010. The first representatives of the Core i3 family based on the Clarkdale core of the Nehalem microarchitecture had an integrated GPU and two processor cores. The Core i3-3xxM processors based on the Arrandale core were mobile versions of the Clarkdale desktop processors.

16-bit processors

The Intel 8086 (also known as the iAPX86) is Intel’s first 16-bit microprocessor. Developed since spring 1976 and released on June 8, 1978[1]. The instruction set architecture implemented in the processor became the basis of the well-known x86 architecture. Processors of this architecture became the most successful line of Intel processors. Modern processors of this architecture retain the ability to execute all instructions of this set.

The Intel 8088 is a 16-bit microprocessor released by Intel on July 1, 1979, based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor, but with an 8-bit data bus. The processor was used in the original IBM PC computers. Intel 8088 was the basis for the development of a family of small computers. It paved the way for the rapid creation of compatible desktops.

Intel 80186 (there are designations «186», «i186») — a 16-bit microprocessor released by Intel in the second half of 1982, and which is an improved version of the Intel 8086 microprocessor. The new microprocessor includes tools that were previously implemented 10 individual microcircuits. It was mainly used in work with control applications and in highly intelligent peripheral adapters, such as network adapters.

Intel 80286 (also known as i80286, i286, jargon deuce) is a 16-bit x86-compatible microprocessor of the second generation from Intel, released on February 1, 1982 years old. It is an improved version of the Intel 8086 processor and has 3-6 times higher performance. The processor was used mainly in IBM PC-compatible personal computers.

8-bit processors

The Intel 8008 is the first 8-bit central processing unit developed by Intel and released on April 1, 1972. The processor was positioned as a processor for advanced general purpose calculators, I/O terminals, and bottling machines.

The Intel 8080 is an 8-bit microprocessor released by Intel in April 1974. It is an improved version of the Intel 8008 processor. According to Intel, this processor provided a tenfold increase in performance compared to the Intel 8008 microprocessor.

The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor released by Intel in March 1976. This is an upgraded version of the Intel 8080 processor.

4-bit processors

The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit microprocessor developed by Intel and released on November 15, 1971. This chip is considered the world’s first commercially available single-chip microprocessor.

Intel 4040 is a 4-bit microprocessor (improved) developed by Intel Corp. and released in 1974. The chip is the successor to the Intel 4004 and the predecessor of the first 8-bit microprocessor Intel 8008.0113

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Review of the Intel Pentium B970 processor: specifications, tests in benchmarks

The Pentium B970 processor was released by Intel, release date: October 1, 2011. At the time of release, the processor cost $125. The processor is designed for mobile computers and is built on the Sandy Bridge architecture.

Processor blocked for overclocking. The total number of cores — 2, threads — 2. The maximum clock frequency of the processor — 2.3 GHz. The maximum temperature is 85C. Technological process — 32 nm. Cache size: L1 — 128 KB, L2 — 512 KB, L3 — 2048 KB.

Supported memory type: DDR3 1066/1333. Maximum supported memory size: 16 GB.

Supported socket type: FCPGA988. The maximum number of processors in the configuration is 1. Power consumption (TDP): 35 Watt.

The processor is integrated with Intel HD Graphics with the following graphics settings: maximum frequency — 1.15 GHz.

Benchmarks

PassMark
Single thread mark
Top1 CPU
This CPU
PassMark
CPU mark
Top1 CPU
This CPU
118142
Geekbench 4
Single Core
Top1 CPU
This CPU
Geekbench 4
Multi-Core
Top1 CPU
This CPU
Name Meaning
PassMark — Single thread mark 1057
PassMark — CPU mark 1097
Geekbench 4 — Single Core 364
Geekbench 4 — Multi-Core 668

Features

Architecture name Sandy Bridge
Issue date October 1, 2011
Price at first issue date $125
Place in the ranking 2067
Price now $50. 99
Processor Number B970
Series Legacy Intel® Pentium® Processor
Status Launched
Price/performance ratio (0-100) 11.33
Applicability Mobile
Support 64 bit
Base frequency 2.30 GHz
Bus Speed ​​ 5 GT/s DMI
Crystal area 149mm
Level 1 cache 128KB
Level 2 cache 512KB
Level 3 cache 2048KB
Process 32nm
Maximum core temperature 85C
Maximum frequency 2. 3 GHz
Number of cores 2
Number of threads 2
Number of transistors 624 Million
Maximum number of memory channels 2
Maximum memory bandwidth 21.3 GB/s
Maximum memory size 16GB
Supported memory types DDR3 1066/1333
Graphics base frequency 650MHz
Graphics max dynamic frequency 1. 15 GHz
Maximum GPU clock 1.15 GHz
Intel® Clear Video HD Technology
Intel® Flexible Display Interface (Intel® FDI)
Intel® InTru™ 3D Technology
Intel® Quick Sync Video
Integrated graphics Intel HD Graphics
CRT
DisplayPort
eDP
HDMI
Maximum number of monitors supported 2
SDVO
WiDi support
Low Halogen Options Available
Maximum number of processors in configuration 1
Package Size 37. 5mmx37.5mm (rPGA988B)
Supported sockets FCPGA988
Power consumption (TDP) 35 Watt
Number of PCI Express lanes 16
PCI Express revision 2.0
PCIe configurations 1×16, 2×8, 1×8 2×4
Anti-Theft Technology
Execute Disable Bit (EDB)
Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (TXT)
4G WiMAX Wireless
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology
Flexible Display interface (FDI)
Idle States
Extended instructions Intel® SSE4. 1, Intel® SSE4.2
Intel 64
Intel® AES New Instructions
Intel® Demand Based Switching
Intel® Fast Memory Access
Intel® Flex Memory Access
Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology
Intel® My WiFi Technology
Intel® Turbo Boost Technology
Intel® vPro™ Platform Eligibility
Thermal Monitoring
Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT-x)
Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d)
Intel® VT-x with Extended Page Tables (EPT)

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Comparison of Intel Pentium B970 with other processors

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history of creation and analysis of prospects — Ferra.

ru

«All of us — both IBM and Motorola — firmly believe
that the PowerPC architecture is very promising.»
Nancy Eames

«What has been is what will be… and there is nothing new under the
sun.»
Ecclesiastes

The birth of PowerPC

Ten or fifteen years ago, RISC processors from MIPS, Sun, Hewlett-Packard, as well as newer architectures — DEC Alpha and IBM POWER — overtook Intel processors many times over. It seemed that the IA-32 (x86) architecture was doomed, and the future entirely belonged to RISC chips. True, released at 19In ’93, the Pentium got pretty close to the RISC processors in integer benchmarks, but the backlog in floating point calculations was still huge. Why didn’t high-performance RISC processors with such a difference in performance find application in PCs? There were very good reasons for this.

• Instruction set incompatibility (ISA). RISC processors have incompatible x86 instruction sets, so emulation was the only way to execute x86 code. Then (however, as now), emulation meant a drop in performance from tens to hundreds of percent, which nullified the speed advantages of RISC processors. Some companies devoted significant resources to creating effective emulators (for example, FX!32 for DEC Alpha processors), but their speed was still unsatisfactory.

• Software. The traditional operating system for PCs was DOS, under which a huge number of popular and well-known programs were written. Later, 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows joined DOS. Various RISC platforms typically used incompatible flavors of Unix for which there were significantly fewer programs, mostly scientific and technical (for workstations) or network applications (for servers).

• The high cost of RISC processors and systems based on them. Although the original «RISC idea» was to simplify the processor by reducing the number of instructions and their fixed length, the actual RISC chips of the early 90s were usually larger and more expensive than Intel processors. Moreover, among them there were even whole sets of chips (IBM POWER), since the semiconductor technologies of those times did not allow as many transistors to be placed on one chip as required. In addition, the data bus of these processors was often 128 or even 256 bits wide (comparable to 32 bits for the i486 and 64 bits for the Pentium), which meant the complexity of the chipset and motherboard. RISC processors were designed for workstations costing tens of thousands of dollars, so developers could use circuitry that was too expensive to use in a PC. But even special, «cheap» versions of RISC computers were much more expensive than comparable Intel PCs due to low production volumes.

• Lack of interest from the manufacturers of RISC systems themselves. Many «serious» firms like DEC or Sun thought there was no need to make their RISC stations cheaper, because users would choose their systems anyway because of the obvious technical advantages.

Nevertheless, the idea of ​​creating an inexpensive but powerful RISC processor and a platform for it was literally in the air. Ideally, users would get a high-performance processor, a scalable platform devoid of the archaic legacy of the IBM PC (like the ISA bus), the ability to work with a wide range of multitasking operating systems — Unix, Mac OS, OS / 2 (in the future Windows NT) — and all these delights for the price of a regular PC. The maker of new processors would have the lion’s share of the huge PC processor market (Intel would have to be history), and companies selling computers with RISC processors would be able to squeeze traditional Intel partners such as Dell and Compaq. Apparently, Apple, Motorola and IBM were guided by similar considerations when, at 19In 1991, they founded the PowerPC Alliance (AIM Alliance, according to the first letters of the companies included in the alliance). The goal of this organization was to develop standards for PowerPC processors (as the newborn RISC architecture was called) and platforms for them. After three years of work, the PowerPC Platform Specification (PPCP) was born — a detailed description of the hardware and software of the new platform. The specification included descriptions of device drivers, firmware, runtime abstraction services, and hardware abstraction layers. Now everyone could create computers with PowerPC processors, develop peripherals for this platform and port operating systems. The IBM POWER RISC instruction set was taken as the basis, and the first processor created by the alliance’s efforts was the 32-bit PowerPC 601 — in fact, made on a single IBM POWER1 chip.

Released almost simultaneously with the Intel Pentium (1993), it looked good — at 66 MHz it outperformed the Intel processor in the SPECfp92 test by 26% and was 4% behind in SPECint92. At the same time, the heat dissipation of PowerPC was half as much, and the die area was 2.2 times less than that of the Intel Pentium (both processors were manufactured using a 0.6-micron process technology). PowerPC 601 was followed by PowerPC 603 and 603e, PowerPC 604 … G3, G4. Prior to the advent of the Intel NetBurst architecture, PowerPC processors almost always outperformed Intel chips in floating point computing speed by tens of percent, while dissipating much less power. Why didn’t the «RISC revolution» take place, while Intel processors are sold ten times more than PowerPC today?

«Too expensive and too slow»

Procrastination is like death in IT, but the PowerPC alliance was in no rush to bring new machines to market. Apple turned out to be the quickest to respond — its desktops and laptops were almost immediately transferred from the dying line of Motorola 680×0 processors to PowerPC. Mac OS, as well as a significant number of programs for this operating system, were quickly ported to the PowerPC platform. For quite some time now, the only PowerPC-based PCs available were Apple computers.

IBM took a very long time to develop the PowerPC version of OS/2, which is why it took too long to release these machines. Systems from IBM, Motorola, and a few clone companies mostly ran Windows NT, although at the time they hit the market (1995), Linux and some versions of Unix were available, including IBM’s AIX. The main problem with PowerPC machines was their high cost, although the processors they ran on were often cheaper than competing Intel chips. The difficulty was in the narrow market for components — small volumes of production led to the fact that the prices of PowerPC machines were 30-50% higher than those of similar computers with Intel processors. In addition, PowerPC computers tended to run much slower than Pentium machines in applications like Microsoft Office — often tens or hundreds of percent behind (apparently due to poor optimization). Most would-be PowerPC buyers had a hard time explaining why they should buy machines that do, say, Word spell checking twice as fast as cheaper Intel computers.

Superscalar, out-of-order execution, register renaming — these techniques were used by both RISC processor developers and x86 processors (Intel, AMD), and the performance difference between PowerPC and x86 was rapidly shrinking. Moreover, it turned out that ISA x86 can be “on-the-fly” and very effectively extended by introducing additional instruction sets — MMX, 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2, while maintaining compatibility with early processors and a huge number of programs compiled for x86. The open PowerPC architecture, as a competitor to IA-32 (x86), died before it could flourish — already at 19In 1996, IBM announced that it would use Intel processors in its high-performance PCs instead of PowerPCs. In 1998, only Apple remained of the major suppliers of computers with PowerPC processors, and Microsoft considered it unnecessary to create versions of Windows NT 5.0 (2000) for this platform. In fact, this was a confirmation of the failure of PowerPC and the failure of the ambitious plans of the AIM alliance. But although PowerPC processors have been defeated in the battle with Intel and AMD products, other uses have been found for them.

Processors not for computers

When the smoke cleared from the battlefield and corporations counted the losses (1996-97), it turned out that the PowerPC architecture could be successfully used in the market for embedded processors (embedded processors) — a kind of «cemetery» for once-fast CPUs. This term hides a wide class of computing devices designed to control various kinds of equipment that are not related to computers in the usual sense of the word. Embedded processors are used in network routers, industrial robots and installations, digital video cameras, players, etc. They are usually relatively slow processors with low power consumption, often integrated with a memory controller and other interfaces. Motorola and IBM are active in this market, offering a wide range of processors, including versions of the once popular PowerPC 603 and 604. IBM’s fastest PowerPC is the 1 GHz PowerPC 750FX with a power dissipation of 5.6 W, designed for the embedded processor market , frankly weak for desktop computers. Motorola has never left Apple to its own devices, and its fastest 1.42GHz 0.13µm MPC7455 (G4) is used in Apple’s flagship PowerMacs. G4 processors once successfully competed with the Pentium III, but today they look archaic. Apple is taking full advantage of the G4 to continue its fight against Wintel PCs — PowerMacs come standard with two processors and 2MB of DDR SRAM — but the result isn’t impressive. Yes, these computers are capable of breaking away from the Pentium 4 when doing of some specially optimized Photoshop filters, but you won’t find official results of such conventional processor tests as SPEC CPU anywhere, because they are devastating . In very many cases, Apple PowerMacs are significantly inferior to machines with Intel / AMD processors, in particular in intensive floating point calculations, including rendering and games. There are serious doubts about Motorola’s ability to keep pace with the processor race set by Intel. Talk about the «superprocessor» G5 has been going on for almost two years, but it is already clear that we should not expect it to appear this year. While Motorola prepares to release the next revision of the G4, IBM is going to blow up the sleepy realm of PowerPC with its 64-bit PowerPC 9 processor70, which is expected to start deliveries in the third quarter of this year.

PowerPC 970: A First Look

It’s no surprise that the initiative to create a high-performance PowerPC processor comes from IBM. Unlike Motorola, which is increasingly outsourcing, IBM takes semiconductor technology very seriously, constantly conducting research and development, and has a factory with one of the best technological processes in the industry — 300 square meters. mm wafer, 0.13 µm, SOI, copper connections, low-k dielectrics (East Fishkill, NY). IBM, as it were, is a miniature IT industry — the company manufactures processors, assembles computers, writes software and, as a result, everything is sold together in the form of complete solutions, among which you can choose the ones suitable for solving almost any problem. When IBM can manufacture the processor it needs for its machines, it usually does so rather than ordering it from other firms. IBM has been perfecting the POWER architecture for many years and now it is reaping the rewards — the 0.13-micron POWER4 + with a frequency of 1.7 GHz significantly outperforms any other processor in SPEC CPU2000 tests, including Itanium 2 and Alpha 21364, not to mention such «insects» as Pentium 4, Xeon or Opteron. The dual-core monster is used in servers with a total number of processors up to 32 (pSeries, iSeries), as well as IntelliStation POWER workstations. In addition to POWER4+, IBM machines use Intel Pentium 4 and Xeon processors in PCs, workstations, and blade servers, and in some servers and mainframes, PowerPC-compatible RS64 IV processors. New PowerPC 9 processor70 is currently planned to be used in blade servers instead of Intel Xeon and possibly Linux workstations. However, as we will soon see, the potential scope of the new processor is not exhausted by this. When creating the PowerPC 970, IBM engineers did not spend money on developing a fundamentally new core, but took POWER4 as a basis.

The second processor core and L3 cache controller were removed, the L2 cache was reduced to 512 KB, the interprocessor interface was greatly simplified, but support for the AltiVec SIMD instruction set developed by Motorola was added and the clock speed was increased. To improve fault tolerance, a relatively thick layer of silicon dioxide is created on the POWER4 die, which limits its maximum clock speeds. Silicon oxide layer on a PowerPC 9 die70, intended for «less critical» applications, will be thinner, allowing it to reach 0.13-µm. process clock at 2.5 GHz (compared to the fastest 0.13 micron POWER4+ so far at 1.7 GHz). Let’s take a look at some PowerPC 970 performance compared to Intel Pentium 4 and AMD Opteron (see tables).

9000 9000 9000 9000

512 512 512 KBIT , 8-channel dial-associative

Key features of IBM PowerPC 9 processors

L1-Kash Data 32 KB, 2-channel system-asocial 8 KB, 4-channel system-asial 64 KB, 2-channel system-Asocial
512 KB, 8-channel dial-associative 1024 KB, 16-channel dial-associative
Data bus 900 MHz DDR, 2×32 bits, bidirectional GB/s 9First it looks like it’s a PowerPC-style processor again — cold, but, alas, relatively unhurried. However, if we take into account that for the Pentium 4 Northwood (Xeon Prestonia) 3.06 GHz is almost the maximum frequency, and for the PowerPC 970 1.8 GHz is only the beginning, it becomes clear that we are dealing with a very good processor. At 2. 5 GHz — namely, this frequency is declared by IBM as the limit for the 0.13-micron process technology — PowerPC 970 should significantly outperform the Xeon and confidently compete with the future Prescott. A much more serious threat comes from AMD Opteron, especially since, according to some reports, IBM intends to use 64-bit AMD processors in its servers. Of course, the 2.5 GHz PowerPC 970 will noticeably outperform the 1.8 GHz Opteron, but if the latter’s frequency is raised to 2.4-2.6 GHz, the IBM processor will have a hard time. A huge plus of the PowerPC 970 is almost half the power dissipation of Intel and AMD processors, which is of great importance when used in narrow blade server cases and in order to save energy (this is not a joke). PowerPC 970 is the first IBM processor to support the Motorola AltiVec SIMD (vector) instruction set. AltiVec first appeared in the PowerPC G3 processor, designed for use in a PC (i.e. Apple Macintosh), it is functionally close to SSE, but more flexible and powerful. AltiVec support, excellent performance, low power consumption and 32-bit PowerPC compatibility make the PowerPC 970 extremely attractive for use in Apple computers. Apple executives have always been reluctant to share information about processors in their upcoming Macs, and knowing the firm’s commitment to Motorola processors, it’s best not to make unreasonable predictions. Anyway, PowerMacs even with one PowerPC 9 processor70 could compete successfully with Pentium 4 machines in a wide variety of applications.

The PowerPC 970 is capable of fetching up to eight instructions per clock from the instruction cache, which imposes serious demands on its performance. A direct-mapped cache is less efficient than a type-associative one, but the logic behind it is simplified. Apparently, the developers preferred to minimize delays when accessing the cache at the cost of some efficiency loss. Unfortunately, IBM does not provide cache latency values. Notable feature of PowerPC 970 — bidirectional data bus with a peak bandwidth of up to 7. 2 GB / s. One 32-bit bus is read-only, the other is write-only, the clock reference is 450 MHz, and the data is transmitted on the rising/fall edge of the clock signal. It can be seen that the peak bandwidth of this solution is higher than even the Pentium 4 800 MHz QPB bus. Note that existing Xeon systems use a 533 MHz QP bus, and future systems are expected to increase it only to 677 MHz. The weakness of the bidirectional bus is that in many applications the processor has to read large amounts of data, and in this mode the peak throughput will reach only 3.6 GB / s. But when dealing with a mixture of interleaved read and write requests, which are typical, in particular, for many server applications, such a bus can be extremely efficient. But IBM is building the server processor, isn’t it? One of the mysteries of PowerPC 970 — its multiprocessor capabilities. IBM is extremely laconic: «full multiprocessor support» is guaranteed. Processors designed to run in serious SMP systems like the POWER4 or Opteron usually have high-speed buses (links) to communicate with other processors. But it seems that we are in for disappointment: the data bus part of the document talks about «processor synchronization for SMP», that is, most likely, the data bus will be used for this purpose — as in Intel systems. This is not very efficient, but it is a cheap method, which is usually used for systems with no more than four processors. Well, for big systems, IBM has POWER4…

PowerPC 970: core

As mentioned above, the PowerPC 970 core is similar to the POWER4 core. These processors rely on broad instruction parallelism and have relatively long functional unit pipelines. The PowerPC 970’s fetcher fetches up to eight instructions per clock from the instruction cache, forwarding them to a buffer where they are read by the decoder, which is again capable of decoding up to eight PowerPC instructions per clock. In addition, the decoder converts PowerPC instructions into simpler IOPs, similar to how it is done in x86 processors. Most PowerPC commands are translated into one IOP, but some commands (like group writing from registers to memory) have to be split into two IOPs (this is called to crack, hack) or more (millicoding). Next, IOPs are organized into groups of five each, which are then sent to the execution queues (this was done to simplify the dispatch of a large number of instructions). Fetching, decoding, and grouping takes as many as nine pipeline stages. Then the dispatcher distributes the IOPs from the groups into six queues of functional units, after which, in fact, their “random” execution begins. In PowerPC 9There are twelve executing devices: an integer pair, a read/writer pair, a branch device, a condition register device, a floating point pair, and four AltiVec vector devices. However, vector devices are not universal, and each of them is only capable of executing commands specific to it.

The register renaming technique is used, in total there can be up to two hundred IOPs at different stages of execution. The length of the floating point device pipeline is eleven stages, the ALU is five, and the vector devices are thirteen. A maximum of five instructions can be completed per cycle. Special pride PowerPC 970 is a two-level branch prediction mechanism. The processor has a branch history table for 16,000 entries — like in the Opteron and four times more than in the Pentium 4/Athlon XP. In addition, there is an additional table of 16k entries, with each entry associated with an 11-bit vector that records the execution path selected for the last eleven groups (consisting of five IOPs). The selection table, again with 16,000 entries, keeps track of the performance of the first two schemes for each branch instruction, and according to its data, a choice is made in favor of one or another prediction scheme in each individual case. An important difference between the PowerPC + AltiVec combination and Opteron + SSE2 or Pentium 4 + SSE2 is that PowerPCs had «full» FPUs with thirty-two 64-bit registers from the very beginning, and they do not need expansion for numbers with such precision. AltiVec, like SSE, works with vectors of numbers with a maximum precision of only 32 bits, while SSE2 supports 64-bit numbers. In contrast, Pentium 4 and, to a lesser extent, Opteron, due to compatibility with early processors (up to 8087), have a very inefficient floating point unit in the worst CISC tradition, and it was necessary to create SSE2 to replace it. As a result, for most computing tasks, PowerPC uses its RISC-FPU, while Opteron and Pentium 4 use SSE2, which gives PowerPC a little more flexibility.

PowerPC 970: happy end

It’s time to take stock. The roots — the POWER architecture — still feed the PowerPC tree. Twelve years ago, IBM engineers, embodied in a silicon chip POWER1, created the first PowerPC. Today, history is repeating itself on another turn of the spiral — the POWER4 core becomes the basis of a processor that can change our attitude towards PowerPC as a dying architecture. The new 64-bit PowerPC 970 has enough potential to compete with the Intel Pentium 4 and Xeon, combining good performance with low heat dissipation. But it must be admitted that it is slightly inferior to the 64-bit AMD Opteron both in terms of processor speed and in terms of creating multiprocessor systems. PowerPC 970, far ahead of Motorola’s current G4 series chips, could be an excellent processor for Apple computers. On its basis, it is possible to release inexpensive, but powerful multiprocessor workstations and servers running Linux. Perhaps the only serious drawback of the PowerPC 970 is the lack of compatibility with x86 …

Intel Pentium D 9×0 (Presler) processors in operation / Processors and memory

Intel’s transfer of production lines to the new 65 nm process technology revealed to the world new processors based on Cedar Mill and Presler cores . And if the mass production of the first (single-core Pentium 4 6×1) is still delayed, then the dual-core Pentium D 9×0 are already available in a full range on store shelves. And what is especially pleasant to note is that the prices for new items, especially for younger models, are at an acceptable level and almost do not differ from the 800 series. Let’s try to understand the features of the new series of Intel dual-core processors and compare their capabilities with the younger lines, as well as the closest competitor.

First, let’s see what the transition to the 65 nm process technology gave the processors. If you look closely at the history of the development of processors, it is easy to see that a decrease in the manufacturing process reduces the power consumption of the chip, i.e. reduces operating voltage and heat dissipation, and increases the maximum operating clock speeds. In addition, usually, a reduction in the size of the transistor occurs with the introduction of some technological improvements into new processors — an increase in the size of the cache memory, adding support for new instructions and technologies, and sometimes a significant redesign of the core.

If we compare Pentium D processors of the 800th and 900th series, then all the above tendencies can be easily traced. In addition to a noticeable reduction in power consumption, the processors received a doubling of the second-level cache (2 MB per core instead of 1 MB) and support for the promising Vanderpool virtualization technology (Intel Virtualization Technology). And, of course, an increase in clock speeds — the fastest dual-core Intel processor now operates at 3.4 GHz. True, initially there were also losses in the form of Enhanced HALT State and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology technologies, i.e. processors have forgotten how to «stop» and reduce power consumption by reducing the voltage and multiplier (clock frequency) during inactivity. But not so long ago, Intel updated the stepping for almost all processors 900th line (except Pentium D 920) from B1 to C1 and returned the lost features. Unfortunately, the base has not yet been updated to say with confidence about all the features of the updated kernel.

Another distinguishing feature of the new processors is Intel Virtualization Technology. So far, many users find it hard to imagine the practical benefits of being able to run two operating systems on a PC at the same time and switch between them as needed. Namely, this simultaneous operation on the same hardware system of Windows and Linux was demonstrated by Intel a year ago. But this feature can already help network administrators to make a single system for managing all computers in an enterprise, improve security and increase their productivity (according to Intel).

Dual-core Pentium D processors and their specifications:

Model

Process

Frequency

L2 cache

Vcore

TDP

Tcase

Pentium D9x0 C1

950

65 nm

3.40 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40V

95 W

63. 4°C(?)

940

65 nm

3.20 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40V

95 W

63.4°C(?)

930

65 nm

3.00 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40V

95 W

63.4°C(?)

Pentium D 9×0 B1

950

65 nm

3.40 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40 V

130 W

68. 6°C

940

65 nm

3.20 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40V

130 W

68.6°C

930

65 nm

3.00 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40V

95 W

63.4°C

920

65 nm

2.80 GHz

2x 2Mb

1.25-1.40V

95 W

63.4°C

Pentium D 8×0

840

90 nm

3. 20 GHz

2x 1Mb

1.25-1.40V

130 W

69.8°C

830

90 nm

3.00 GHz

2x 1Mb

1.25-1.40V

130 W

69.8°C

820

90 nm

2.80 GHz

2x 1Mb

1.25-1.40V

95 W

64.1°C

We got an Intel Pentium D 9 processor in our test lab30, very promising in terms of price / performance ratio. And we also received other processors necessary for a full-fledged comparative test.

Intel Pentium D 930

The processor comes packaged in a redesigned package to keep up with the company’s rebranding and aggressive pricing.

The package bears the «Support Intel VIIV» logo (the latter is pronounced «vayv»). This logo speaks of the involvement of dual-core Pentium D processors in the «digital home». In short, the idea of ​​the Intel VIIV platform is to use a system based on 9 chipsets45G, 945P, 955X and dual-core processors with mandatory support for Intel Hi-Definition Audio and, at a minimum, network communications using Intel PRO/100 Ethernet running Windows XP Media Center Edition to create a high-performance media center.

Inside the box, everything is standard and unchanged: a manual with a logo, a processor (at first glance, it does not differ from others under the LGA775) and a standard copper-core cooling system.

The markings on the new processors are not as easily distinguishable as on other models, but quite readable.

The location of the elements on the bottom of the processor is different from that of the 800 series.

To visually obtain information about the processor, we used the updated utility CPU-Z 1.32.

Processors with the core of the new stepping have not yet reached our retailers — we got the «old» B1. Naturally, we take the word «old» in quotation marks, since the processor is the newest and most technologically advanced of all sold by Intel today, and it doesn’t make much sense to be upset because of the lack of Enhanced HALT State and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (except perhaps only when buying a «hot» Pentium D 9fifty).

We made the first start of the system without updating the BIOS and noticed an interesting feature. ASUS called Intel Virtualization Technology a bit unusual — Vendorpool. But given the opportunity to enable or disable this technology.

After updating the BIOS, the controversial moment with the correct name of the technology disappeared, and with it the possibility of disabling it.

Processors of the 800th series had a low overclocking potential, due to the complexity of the architecture and the high initial level of heat dissipation. Therefore, we were interested in the overclocking potential of new dual-core processors — will a reduction in the technical process and TDP correct the situation? But in the process of experiments, we managed to both rejoice and be upset. Immediately, the processor was able to start at a reference frequency of the system bus of 245 MHz, which gave an operating frequency of 3675 MHz (not bad, isn’t it?). The operating system loaded, but the applications started after one, and the launch of S&M 1.7.6 led to a freeze after a minute. I had to reduce, and then further and further reduce acceleration. Only at 3450 MHz (reference 230 MHz) did all S&M 1.7.6 tests pass. But after receiving half of the test results, the effect of «hanging one core» was discovered! The trouble manifested itself as a hangup of one of the tasks in multi-threaded tests (most often in PCMark), i. e. one of the progress indicators stopped, and the test could continue indefinitely (until the task was cancelled). I had to further reduce acceleration …

Stable operation and passing all tests were achieved only at a frequency of 3352 MHz. Which, of course, is also not bad, but we expected more. On the other hand, we tested only one processor, which initially showed good potential, which means that it is quite likely that with a different «stone» and a more advanced cooling system, you can get impressive results.

Intel Pentium D 830

The appearance of the package is more familiar, and has not yet undergone major changes.

From above, the processor from others, for LGA775, can only be distinguished by marking, and there are visible features from below (compare with the photo of Pentium D 930 and others), but identification is easier to make by marking.

CPU-Z reports kernel details.

BIOS indicates full support for power saving and thermal protection technologies. The updated Pentium D 930 of the C1 stepping received the same set of features, it remains only to find them on the counter.

In addition to dual-core processors, single-core processors were included in the test, for another assessment of the advantage of «two goals over one». In addition, testing was carried out using updated software and codecs. How relevant is multithreading for programmers?

Intel Pentium 4 630

The Intel Pentium 4 630 can be considered half of the Pentium D 930 with a certain reservation — the same frequency and 2 MB of L2 cache per core. Of course, it would be more correct to compare the Pentium D 9×0 with a Pentium 4 6×1 based on the Cedar Mill core, but these processors have not yet been submitted to us for testing.

As you can see, within the same core, the processors differ only in the technical process.

Intel Pentium 4 531

And the Intel Pentium 4 531 is similar to the «half» Pentium D 830, but we are interested in its results to compare the capabilities of the most affordable of the tested today.

On the other hand, the Pentium 4 531 processor has support for all the important technologies, some multithreading (I mean Hyper-Threading) and 64-bit extensions.

AMD Athlon 64 X2 3800+

AMD Athlon 64 X2 3800+, the junior model of AMD dual-core processors based on the Toledo core, is a direct price competitor for the Intel Pentium D 930.

We got a boxed version of this processor.

There is nothing unpredictable in appearance, neither from above nor from below.

The processor even outperforms the Pentium D in terms of the set of executable instructions due to the proprietary 3DNow!.

Heat dissipation 930 showed excellent results when using not the most perfect cooling system. Under equal conditions, it turned out to be colder than the Pentium D 830, manufactured according to the 90 nm process technology, by 14.5 °C. At the same time Pentium D 930 is more technologically advanced. Excellent result!

But a full-fledged comparison with AMD Athlon 64 X2 3800+ turned out to be impossible, since there is no trust in the resulting warm-up schedule for this processor — it is too uneven. Attempts to change the settings of the programs, and even their versions, and even rolling back the BIOS to an older one, did not change the graph, but it should be more uniform.

Page 2 — Testing, Results

Content:
• Page 1 — Intel Pentium, AMD
• Page 2 — Testing, Results

Testing

Intel Test Stand:

Motherboard:

ASUS P5PL2 i945PL LGA775 2chDDR2 PCI-Express16x SATA-300 ATX

RAM:

2x DDR2-667 512MB Samsung PC2-5300 orig.

Video card:

Inno3D GeForce6600GT 128MB GDDR3

Hard disk:

Samsung HD080HJ 80 GB 7200 rpm 8 MB SATA-300

Power supply:

SuperPower 480X 480W

Operating system:

Windows XP SP2

Drivers:

Intel INF Update 7.2.2.1006

NVIDIA ForceWare 81.98

AMD Test Stand:

Motherboard:

ASUS A8N-E nForce4 Ultra Socket 939 2chDDR PCI-Express16x SATA-300 ATX

RAM:

2x DDR-400 512MB PQI PC-3200

Video card:

Inno3D GeForce6600GT 128MB GDDR3

Hard disk:

Samsung HD080HJ 80 GB 7200 rpm 8 MB SATA-300

Power supply:

SuperPower 480X 480W

Operating system:

Windows XP SP2

Drivers:

NVIDIA nForce4 AMD 6. 70

NVIDIA ForceWare 81.98

Let’s start, as expected, with synthetics.

The SiSoftware Sandra 2005 SR3 test and information package clearly demonstrates the superiority of the dual-core architecture over the single-core one. But increasing the cache memory for the Pentium D 930 gives almost no gain.

The CrystalMark package uses slightly more realistic algorithms, but is in the process of being improved and will not be finalized in any way. Despite some scatter of the results, after averaging them, we can assign a clear victory to the dual-core processors with the leadership of Athlon 64 X2 3800+ and testify to a slight performance increase from increasing the cache memory to 2 MB per core in the Pentium D.

Futuremark PCMark’04 package periodically criticized for favoring the high frequencies of Intel processors. This can try to explain the loss of AMD Athlon 64 X2. But, given the audio and video encoding operations included in the package, in which the long-conveyor Pentiun 4 wins, we can believe in the reality of the results. We also note a 4% increase in performance for the Pentium D 930, due, apparently, to a large amount of cache memory.

Futuremark PCMark’05 has improved work with multi-core processors (there are tests that simultaneously execute 4 tasks), as well as improved balance of test tasks, but the leaders have not changed. But from a larger amount of cache in this test package, there is less benefit.

Let’s move on to the implementation of practical tasks.

The speed of data compression (in everyday life «archiving») was tested on the Program Files folder, supplemented, for ease of calculation, to a volume of 1 GB with almost a hundred megabytes of music in mp3 format. We abandoned the built-in test in favor of real data, i.e. just measured the compression time. Accordingly, the lower result is the best, i.e. archiving was faster. I was very pleased with 7-Zip, which showed a performance increase of up to 35% on dual-core processors. Another important fact is the increase in performance with an increase in cache memory, which is noticeable in real life — half a minute per 1 GB of data.

To evaluate the speed of audio encoding, we converted the Zdob si Zdub — Tabara Noastra disc into mp3, previously saved to the hard drive in wav format. This time we stopped using the latest release of the LAME v3.96.1 codec (July 2004) in favor of newer developments, although they have the alpha status. As a result, the AMD Athlon 64 X2 processor was the fastest to convert wav to mp3, although it lagged far behind when using the old codec.

For the convenience of video encoding, we used the VirtualDub program. The test file was the clip Rammstein — Ohne Dish (mpeg, 74 Mb). To reduce its size, we used the updated DivX 6.1.1 codec, set to maximum quality, and Windows Media Video 9with default settings. Both codecs showed good support for multi-core processors with a performance increase of approximately 40%. Unfortunately, the Pentium D cache memory increase for codecs remained practically unnoticed.

SPECviewperf 8.01, a comprehensive system suitability assessment package for working in CAD/CAM applications, is no longer relevant. Despite the fact that the dual-core Pentium D and Athlon 64 X2 should have won, these processors lost.

Game synthetics and games.

Codecreatures Benchmark today occupies a middle position between gaming synthetic tests and performance tests in working OpenGL packages. At nominal frequencies, the Athlon 64 X2 3800+ is the best here, but overclocking of the Pentium D 930, though not impressive, saves the situation.

AquaMark 3 ranked processor performance in the most logical sequence, noting both dual-core and cache memory.

But in 3DMark’03 there is a slight deviation from the logic. Despite winning by a margin in the processor test, Athlon 64 X2 3800+ loses to all, even to single-core processors, in the overall gaming standings.

As for 3DMark’05, it shows more plausible results, correctly transferring architectural features into the cherished «parrots». Let’s note almost 10% performance increase in Pentium D 930 compared to Pentium D 830.

Futuremark 3DMark’06 is the most modern gaming test, naturally optimized for multi-core processors. Hence such a lag of single-core processors in the calculation of artificial intelligence and physics (CPU test). But the graphical result for all systems is almost the same — it turns out that the beauty of the image primarily depends on the video card, in the absence of «smart» artificial intelligence and the realism of physical processes. Let’s see what modern games have in store for us.

But for starters, Quake 3, a game of past years, which is sensitive to FPU and memory performance, completely repeats the 3DMark’03 prediction, arranging processors in a logical dependence on clock frequencies and L2 cache size, taking into account the capabilities of only one cores for dual-core processors (the game cannot work with the second one). Naturally, the new architecture does not bring a visible performance boost.

Modern games make excellent use of the possibilities of multi-threaded computing. Take Quake 4 as an example. The advantage of dual-core processors at low resolutions is especially clear. This doesn’t mean that the performance increase is possible only at low image quality, it’s just that the capabilities of the GeForce 6600GT are not enough for modern games at high resolutions.

The situation is almost completely repeated in Half-Life 2. A game in which good artificial intelligence is implemented for opponents, and the gameplay is qualitatively described by physical laws. Only now Athlon 64 X2 3800+ leads with a small margin.

The game Serious Sam 2, which has a good physics of the world, puts in its place the possibilities of modern processors with the same success.

It seems to us that the Intel Pentium D 930 showed excellent results even when using a motherboard based on a not very productive Intel 9 chipset45PL Express.

Results

The new line of Intel Pentium D 9×0 processors can be considered very successful, especially when the «gems» of the C1 stepping appear on sale, which have regained support for Enhanced HALT State and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technologies.

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