Va display: What Is a VA or SVA Display? A Basic Definition

IPS vs VA vs TN: Comparing LCD Types Found In Monitors

Differences Between IPS, VA, and TN

Almost all monitors use LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panels lit by LED backlights. There are three main types of LCD panels: In-Plane Switching (IPS), Vertical Alignment (VA), and Twisted Nematic (TN). The general idea of each panel type is the same: liquid crystals react to an electric charge, controlling how much light is allowed to pass through and reach each of the three colored sub-pixels.

For this article, we’ll take a look at three recent high-performance gaming monitors: the LG 27GP950-B, the Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T, and the ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM. We’ll compare a few aspects of their performance, including picture quality and motion handling.

IPS Monitor

LG 27GP950-B

What is IPS? 

IPS, which stands for in-plane-switching, uses a different crystal orientation compared to VA and TN. While TN and VA twist the crystals, IPS crystals are parallel with the glass substrate, and they rotate within the plane of the substrate to let light through, similar to the shutter on a camera. IPS panels are by far the most common on today’s monitors.

VA Monitor

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T

What is VA?

VA, or vertical alignment, uses vertically aligned crystals that tilt to allow light to pass. While IPS crystals are parallel with the glass substrate, VA crystals are perpendicular to the substrate. Although VA panels aren’t as common as IPS panels for monitors, they’re one of the most common choices for TVs.

TN Monitor

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM

What is TN?

TN, or twisted nematic, was the first LCD technology on the market. TN panels consist of liquid crystals sandwiched between two polarizing filters. When an electric current is applied, the crystals twist and allow light to pass through. TN panels are by far the cheapest, but they’re also a bit out of date and not as common.

What’s The Difference?

It can be hard to generalize how each LCD type performs. In most cases, the difference between each type is pretty minor, but there are a few key areas where one type is consistently better than the others. We won’t be talking much about extra features or design elements, as these vary depending on the overall market context of the monitors you’re looking at. There are high-end and low-end models of each, and the feature sets and performance vary accordingly.

Picture Quality

Although most monitors today look pretty good, there are some noticeable differences, depending on the type of LCD used. The most significant differences between the different LCD panels are in their contrast ratios and viewing angles, but there can be some subtle differences in other aspects of the overall picture quality.

Contrast

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

Native Contrast 1,194:1

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

Native Contrast  3,912:1

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

Native Contrast 1,107:1

VA panels have the clear advantage here. TN panels have the worst contrast by far, typically in the 600:1 — 1200:1 range. IPS panels are slightly better, ranging between 700:1 — 1500:1, but they’re still not as good as VA panels. Most VA panels on monitors have contrast ratios above 2500:1, with some as high as 5000:1 — 6000:1. Newer monitors even use local dimming to achieve much higher contrast ratios. Even with local dimming, IPS monitors aren’t able to produce blacks as deep as VA panels. In short, if you’re often using your computer in a dark room, a VA panel is the way to go, as it’s the only LCD panel type that can produce deep blacks in a dark room. If you’re not in a dark room, the difference in contrast is hardly noticeable, especially since many monitors have anti-glare coatings that can reduce the effective contrast ratio of the display.

Of the three monitors shown here, the Samsung has the best contrast, at nearly 4x the contrast ratio of the other two. We measure contrast at a fixed white level of 100 cd/m², so this means the Samsung’s blacks are, on average, 4x darker than the others. The other two are about what we expect from TN and IPS displays, but the ASUS is at the upper end of the range for TNs. Most TN monitors we’ve tested are much worse than this one.

Winner: VA

Brightness

Since the brightness is controlled by a backlight behind the LCD layer, the type of LCD used has essentially no impact on the peak brightness of the display. That said, there’s a difference between TN and VA/IPS, but it has more to do with market limitations than technological ones. TN monitors aren’t nearly as popular as they used to be, and the remaining models tend to target high-performance gaming, so there’s less of a focus on brightness. Because of this, almost all high-end monitors currently on the market use VA or IPS panels, so if you’re looking for a very bright image, especially for HDR, chances are it’ll be either VA or IPS.

Winner: IPS and VA

Horizontal Viewing Angles

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

IPS is the clear winner here, as the image remains accurate even at a wide angle. VA and TN monitors usually perform much worse. Color accuracy generally remains good on VA monitors, but TNs have a slight shift in color accuracy at moderate angles. They both usually show a decrease in brightness at moderate angles and gamma shift at a small angle, causing the image to appear washed out. Panel manufacturers came out with curved panels to compensate for this image degradation, as the curved screen reduces the viewing angle to the edge of the screen, meaning that the image appears more uniform if you’re sitting up close. Most curved monitors are VA, but there are a handful of TN panels as well. Unfortunately, we measure the viewing angles from the center of the screen and rotate the monitor while still measuring in the center, so any advantages from the curve aren’t apparent in our test results.

Some manufacturers have started adding wide-angle filters to VA panels used in TVs. These filters significantly improve viewing angles, but come at the expense of contrast. We haven’t seen any VA monitors with this technology yet, but we wouldn’t be surprised if manufacturers started adding wide-angle filters to some high-end monitors.

Winner: IPS

Vertical Viewing Angles

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

Chroma inversion on a TN monitor — Dell S2716DGR

Again, IPS is the clear winner here. The vertical viewing angles are very similar to the horizontal ones on both IPS and VA panels. Unfortunately, this is one area where TN panels are usually much, much worse. TN monitors degrade rapidly from below, and colors actually inverse — resulting in a negative image that can be distracting. For this reason, if you decide to buy a TN monitor, look for one with an excellent height adjustment, or consider buying a VESA mounting arm, as you should mount TN monitors at eye level. Even when mounted properly, larger TN displays can appear non-uniform at the edges.

Winner: IPS

GRAY Uniformity

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

50% Std. Dev. 3.434%

50% DSE 0.104%

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

50% Std. Dev. 2.769%

50% DSE 0.107%

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

50% Std. Dev. 7.622%

50% DSE 0.121%

There’s usually not much difference between VA and IPS panels in terms of gray uniformity. It’s rare for monitors to have uniformity issues, and even on monitors that perform worse than average, it’s usually not noticeable with regular content. TN monitors tend to perform a bit worse than usual, though, and the top half of the screen is almost always darker than the rest, but that’s an artifact of the bad vertical viewing angles.

Winner: VA and IPS

Black Uniformity

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

Native Std. Dev. 2.957%

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

Native Std. Dev. 1.667%

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

Native Std. Dev. 1.815%

Black uniformity tends to vary significantly, even between individual units of the same model, and there’s no single panel type that performs the best. It’s rare for monitors to have good black uniformity, and almost every monitor we’ve tested has some noticeable cloudiness or backlight bleed. IPS and TN panels can look slightly worse due to their low contrast ratios, as the screen can take on more of a bluish tint when displaying dark scenes. Like with contrast, black uniformity issues usually aren’t very noticeable unless you’re looking at dark content and you’re in a dark room. If you only use your monitor in a bright environment, generally speaking, you don’t need to worry about black uniformity.

Winner: VA, but not by much.

SDR Color Gamut

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

sRGB xy 100%

Adobe RGB xy 88.1%

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

sRGB xy 98.2%

Adobe RGB xy 83.2%

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

sRGB xy 95.8%

Adobe RGB xy 79.9%

Historically, TN panels used to have the worst colors, as many of them were cheaper models that only supported 6-bit colors or used techniques like dithering (FRC) to approximate 8-bit colors. Most displays today, including TN models, are at least 8 bit, and many of them are even able to approximate 10-bit colors through dithering. New technologies, like LG’s Nano IPS and Samsung’s Quantum Dot, add an extra layer to the LCD stack and have significantly improved the color gamut of modern IPS and VA displays, leaving TN a bit behind. Between them, NANO IPS is slightly better, as it tends to offer better coverage of the Adobe RGB color space. Although the difference is minor, IPS panels still have a slight edge over VA and TN displays.

Winner: IPS

HDR Color Gamut

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

DCI P3 xy 95.2%

Rec. 2020 xy 70.1%

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

DCI P3 xy 86.3%

Rec. 2020 xy 67.6%

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

DCI P3 xy 49.8%

Rec. 2020 xy 56.3%

Although TN panels have caught up a bit in the SDR color space, they’re far behind when it comes to HDR, so if you’re looking for a good HDR color gamut, avoid TN panels. Between VA and IPS panels, the difference isn’t as significant; however, IPS panels still have a slight edge. The best VA panels top out at around 90% coverage of the DCI P3 color space used by most current HDR content. IPS panels go as high as 98% coverage of DCI P3, rivaling even some of the best TVs on the market. Due to the very high coverage of DCI P3 on both VA and IPS, the difference isn’t that noticeable, though, as most content won’t use the entire color space anyway.

Winner: IPS

Motion Handling

Although not necessarily as noticeable to everyone as the differences in picture quality, there can also be a difference in motion handling between IPS, VA, and TN displays. TN panels historically offered the best gaming performance, as they had the highest refresh rates and extremely fast response times. Manufacturers have found ways to drastically improve the motion handling of VA and IPS panels, though, and the difference isn’t as pronounced.

Response Time @ Max Refresh Rate

LG 27GP950-B (IPS)

Rise / Fall Time 4.0ms
Total Response Time 7.3ms
Overshoot Error 0.0%
Dark Overshoot Error 0.0%
Overdrive Setting: Normal

Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T (VA)

Rise / Fall Time 2. 8ms
Total Response Time 7.0ms
Overshoot Error 5.5%
Dark Overshoot Error 3.0%
Overdrive Setting: Faster

ASUS TUF Gaming VG258QM (TN)

Rise / Fall Time 2.9ms
Total Response Time 7.5ms
Overshoot Error 4.8%
Dark Overshoot Error 7.8%
Overdrive Setting: Level 3

Winner: TN & IPS

Black smear behind moving objects — ASUS TUF VG27VQ

LCD panel technology has changed drastically over the last few years, and the historical expectations for response time performance don’t necessarily hold anymore. For years, TN monitors had the fastest response times by far, but that’s started to change. New high refresh-rate IPS monitors can be just as fast.

VA panels are a bit of a strange situation. They typically have slightly slower response times overall compared to similar TN or IPS models. It’s especially noticeable in near-black scenes, where they tend to be significantly slower, resulting in dark trails behind fast-moving objects in dark scenes, commonly known as black smear. Some recent VA panels, such as the Samsung Odyssey G7 LC32G75T, get around it by overdriving the pixels. It results in much better dark scene performance but a more noticeable overshoot in brighter areas.

The examples listed above aren’t perfect. The average response time metrics shown don’t necessarily show the whole picture. Monitors also usually offer a certain level of control over the pixel overdrive, so it’s possible to adjust the response time to match your usage and personal preference. Some overdrive settings deliver a sharper image but introduce overshoot and reverse ghosting artifacts, while other modes might not be as sharp but have no distracting artifacts. You can learn more about our response time testing here.

Other Panel Types

Within each of the three types of LCD we mentioned, other related panel types use the same basic idea but with slight differences. For example, two popular variants of IPS panels include ADS (technically known as ADSDS, or Advanced Super Dimension Switch) and PLS (Plane to Line Switching). It can be hard to tell these panels apart simply based on the subpixel structure, so we’ll usually group them all as IPS, and in the text, we’ll usually refer to them as IPS-like or IPS family. There are slight differences in colors, viewing angles, and contrast, but generally speaking, they’re all very similar.

OLED

There’s another display technology that’s growing in popularity: OLED. OLED, or organic light-emitting diode, is very different from the conventional LCD technology we’ve explored above. OLED panels are electro-emissive, which means each pixel emits its own light when it receives an electric signal, eliminating the need for a backlight. Since OLED panels can turn off individual pixels, they have deep, inky blacks with no blooming around bright objects. They also have excellent wide viewing angles, a near-instantaneous response time, and excellent gray uniformity.

OLED panels aren’t perfect, though. There’s a risk of permanent burn-in, especially when there are lots of static elements on screen, like the UI elements of a PC. There aren’t many OLED monitors available, either, but they’ve started to gain popularity as laptop screens and for high-end monitors, but they’re very expensive and hard to find. They’re also not very bright in some cases, especially when large bright areas are visible on screen. The technology is still maturing, and advances in OLED technology, like Samsung’s highly-anticipated QD-OLED technology, are promising.

Conclusion

As you can probably tell by now, no one panel type works best for everyone; it all depends on your exact usage. Although there used to be some significant differences between panel types, as technology has improved, these differences aren’t as noticeable. The two exceptions to this are viewing angles and contrast. If you’re in a dark room, a VA panel that can display deep blacks is probably the best choice. If you’re not in a dark room, you should focus on the other features of the monitor and choose based on the features that appeal to your exact usage. IPS panels are generally preferred for office use, and TN typically offers the best gaming experience, but recent advancements in VA and IPS technology are starting to change those generalizations. For the most part, the differences between each panel type are so minor now that it doesn’t need to be directly factored into your buying decision.

Display Panel Technology: TN vs. VA vs. IPS

Update: This is our original explainer about display technologies. While most of the information below remains accurate to this day, we’ve seen the introduction of much faster IPS displays as well as a revolutionary updates to VA panels, particularly from Samsung Odyssey gaming monitors. We’ve also since tested over 100 monitors, so we have a lot more insights to share about performance.

Read the updated explainer:
TN vs. VA vs. IPS, What’s the Difference in 2021?

By far the most common types of display panels used on PC monitors are TN, IPS and VA. We’re sure you’ve heard these terms before if you’ve researched monitors to purchase, and to be clear, the type of panel is a key piece of information that reveals a lot about how the monitor will behave and perform.

A brief overview is in order, before we focus on the individual characteristics of each technology and how they perform.

TN is the oldest of the LCD technologies and it stands for twisted nematic. This refers to the twisted nematic effect, which is an effect that allows liquid crystal molecules to be controlled with voltage. While the actual workings of a TN-effect LCD are a little more complicated, essentially the TN-effect is used to change the alignment of liquid crystals when a voltage is applied. When there is no voltage, so the crystal is «off,» the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 degrees and in combination with polarization layers, allow light to pass through. Then when a voltage is applied, these crystals are essentially untwisted, blocking light.

VA, stands for vertical alignment. As the name suggests, this technology uses vertically aligned liquid crystals which tilt when a voltage is applied to let light pass through. This is the key difference between IPS and VA: with VA, the crystals are perpendicular to the substrates, while with IPS they are parallel. There are several VA variants, including Samsung’s SVA and AU Optronics AMVA.

VA (Vertical Alignment) homeotropic alignment shown above

IPS stands for in-plane switching and, like all LCDs, it too uses voltage to control the alignment of liquid crystals. However unlike with TN, IPS LCDs use a different crystal orientation, one where the crystals are parallel to the glass substrates, hence the term ‘in plane’. Rather than ‘twisting’ the crystals to modify the amount of light let through, IPS crystals are essentially rotated, which has a range of benefits.

There are many IPS variants on the market, with each of the three big LCD manufacturers using a different term to describe their IPS-type technology. LG simply calls their tech «IPS» which is easy for everyone. Samsung uses the term PLS or plane-to-line switching, while AU Optronics uses the term AHVA or advanced hyper viewing angle. AHVA shouldn’t be confused with regular VA displays, it’s an annoying and confusing name in my opinion, but AHVA is an IPS-like technology. Each of LG’s IPS, Samsung’s PLS and AUO’s AHVA are slightly different but the fundamentals are rooted in IPS.

So in summary, TN panels twist, IPS panels use a parallel alignment and rotate, while VA panels use a vertical alignment and tilt. Now let’s get into some of the performance characteristics and explore how each of the technologies differ and in general, which technology is better in any given category.

Viewing Angles

By far the biggest difference between the three technologies is in viewing angles. TN panels have the weakest viewing angles, with significant shift to color and contrast in both the horizontal and especially vertical directions. Typically viewing angles are rated as 170/160 but realistically you’ll get pretty bad shifts when viewing anywhere except for dead center. Higher-end TNs tend to be somewhat better but overall this is a big weakness for TNs.

VA and IPS panels are both significantly better, with IPS being the best overall for viewing angles. 178/178 viewing angle ratings are a realistic reflection of what you can expect with an IPS, you won’t get much shift in colors or contrast from any angle. VAs are good in this regard but not as good as IPS, mostly due to contrast shifts at off-center angles. With VAs and especially TNs having some color and contrast shifts when viewing at angles, they’re not as well suited to color-critical professional work as IPS panels, which is why you see most pro-grade monitors sticking to IPS.

Brightness & Contrast

In terms of brightness there’s no inherent differences between the technologies because the backlight, which determines brightness, is separate to the liquid crystal panel. However there are significant differences to contrast ratios, and this an area most people look at when determining which panel type they want.

Both TN and IPS panels tend to have a contrast ratio around 1000:1, although in my testing I have noted some differences. TN panels tend to have the lowest contrast ratios when calibrated, with an entry-level panel sitting between 700:1 and 900:1 and good panels pushing up to that 1000:1 mark. IPS has a larger range, I’ve seen some as low as 700:1 like TNs, however the very best tend to push up higher than TN, with 1200:1 as the upper range for desktop monitors and some laptop-grade displays reaching as high as 1500:1.

Neither TN nor IPS get to the range of VA though. Entry-level VA panels start with a contrast ratio of 2000:1 from those that we’ve tested, with the best easily exceeding 4500:1, although 3000:1 is a typical figure for most monitors.

TVs make extensive use of VA panels and there contrast ratios can be even higher. It’s not unusual to see over 6000:1. So if you want deep blacks and high contrast ratios, you’ll need to go with something VA.

While IPS panels tend to be a middle ground for contrast they do suffer from a phenomenon called «IPS glow,» which is an apparent white glow when viewing dark imagery at an angle. The best panels exhibit minimal glow but it’s still an issue across all displays of this type.

Color Quality

Color quality is another difference many people cite between TN displays and other display panels in particular. And this can be split into two categories: color depth or bit depth, and color gamut.

In both of these regards, TN panels tend to fall on the weaker end of the scale. Many TN displays, in particular entry-level models, are only natively 6-bit and use frame rate control, otherwise called FRC or dithering, to achieve standard 8-bit output. 6-bit panels are prone to color banding, while native 8-bit panels have smoother color gradients and therefore better color output.

Not all TN panels are 6-bit. The top-end TNs are native 8-bit, but it’s safe to say most TNs will only be native 6-bit, even today. If you are after a native 8-bit display, you’ll need to go with either IPS or VA, where many more panels come native 8-bit.

While there are still 6-bit entry-level IPS and VA panels, pretty much all mid-range to high-end options are 8-bit.

As for native true 10-bit, typically you’ll need to look for an IPS panel, which make up the majority of native 10-bit panels. Some VA panels can do it, but they are rare. Most displays you purchase that claim to be 10-bit, are actually 8-bit+FRC, with only high-end professional-grade monitors offering a native 10-bit experience.

Color Gamut

This is another area where VA and IPS provide a superior experience. The best TN panels tend to be limited to sRGB, or in the case of the worst entry-level panels, don’t even cover the entirety of the sRGB gamut. Wide-gamut TN panels do exist, but they are rare.

VA panels typically start with full sRGB coverage as a minimum, and depending on the panel can push higher. VAs that use a quantum dot film, typically from Samsung, offer higher gamuts, around the 125% sRGB or 90% DCI-P3 mark. Most of the wide gamut VA monitors we’ve tested fall between 85 and 90% DCI-P3 coverage, which is a decent result, though the best can approach 95% or higher.

With IPS panels, there is the largest variance. Entry-level IPS displays tend to offer 95% sRGB coverage or less, while the majority stick to full sRGB coverage. Then with high-end displays, usually for professionals, it’s not unusual to see full DCI-P3 and Adobe RGB coverage. Of all the wide gamut IPS displays I’ve tested, the lowest DCI-P3 coverage I’ve seen has been 93%, with over 95% a typical figure. This makes IPS the best technology for wide gamut work.

Refresh Rates

Throughout most of this discussion we’ve been talking about TN as the worst of the three technologies. So far, it has the worst color reproduction, contrast ratios and viewing angles. But it does have one key advantage, and that comes in the form of speed. TN panels have historically been the best for both refresh rates and response times, however that trend is slowly changing for the better.

Not long ago, we argued that only with a TN panel it was possible to hit 240 Hz, doing so at 1080p and later up to 1440p. Most recently, however we’ve seen IPS monitors hit the highest mark ever for a consumer-grade gaming monitor at 360Hz, and do so very convincingly. We’re sure other monitors will follow but as of writing, the Asus ROG Swift PG259QN can deliver both the fastest response times and an accurate color experience using an IPS panel.

More mainstream monitors using IPS panels tend to range from the regular 60Hz for productivity, up to 165 Hz and 240 Hz depending on the market they’re aimed at. VA panels top out at around 240 Hz at the moment.

Most IPS displays, especially high-grade options for professionals, as well as entry-level office monitors, are either 60 or 75 Hz. Meanwhile, a significantly larger number of VA panels across a wider range of sizes and resolutions are high-refresh, while the big selling point of TN is its super high refresh capabilities.

Response Times

Another major consideration is response times, which govern the level of ghosting, smearing and overall clarity of a panel. Early IPS and VA panels were very slow, however this has improved a lot with modern panels, so the differences between the three technologies aren’t as pronounced as they once were. TN still holds an advantage here.

Most TN panels have a rated transition time of 1ms, or even lower with some recent releases. Actual grey to grey averages we’ve measured for TN panels tend to be in the 2-3 ms range when overdrive is factored in, which makes TN the fastest technology.

IPS panels are next in terms of speed, though as tends to be the case with IPS, there is a wide variance between the best and worst of this type. High-end IPS monitors, typically those with high refresh rates, can have a transition time as fast as 3ms. Compared to the best TN panels, this still makes IPS slower. However entry-level IPS panels or those without overdrive sit closer to the 10ms range, while mid-tier options tend to occupy the 5 to 7 ms bracket.

VA panels are consistently the slowest of the three types, but again, high-end gaming monitors have been pushing this further on every generation. The absolute fastest VA panel we’ve measured so far has a 4ms response time which is very impressive, though more typical numbers are between 8 and 10 ms for gaming monitors. VA panels also tend to be less consistent with their transitions; some individual transitions can be fast, while others very slow, whereas IPS panels tend to hover more around their overall grey to grey average.

While a lot of people are unlikely to spot the difference between an 8ms VA panel and a 5ms IPS, TN panels overall tend to be noticeably clearer in motion, but that gap is closing with every generation. The slowness of VA panels also limits their real world refresh rate: a 144 Hz panel that only manages a 9ms response time, is actually delivering an image most equivalent to a 110 Hz panel. Whereas most 144 Hz IPS panels can transition faster than the 6.94ms refresh window, leading to a true 144 Hz experience. So that’s something to consider.

Wrap Up

As a quick summary, TN panels are the fastest and have the highest refresh rates, however they have the worst viewing angles by far, as well as weak color performance and typically the lowest contrast ratios. TNs are typically used for ultra-fast gaming displays, as well as budget class displays, for both desktop monitors and laptops.

IPS is a middle-ground technology. They typically have the best color performance and viewing angles, mid-tier response times and refresh rates, along with mid-tier black levels and contrast ratios. Due to its top-end color output, IPS panels are the go-to choice for professionals, but you’ll also find them in entry-level displays, office monitors, most laptops and a handful of gaming monitors.

VA panels are the slowest of the three, but have the best contrast ratio and black levels by far. Color performance isn’t quite at the level of IPS, but they still offer a significantly better experience than TN in this regard.

With response times for the best modern VAs approaching the level of a typical IPS, along with broad support for high refresh rates, VA monitors are commonly used for gaming monitors. Entry-level VAs also tend to be superior to entry-level TN and IPS panels, though you won’t find VA used in laptops.

There’s no right answer to which monitor technology is best, because all have their strengths and weaknesses which is why all three coexist on the market today. However if you want our recommendation, we tend to gravitate towards VA panels for most buyers, especially gamers and those after something entry-level. Creative professionals should be looking exclusively at IPS monitors, while those after something dirt cheap or ultra high refresh for competitive gaming should opt for TN, although superior latest-gen IPS and VA offerings are finally matching or even beating the best of TN in some regards.

Recommended reads:
  • The Best Monitors
  • Best PC Gaming Monitors

Display Panel Technology: TN vs. VA vs. IPS

Update: This is our original explainer about display technologies. While most of the information below remains accurate to this day, we’ve seen the introduction of much faster IPS displays as well as a revolutionary updates to VA panels, particularly from Samsung Odyssey gaming monitors. We’ve also since tested over 100 monitors, so we have a lot more insights to share about performance.

Read the updated explainer:
TN vs. VA vs. IPS, What’s the Difference in 2021?

By far the most common types of display panels used on PC monitors are TN, IPS and VA. We’re sure you’ve heard these terms before if you’ve researched monitors to purchase, and to be clear, the type of panel is a key piece of information that reveals a lot about how the monitor will behave and perform.

A brief overview is in order, before we focus on the individual characteristics of each technology and how they perform.

TN is the oldest of the LCD technologies and it stands for twisted nematic. This refers to the twisted nematic effect, which is an effect that allows liquid crystal molecules to be controlled with voltage. While the actual workings of a TN-effect LCD are a little more complicated, essentially the TN-effect is used to change the alignment of liquid crystals when a voltage is applied. When there is no voltage, so the crystal is «off,» the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 degrees and in combination with polarization layers, allow light to pass through. Then when a voltage is applied, these crystals are essentially untwisted, blocking light.

VA, stands for vertical alignment. As the name suggests, this technology uses vertically aligned liquid crystals which tilt when a voltage is applied to let light pass through. This is the key difference between IPS and VA: with VA, the crystals are perpendicular to the substrates, while with IPS they are parallel. There are several VA variants, including Samsung’s SVA and AU Optronics AMVA.

VA (Vertical Alignment) homeotropic alignment shown above

IPS stands for in-plane switching and, like all LCDs, it too uses voltage to control the alignment of liquid crystals. However unlike with TN, IPS LCDs use a different crystal orientation, one where the crystals are parallel to the glass substrates, hence the term ‘in plane’. Rather than ‘twisting’ the crystals to modify the amount of light let through, IPS crystals are essentially rotated, which has a range of benefits.

There are many IPS variants on the market, with each of the three big LCD manufacturers using a different term to describe their IPS-type technology. LG simply calls their tech «IPS» which is easy for everyone. Samsung uses the term PLS or plane-to-line switching, while AU Optronics uses the term AHVA or advanced hyper viewing angle. AHVA shouldn’t be confused with regular VA displays, it’s an annoying and confusing name in my opinion, but AHVA is an IPS-like technology. Each of LG’s IPS, Samsung’s PLS and AUO’s AHVA are slightly different but the fundamentals are rooted in IPS.

So in summary, TN panels twist, IPS panels use a parallel alignment and rotate, while VA panels use a vertical alignment and tilt. Now let’s get into some of the performance characteristics and explore how each of the technologies differ and in general, which technology is better in any given category.

Viewing Angles

By far the biggest difference between the three technologies is in viewing angles. TN panels have the weakest viewing angles, with significant shift to color and contrast in both the horizontal and especially vertical directions. Typically viewing angles are rated as 170/160 but realistically you’ll get pretty bad shifts when viewing anywhere except for dead center. Higher-end TNs tend to be somewhat better but overall this is a big weakness for TNs.

VA and IPS panels are both significantly better, with IPS being the best overall for viewing angles. 178/178 viewing angle ratings are a realistic reflection of what you can expect with an IPS, you won’t get much shift in colors or contrast from any angle. VAs are good in this regard but not as good as IPS, mostly due to contrast shifts at off-center angles. With VAs and especially TNs having some color and contrast shifts when viewing at angles, they’re not as well suited to color-critical professional work as IPS panels, which is why you see most pro-grade monitors sticking to IPS.

Brightness & Contrast

In terms of brightness there’s no inherent differences between the technologies because the backlight, which determines brightness, is separate to the liquid crystal panel. However there are significant differences to contrast ratios, and this an area most people look at when determining which panel type they want.

Both TN and IPS panels tend to have a contrast ratio around 1000:1, although in my testing I have noted some differences. TN panels tend to have the lowest contrast ratios when calibrated, with an entry-level panel sitting between 700:1 and 900:1 and good panels pushing up to that 1000:1 mark. IPS has a larger range, I’ve seen some as low as 700:1 like TNs, however the very best tend to push up higher than TN, with 1200:1 as the upper range for desktop monitors and some laptop-grade displays reaching as high as 1500:1.

Neither TN nor IPS get to the range of VA though. Entry-level VA panels start with a contrast ratio of 2000:1 from those that we’ve tested, with the best easily exceeding 4500:1, although 3000:1 is a typical figure for most monitors.

TVs make extensive use of VA panels and there contrast ratios can be even higher. It’s not unusual to see over 6000:1. So if you want deep blacks and high contrast ratios, you’ll need to go with something VA.

While IPS panels tend to be a middle ground for contrast they do suffer from a phenomenon called «IPS glow,» which is an apparent white glow when viewing dark imagery at an angle. The best panels exhibit minimal glow but it’s still an issue across all displays of this type.

Color Quality

Color quality is another difference many people cite between TN displays and other display panels in particular. And this can be split into two categories: color depth or bit depth, and color gamut.

In both of these regards, TN panels tend to fall on the weaker end of the scale. Many TN displays, in particular entry-level models, are only natively 6-bit and use frame rate control, otherwise called FRC or dithering, to achieve standard 8-bit output. 6-bit panels are prone to color banding, while native 8-bit panels have smoother color gradients and therefore better color output.

Not all TN panels are 6-bit. The top-end TNs are native 8-bit, but it’s safe to say most TNs will only be native 6-bit, even today. If you are after a native 8-bit display, you’ll need to go with either IPS or VA, where many more panels come native 8-bit.

While there are still 6-bit entry-level IPS and VA panels, pretty much all mid-range to high-end options are 8-bit.

As for native true 10-bit, typically you’ll need to look for an IPS panel, which make up the majority of native 10-bit panels. Some VA panels can do it, but they are rare. Most displays you purchase that claim to be 10-bit, are actually 8-bit+FRC, with only high-end professional-grade monitors offering a native 10-bit experience.

Color Gamut

This is another area where VA and IPS provide a superior experience. The best TN panels tend to be limited to sRGB, or in the case of the worst entry-level panels, don’t even cover the entirety of the sRGB gamut. Wide-gamut TN panels do exist, but they are rare.

VA panels typically start with full sRGB coverage as a minimum, and depending on the panel can push higher. VAs that use a quantum dot film, typically from Samsung, offer higher gamuts, around the 125% sRGB or 90% DCI-P3 mark. Most of the wide gamut VA monitors we’ve tested fall between 85 and 90% DCI-P3 coverage, which is a decent result, though the best can approach 95% or higher.

With IPS panels, there is the largest variance. Entry-level IPS displays tend to offer 95% sRGB coverage or less, while the majority stick to full sRGB coverage. Then with high-end displays, usually for professionals, it’s not unusual to see full DCI-P3 and Adobe RGB coverage. Of all the wide gamut IPS displays I’ve tested, the lowest DCI-P3 coverage I’ve seen has been 93%, with over 95% a typical figure. This makes IPS the best technology for wide gamut work.

Refresh Rates

Throughout most of this discussion we’ve been talking about TN as the worst of the three technologies. So far, it has the worst color reproduction, contrast ratios and viewing angles. But it does have one key advantage, and that comes in the form of speed. TN panels have historically been the best for both refresh rates and response times, however that trend is slowly changing for the better.

Not long ago, we argued that only with a TN panel it was possible to hit 240 Hz, doing so at 1080p and later up to 1440p. Most recently, however we’ve seen IPS monitors hit the highest mark ever for a consumer-grade gaming monitor at 360Hz, and do so very convincingly. We’re sure other monitors will follow but as of writing, the Asus ROG Swift PG259QN can deliver both the fastest response times and an accurate color experience using an IPS panel.

More mainstream monitors using IPS panels tend to range from the regular 60Hz for productivity, up to 165 Hz and 240 Hz depending on the market they’re aimed at. VA panels top out at around 240 Hz at the moment.

Most IPS displays, especially high-grade options for professionals, as well as entry-level office monitors, are either 60 or 75 Hz. Meanwhile, a significantly larger number of VA panels across a wider range of sizes and resolutions are high-refresh, while the big selling point of TN is its super high refresh capabilities.

Response Times

Another major consideration is response times, which govern the level of ghosting, smearing and overall clarity of a panel. Early IPS and VA panels were very slow, however this has improved a lot with modern panels, so the differences between the three technologies aren’t as pronounced as they once were. TN still holds an advantage here.

Most TN panels have a rated transition time of 1ms, or even lower with some recent releases. Actual grey to grey averages we’ve measured for TN panels tend to be in the 2-3 ms range when overdrive is factored in, which makes TN the fastest technology.

IPS panels are next in terms of speed, though as tends to be the case with IPS, there is a wide variance between the best and worst of this type. High-end IPS monitors, typically those with high refresh rates, can have a transition time as fast as 3ms. Compared to the best TN panels, this still makes IPS slower. However entry-level IPS panels or those without overdrive sit closer to the 10ms range, while mid-tier options tend to occupy the 5 to 7 ms bracket.

VA panels are consistently the slowest of the three types, but again, high-end gaming monitors have been pushing this further on every generation. The absolute fastest VA panel we’ve measured so far has a 4ms response time which is very impressive, though more typical numbers are between 8 and 10 ms for gaming monitors. VA panels also tend to be less consistent with their transitions; some individual transitions can be fast, while others very slow, whereas IPS panels tend to hover more around their overall grey to grey average.

While a lot of people are unlikely to spot the difference between an 8ms VA panel and a 5ms IPS, TN panels overall tend to be noticeably clearer in motion, but that gap is closing with every generation. The slowness of VA panels also limits their real world refresh rate: a 144 Hz panel that only manages a 9ms response time, is actually delivering an image most equivalent to a 110 Hz panel. Whereas most 144 Hz IPS panels can transition faster than the 6.94ms refresh window, leading to a true 144 Hz experience. So that’s something to consider.

Wrap Up

As a quick summary, TN panels are the fastest and have the highest refresh rates, however they have the worst viewing angles by far, as well as weak color performance and typically the lowest contrast ratios. TNs are typically used for ultra-fast gaming displays, as well as budget class displays, for both desktop monitors and laptops.

IPS is a middle-ground technology. They typically have the best color performance and viewing angles, mid-tier response times and refresh rates, along with mid-tier black levels and contrast ratios. Due to its top-end color output, IPS panels are the go-to choice for professionals, but you’ll also find them in entry-level displays, office monitors, most laptops and a handful of gaming monitors.

VA panels are the slowest of the three, but have the best contrast ratio and black levels by far. Color performance isn’t quite at the level of IPS, but they still offer a significantly better experience than TN in this regard.

With response times for the best modern VAs approaching the level of a typical IPS, along with broad support for high refresh rates, VA monitors are commonly used for gaming monitors. Entry-level VAs also tend to be superior to entry-level TN and IPS panels, though you won’t find VA used in laptops.

There’s no right answer to which monitor technology is best, because all have their strengths and weaknesses which is why all three coexist on the market today. However if you want our recommendation, we tend to gravitate towards VA panels for most buyers, especially gamers and those after something entry-level. Creative professionals should be looking exclusively at IPS monitors, while those after something dirt cheap or ultra high refresh for competitive gaming should opt for TN, although superior latest-gen IPS and VA offerings are finally matching or even beating the best of TN in some regards.

Recommended reads:
  • The Best Monitors
  • Best PC Gaming Monitors

Display Panel Technology: TN vs. VA vs. IPS

Update: This is our original explainer about display technologies. While most of the information below remains accurate to this day, we’ve seen the introduction of much faster IPS displays as well as a revolutionary updates to VA panels, particularly from Samsung Odyssey gaming monitors. We’ve also since tested over 100 monitors, so we have a lot more insights to share about performance.

Read the updated explainer:
TN vs. VA vs. IPS, What’s the Difference in 2021?

By far the most common types of display panels used on PC monitors are TN, IPS and VA. We’re sure you’ve heard these terms before if you’ve researched monitors to purchase, and to be clear, the type of panel is a key piece of information that reveals a lot about how the monitor will behave and perform.

A brief overview is in order, before we focus on the individual characteristics of each technology and how they perform.

TN is the oldest of the LCD technologies and it stands for twisted nematic. This refers to the twisted nematic effect, which is an effect that allows liquid crystal molecules to be controlled with voltage. While the actual workings of a TN-effect LCD are a little more complicated, essentially the TN-effect is used to change the alignment of liquid crystals when a voltage is applied. When there is no voltage, so the crystal is «off,» the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 degrees and in combination with polarization layers, allow light to pass through. Then when a voltage is applied, these crystals are essentially untwisted, blocking light.

VA, stands for vertical alignment. As the name suggests, this technology uses vertically aligned liquid crystals which tilt when a voltage is applied to let light pass through. This is the key difference between IPS and VA: with VA, the crystals are perpendicular to the substrates, while with IPS they are parallel. There are several VA variants, including Samsung’s SVA and AU Optronics AMVA.

VA (Vertical Alignment) homeotropic alignment shown above

IPS stands for in-plane switching and, like all LCDs, it too uses voltage to control the alignment of liquid crystals. However unlike with TN, IPS LCDs use a different crystal orientation, one where the crystals are parallel to the glass substrates, hence the term ‘in plane’. Rather than ‘twisting’ the crystals to modify the amount of light let through, IPS crystals are essentially rotated, which has a range of benefits.

There are many IPS variants on the market, with each of the three big LCD manufacturers using a different term to describe their IPS-type technology. LG simply calls their tech «IPS» which is easy for everyone. Samsung uses the term PLS or plane-to-line switching, while AU Optronics uses the term AHVA or advanced hyper viewing angle. AHVA shouldn’t be confused with regular VA displays, it’s an annoying and confusing name in my opinion, but AHVA is an IPS-like technology. Each of LG’s IPS, Samsung’s PLS and AUO’s AHVA are slightly different but the fundamentals are rooted in IPS.

So in summary, TN panels twist, IPS panels use a parallel alignment and rotate, while VA panels use a vertical alignment and tilt. Now let’s get into some of the performance characteristics and explore how each of the technologies differ and in general, which technology is better in any given category.

Viewing Angles

By far the biggest difference between the three technologies is in viewing angles. TN panels have the weakest viewing angles, with significant shift to color and contrast in both the horizontal and especially vertical directions. Typically viewing angles are rated as 170/160 but realistically you’ll get pretty bad shifts when viewing anywhere except for dead center. Higher-end TNs tend to be somewhat better but overall this is a big weakness for TNs.

VA and IPS panels are both significantly better, with IPS being the best overall for viewing angles. 178/178 viewing angle ratings are a realistic reflection of what you can expect with an IPS, you won’t get much shift in colors or contrast from any angle. VAs are good in this regard but not as good as IPS, mostly due to contrast shifts at off-center angles. With VAs and especially TNs having some color and contrast shifts when viewing at angles, they’re not as well suited to color-critical professional work as IPS panels, which is why you see most pro-grade monitors sticking to IPS.

Brightness & Contrast

In terms of brightness there’s no inherent differences between the technologies because the backlight, which determines brightness, is separate to the liquid crystal panel. However there are significant differences to contrast ratios, and this an area most people look at when determining which panel type they want.

Both TN and IPS panels tend to have a contrast ratio around 1000:1, although in my testing I have noted some differences. TN panels tend to have the lowest contrast ratios when calibrated, with an entry-level panel sitting between 700:1 and 900:1 and good panels pushing up to that 1000:1 mark. IPS has a larger range, I’ve seen some as low as 700:1 like TNs, however the very best tend to push up higher than TN, with 1200:1 as the upper range for desktop monitors and some laptop-grade displays reaching as high as 1500:1.

Neither TN nor IPS get to the range of VA though. Entry-level VA panels start with a contrast ratio of 2000:1 from those that we’ve tested, with the best easily exceeding 4500:1, although 3000:1 is a typical figure for most monitors.

TVs make extensive use of VA panels and there contrast ratios can be even higher. It’s not unusual to see over 6000:1. So if you want deep blacks and high contrast ratios, you’ll need to go with something VA.

While IPS panels tend to be a middle ground for contrast they do suffer from a phenomenon called «IPS glow,» which is an apparent white glow when viewing dark imagery at an angle. The best panels exhibit minimal glow but it’s still an issue across all displays of this type.

Color Quality

Color quality is another difference many people cite between TN displays and other display panels in particular. And this can be split into two categories: color depth or bit depth, and color gamut.

In both of these regards, TN panels tend to fall on the weaker end of the scale. Many TN displays, in particular entry-level models, are only natively 6-bit and use frame rate control, otherwise called FRC or dithering, to achieve standard 8-bit output. 6-bit panels are prone to color banding, while native 8-bit panels have smoother color gradients and therefore better color output.

Not all TN panels are 6-bit. The top-end TNs are native 8-bit, but it’s safe to say most TNs will only be native 6-bit, even today. If you are after a native 8-bit display, you’ll need to go with either IPS or VA, where many more panels come native 8-bit.

While there are still 6-bit entry-level IPS and VA panels, pretty much all mid-range to high-end options are 8-bit.

As for native true 10-bit, typically you’ll need to look for an IPS panel, which make up the majority of native 10-bit panels. Some VA panels can do it, but they are rare. Most displays you purchase that claim to be 10-bit, are actually 8-bit+FRC, with only high-end professional-grade monitors offering a native 10-bit experience.

Color Gamut

This is another area where VA and IPS provide a superior experience. The best TN panels tend to be limited to sRGB, or in the case of the worst entry-level panels, don’t even cover the entirety of the sRGB gamut. Wide-gamut TN panels do exist, but they are rare.

VA panels typically start with full sRGB coverage as a minimum, and depending on the panel can push higher. VAs that use a quantum dot film, typically from Samsung, offer higher gamuts, around the 125% sRGB or 90% DCI-P3 mark. Most of the wide gamut VA monitors we’ve tested fall between 85 and 90% DCI-P3 coverage, which is a decent result, though the best can approach 95% or higher.

With IPS panels, there is the largest variance. Entry-level IPS displays tend to offer 95% sRGB coverage or less, while the majority stick to full sRGB coverage. Then with high-end displays, usually for professionals, it’s not unusual to see full DCI-P3 and Adobe RGB coverage. Of all the wide gamut IPS displays I’ve tested, the lowest DCI-P3 coverage I’ve seen has been 93%, with over 95% a typical figure. This makes IPS the best technology for wide gamut work.

Refresh Rates

Throughout most of this discussion we’ve been talking about TN as the worst of the three technologies. So far, it has the worst color reproduction, contrast ratios and viewing angles. But it does have one key advantage, and that comes in the form of speed. TN panels have historically been the best for both refresh rates and response times, however that trend is slowly changing for the better.

Not long ago, we argued that only with a TN panel it was possible to hit 240 Hz, doing so at 1080p and later up to 1440p. Most recently, however we’ve seen IPS monitors hit the highest mark ever for a consumer-grade gaming monitor at 360Hz, and do so very convincingly. We’re sure other monitors will follow but as of writing, the Asus ROG Swift PG259QN can deliver both the fastest response times and an accurate color experience using an IPS panel.

More mainstream monitors using IPS panels tend to range from the regular 60Hz for productivity, up to 165 Hz and 240 Hz depending on the market they’re aimed at. VA panels top out at around 240 Hz at the moment.

Most IPS displays, especially high-grade options for professionals, as well as entry-level office monitors, are either 60 or 75 Hz. Meanwhile, a significantly larger number of VA panels across a wider range of sizes and resolutions are high-refresh, while the big selling point of TN is its super high refresh capabilities.

Response Times

Another major consideration is response times, which govern the level of ghosting, smearing and overall clarity of a panel. Early IPS and VA panels were very slow, however this has improved a lot with modern panels, so the differences between the three technologies aren’t as pronounced as they once were. TN still holds an advantage here.

Most TN panels have a rated transition time of 1ms, or even lower with some recent releases. Actual grey to grey averages we’ve measured for TN panels tend to be in the 2-3 ms range when overdrive is factored in, which makes TN the fastest technology.

IPS panels are next in terms of speed, though as tends to be the case with IPS, there is a wide variance between the best and worst of this type. High-end IPS monitors, typically those with high refresh rates, can have a transition time as fast as 3ms. Compared to the best TN panels, this still makes IPS slower. However entry-level IPS panels or those without overdrive sit closer to the 10ms range, while mid-tier options tend to occupy the 5 to 7 ms bracket.

VA panels are consistently the slowest of the three types, but again, high-end gaming monitors have been pushing this further on every generation. The absolute fastest VA panel we’ve measured so far has a 4ms response time which is very impressive, though more typical numbers are between 8 and 10 ms for gaming monitors. VA panels also tend to be less consistent with their transitions; some individual transitions can be fast, while others very slow, whereas IPS panels tend to hover more around their overall grey to grey average.

While a lot of people are unlikely to spot the difference between an 8ms VA panel and a 5ms IPS, TN panels overall tend to be noticeably clearer in motion, but that gap is closing with every generation. The slowness of VA panels also limits their real world refresh rate: a 144 Hz panel that only manages a 9ms response time, is actually delivering an image most equivalent to a 110 Hz panel. Whereas most 144 Hz IPS panels can transition faster than the 6.94ms refresh window, leading to a true 144 Hz experience. So that’s something to consider.

Wrap Up

As a quick summary, TN panels are the fastest and have the highest refresh rates, however they have the worst viewing angles by far, as well as weak color performance and typically the lowest contrast ratios. TNs are typically used for ultra-fast gaming displays, as well as budget class displays, for both desktop monitors and laptops.

IPS is a middle-ground technology. They typically have the best color performance and viewing angles, mid-tier response times and refresh rates, along with mid-tier black levels and contrast ratios. Due to its top-end color output, IPS panels are the go-to choice for professionals, but you’ll also find them in entry-level displays, office monitors, most laptops and a handful of gaming monitors.

VA panels are the slowest of the three, but have the best contrast ratio and black levels by far. Color performance isn’t quite at the level of IPS, but they still offer a significantly better experience than TN in this regard.

With response times for the best modern VAs approaching the level of a typical IPS, along with broad support for high refresh rates, VA monitors are commonly used for gaming monitors. Entry-level VAs also tend to be superior to entry-level TN and IPS panels, though you won’t find VA used in laptops.

There’s no right answer to which monitor technology is best, because all have their strengths and weaknesses which is why all three coexist on the market today. However if you want our recommendation, we tend to gravitate towards VA panels for most buyers, especially gamers and those after something entry-level. Creative professionals should be looking exclusively at IPS monitors, while those after something dirt cheap or ultra high refresh for competitive gaming should opt for TN, although superior latest-gen IPS and VA offerings are finally matching or even beating the best of TN in some regards.

Recommended reads:
  • The Best Monitors
  • Best PC Gaming Monitors

Display Panel Technology: TN vs. VA vs. IPS

Update: This is our original explainer about display technologies. While most of the information below remains accurate to this day, we’ve seen the introduction of much faster IPS displays as well as a revolutionary updates to VA panels, particularly from Samsung Odyssey gaming monitors. We’ve also since tested over 100 monitors, so we have a lot more insights to share about performance.

Read the updated explainer:
TN vs. VA vs. IPS, What’s the Difference in 2021?

By far the most common types of display panels used on PC monitors are TN, IPS and VA. We’re sure you’ve heard these terms before if you’ve researched monitors to purchase, and to be clear, the type of panel is a key piece of information that reveals a lot about how the monitor will behave and perform.

A brief overview is in order, before we focus on the individual characteristics of each technology and how they perform.

TN is the oldest of the LCD technologies and it stands for twisted nematic. This refers to the twisted nematic effect, which is an effect that allows liquid crystal molecules to be controlled with voltage. While the actual workings of a TN-effect LCD are a little more complicated, essentially the TN-effect is used to change the alignment of liquid crystals when a voltage is applied. When there is no voltage, so the crystal is «off,» the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 degrees and in combination with polarization layers, allow light to pass through. Then when a voltage is applied, these crystals are essentially untwisted, blocking light.

VA, stands for vertical alignment. As the name suggests, this technology uses vertically aligned liquid crystals which tilt when a voltage is applied to let light pass through. This is the key difference between IPS and VA: with VA, the crystals are perpendicular to the substrates, while with IPS they are parallel. There are several VA variants, including Samsung’s SVA and AU Optronics AMVA.

VA (Vertical Alignment) homeotropic alignment shown above

IPS stands for in-plane switching and, like all LCDs, it too uses voltage to control the alignment of liquid crystals. However unlike with TN, IPS LCDs use a different crystal orientation, one where the crystals are parallel to the glass substrates, hence the term ‘in plane’. Rather than ‘twisting’ the crystals to modify the amount of light let through, IPS crystals are essentially rotated, which has a range of benefits.

There are many IPS variants on the market, with each of the three big LCD manufacturers using a different term to describe their IPS-type technology. LG simply calls their tech «IPS» which is easy for everyone. Samsung uses the term PLS or plane-to-line switching, while AU Optronics uses the term AHVA or advanced hyper viewing angle. AHVA shouldn’t be confused with regular VA displays, it’s an annoying and confusing name in my opinion, but AHVA is an IPS-like technology. Each of LG’s IPS, Samsung’s PLS and AUO’s AHVA are slightly different but the fundamentals are rooted in IPS.

So in summary, TN panels twist, IPS panels use a parallel alignment and rotate, while VA panels use a vertical alignment and tilt. Now let’s get into some of the performance characteristics and explore how each of the technologies differ and in general, which technology is better in any given category.

Viewing Angles

By far the biggest difference between the three technologies is in viewing angles. TN panels have the weakest viewing angles, with significant shift to color and contrast in both the horizontal and especially vertical directions. Typically viewing angles are rated as 170/160 but realistically you’ll get pretty bad shifts when viewing anywhere except for dead center. Higher-end TNs tend to be somewhat better but overall this is a big weakness for TNs.

VA and IPS panels are both significantly better, with IPS being the best overall for viewing angles. 178/178 viewing angle ratings are a realistic reflection of what you can expect with an IPS, you won’t get much shift in colors or contrast from any angle. VAs are good in this regard but not as good as IPS, mostly due to contrast shifts at off-center angles. With VAs and especially TNs having some color and contrast shifts when viewing at angles, they’re not as well suited to color-critical professional work as IPS panels, which is why you see most pro-grade monitors sticking to IPS.

Brightness & Contrast

In terms of brightness there’s no inherent differences between the technologies because the backlight, which determines brightness, is separate to the liquid crystal panel. However there are significant differences to contrast ratios, and this an area most people look at when determining which panel type they want.

Both TN and IPS panels tend to have a contrast ratio around 1000:1, although in my testing I have noted some differences. TN panels tend to have the lowest contrast ratios when calibrated, with an entry-level panel sitting between 700:1 and 900:1 and good panels pushing up to that 1000:1 mark. IPS has a larger range, I’ve seen some as low as 700:1 like TNs, however the very best tend to push up higher than TN, with 1200:1 as the upper range for desktop monitors and some laptop-grade displays reaching as high as 1500:1.

Neither TN nor IPS get to the range of VA though. Entry-level VA panels start with a contrast ratio of 2000:1 from those that we’ve tested, with the best easily exceeding 4500:1, although 3000:1 is a typical figure for most monitors.

TVs make extensive use of VA panels and there contrast ratios can be even higher. It’s not unusual to see over 6000:1. So if you want deep blacks and high contrast ratios, you’ll need to go with something VA.

While IPS panels tend to be a middle ground for contrast they do suffer from a phenomenon called «IPS glow,» which is an apparent white glow when viewing dark imagery at an angle. The best panels exhibit minimal glow but it’s still an issue across all displays of this type.

Color Quality

Color quality is another difference many people cite between TN displays and other display panels in particular. And this can be split into two categories: color depth or bit depth, and color gamut.

In both of these regards, TN panels tend to fall on the weaker end of the scale. Many TN displays, in particular entry-level models, are only natively 6-bit and use frame rate control, otherwise called FRC or dithering, to achieve standard 8-bit output. 6-bit panels are prone to color banding, while native 8-bit panels have smoother color gradients and therefore better color output.

Not all TN panels are 6-bit. The top-end TNs are native 8-bit, but it’s safe to say most TNs will only be native 6-bit, even today. If you are after a native 8-bit display, you’ll need to go with either IPS or VA, where many more panels come native 8-bit.

While there are still 6-bit entry-level IPS and VA panels, pretty much all mid-range to high-end options are 8-bit.

As for native true 10-bit, typically you’ll need to look for an IPS panel, which make up the majority of native 10-bit panels. Some VA panels can do it, but they are rare. Most displays you purchase that claim to be 10-bit, are actually 8-bit+FRC, with only high-end professional-grade monitors offering a native 10-bit experience.

Color Gamut

This is another area where VA and IPS provide a superior experience. The best TN panels tend to be limited to sRGB, or in the case of the worst entry-level panels, don’t even cover the entirety of the sRGB gamut. Wide-gamut TN panels do exist, but they are rare.

VA panels typically start with full sRGB coverage as a minimum, and depending on the panel can push higher. VAs that use a quantum dot film, typically from Samsung, offer higher gamuts, around the 125% sRGB or 90% DCI-P3 mark. Most of the wide gamut VA monitors we’ve tested fall between 85 and 90% DCI-P3 coverage, which is a decent result, though the best can approach 95% or higher.

With IPS panels, there is the largest variance. Entry-level IPS displays tend to offer 95% sRGB coverage or less, while the majority stick to full sRGB coverage. Then with high-end displays, usually for professionals, it’s not unusual to see full DCI-P3 and Adobe RGB coverage. Of all the wide gamut IPS displays I’ve tested, the lowest DCI-P3 coverage I’ve seen has been 93%, with over 95% a typical figure. This makes IPS the best technology for wide gamut work.

Refresh Rates

Throughout most of this discussion we’ve been talking about TN as the worst of the three technologies. So far, it has the worst color reproduction, contrast ratios and viewing angles. But it does have one key advantage, and that comes in the form of speed. TN panels have historically been the best for both refresh rates and response times, however that trend is slowly changing for the better.

Not long ago, we argued that only with a TN panel it was possible to hit 240 Hz, doing so at 1080p and later up to 1440p. Most recently, however we’ve seen IPS monitors hit the highest mark ever for a consumer-grade gaming monitor at 360Hz, and do so very convincingly. We’re sure other monitors will follow but as of writing, the Asus ROG Swift PG259QN can deliver both the fastest response times and an accurate color experience using an IPS panel.

More mainstream monitors using IPS panels tend to range from the regular 60Hz for productivity, up to 165 Hz and 240 Hz depending on the market they’re aimed at. VA panels top out at around 240 Hz at the moment.

Most IPS displays, especially high-grade options for professionals, as well as entry-level office monitors, are either 60 or 75 Hz. Meanwhile, a significantly larger number of VA panels across a wider range of sizes and resolutions are high-refresh, while the big selling point of TN is its super high refresh capabilities.

Response Times

Another major consideration is response times, which govern the level of ghosting, smearing and overall clarity of a panel. Early IPS and VA panels were very slow, however this has improved a lot with modern panels, so the differences between the three technologies aren’t as pronounced as they once were. TN still holds an advantage here.

Most TN panels have a rated transition time of 1ms, or even lower with some recent releases. Actual grey to grey averages we’ve measured for TN panels tend to be in the 2-3 ms range when overdrive is factored in, which makes TN the fastest technology.

IPS panels are next in terms of speed, though as tends to be the case with IPS, there is a wide variance between the best and worst of this type. High-end IPS monitors, typically those with high refresh rates, can have a transition time as fast as 3ms. Compared to the best TN panels, this still makes IPS slower. However entry-level IPS panels or those without overdrive sit closer to the 10ms range, while mid-tier options tend to occupy the 5 to 7 ms bracket.

VA panels are consistently the slowest of the three types, but again, high-end gaming monitors have been pushing this further on every generation. The absolute fastest VA panel we’ve measured so far has a 4ms response time which is very impressive, though more typical numbers are between 8 and 10 ms for gaming monitors. VA panels also tend to be less consistent with their transitions; some individual transitions can be fast, while others very slow, whereas IPS panels tend to hover more around their overall grey to grey average.

While a lot of people are unlikely to spot the difference between an 8ms VA panel and a 5ms IPS, TN panels overall tend to be noticeably clearer in motion, but that gap is closing with every generation. The slowness of VA panels also limits their real world refresh rate: a 144 Hz panel that only manages a 9ms response time, is actually delivering an image most equivalent to a 110 Hz panel. Whereas most 144 Hz IPS panels can transition faster than the 6.94ms refresh window, leading to a true 144 Hz experience. So that’s something to consider.

Wrap Up

As a quick summary, TN panels are the fastest and have the highest refresh rates, however they have the worst viewing angles by far, as well as weak color performance and typically the lowest contrast ratios. TNs are typically used for ultra-fast gaming displays, as well as budget class displays, for both desktop monitors and laptops.

IPS is a middle-ground technology. They typically have the best color performance and viewing angles, mid-tier response times and refresh rates, along with mid-tier black levels and contrast ratios. Due to its top-end color output, IPS panels are the go-to choice for professionals, but you’ll also find them in entry-level displays, office monitors, most laptops and a handful of gaming monitors.

VA panels are the slowest of the three, but have the best contrast ratio and black levels by far. Color performance isn’t quite at the level of IPS, but they still offer a significantly better experience than TN in this regard.

With response times for the best modern VAs approaching the level of a typical IPS, along with broad support for high refresh rates, VA monitors are commonly used for gaming monitors. Entry-level VAs also tend to be superior to entry-level TN and IPS panels, though you won’t find VA used in laptops.

There’s no right answer to which monitor technology is best, because all have their strengths and weaknesses which is why all three coexist on the market today. However if you want our recommendation, we tend to gravitate towards VA panels for most buyers, especially gamers and those after something entry-level. Creative professionals should be looking exclusively at IPS monitors, while those after something dirt cheap or ultra high refresh for competitive gaming should opt for TN, although superior latest-gen IPS and VA offerings are finally matching or even beating the best of TN in some regards.

Recommended reads:
  • The Best Monitors
  • Best PC Gaming Monitors

Display Panel Technology: TN vs. VA vs. IPS

Update: This is our original explainer about display technologies. While most of the information below remains accurate to this day, we’ve seen the introduction of much faster IPS displays as well as a revolutionary updates to VA panels, particularly from Samsung Odyssey gaming monitors. We’ve also since tested over 100 monitors, so we have a lot more insights to share about performance.

Read the updated explainer:
TN vs. VA vs. IPS, What’s the Difference in 2021?

By far the most common types of display panels used on PC monitors are TN, IPS and VA. We’re sure you’ve heard these terms before if you’ve researched monitors to purchase, and to be clear, the type of panel is a key piece of information that reveals a lot about how the monitor will behave and perform.

A brief overview is in order, before we focus on the individual characteristics of each technology and how they perform.

TN is the oldest of the LCD technologies and it stands for twisted nematic. This refers to the twisted nematic effect, which is an effect that allows liquid crystal molecules to be controlled with voltage. While the actual workings of a TN-effect LCD are a little more complicated, essentially the TN-effect is used to change the alignment of liquid crystals when a voltage is applied. When there is no voltage, so the crystal is «off,» the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 degrees and in combination with polarization layers, allow light to pass through. Then when a voltage is applied, these crystals are essentially untwisted, blocking light.

VA, stands for vertical alignment. As the name suggests, this technology uses vertically aligned liquid crystals which tilt when a voltage is applied to let light pass through. This is the key difference between IPS and VA: with VA, the crystals are perpendicular to the substrates, while with IPS they are parallel. There are several VA variants, including Samsung’s SVA and AU Optronics AMVA.

VA (Vertical Alignment) homeotropic alignment shown above

IPS stands for in-plane switching and, like all LCDs, it too uses voltage to control the alignment of liquid crystals. However unlike with TN, IPS LCDs use a different crystal orientation, one where the crystals are parallel to the glass substrates, hence the term ‘in plane’. Rather than ‘twisting’ the crystals to modify the amount of light let through, IPS crystals are essentially rotated, which has a range of benefits.

There are many IPS variants on the market, with each of the three big LCD manufacturers using a different term to describe their IPS-type technology. LG simply calls their tech «IPS» which is easy for everyone. Samsung uses the term PLS or plane-to-line switching, while AU Optronics uses the term AHVA or advanced hyper viewing angle. AHVA shouldn’t be confused with regular VA displays, it’s an annoying and confusing name in my opinion, but AHVA is an IPS-like technology. Each of LG’s IPS, Samsung’s PLS and AUO’s AHVA are slightly different but the fundamentals are rooted in IPS.

So in summary, TN panels twist, IPS panels use a parallel alignment and rotate, while VA panels use a vertical alignment and tilt. Now let’s get into some of the performance characteristics and explore how each of the technologies differ and in general, which technology is better in any given category.

Viewing Angles

By far the biggest difference between the three technologies is in viewing angles. TN panels have the weakest viewing angles, with significant shift to color and contrast in both the horizontal and especially vertical directions. Typically viewing angles are rated as 170/160 but realistically you’ll get pretty bad shifts when viewing anywhere except for dead center. Higher-end TNs tend to be somewhat better but overall this is a big weakness for TNs.

VA and IPS panels are both significantly better, with IPS being the best overall for viewing angles. 178/178 viewing angle ratings are a realistic reflection of what you can expect with an IPS, you won’t get much shift in colors or contrast from any angle. VAs are good in this regard but not as good as IPS, mostly due to contrast shifts at off-center angles. With VAs and especially TNs having some color and contrast shifts when viewing at angles, they’re not as well suited to color-critical professional work as IPS panels, which is why you see most pro-grade monitors sticking to IPS.

Brightness & Contrast

In terms of brightness there’s no inherent differences between the technologies because the backlight, which determines brightness, is separate to the liquid crystal panel. However there are significant differences to contrast ratios, and this an area most people look at when determining which panel type they want.

Both TN and IPS panels tend to have a contrast ratio around 1000:1, although in my testing I have noted some differences. TN panels tend to have the lowest contrast ratios when calibrated, with an entry-level panel sitting between 700:1 and 900:1 and good panels pushing up to that 1000:1 mark. IPS has a larger range, I’ve seen some as low as 700:1 like TNs, however the very best tend to push up higher than TN, with 1200:1 as the upper range for desktop monitors and some laptop-grade displays reaching as high as 1500:1.

Neither TN nor IPS get to the range of VA though. Entry-level VA panels start with a contrast ratio of 2000:1 from those that we’ve tested, with the best easily exceeding 4500:1, although 3000:1 is a typical figure for most monitors.

TVs make extensive use of VA panels and there contrast ratios can be even higher. It’s not unusual to see over 6000:1. So if you want deep blacks and high contrast ratios, you’ll need to go with something VA.

While IPS panels tend to be a middle ground for contrast they do suffer from a phenomenon called «IPS glow,» which is an apparent white glow when viewing dark imagery at an angle. The best panels exhibit minimal glow but it’s still an issue across all displays of this type.

Color Quality

Color quality is another difference many people cite between TN displays and other display panels in particular. And this can be split into two categories: color depth or bit depth, and color gamut.

In both of these regards, TN panels tend to fall on the weaker end of the scale. Many TN displays, in particular entry-level models, are only natively 6-bit and use frame rate control, otherwise called FRC or dithering, to achieve standard 8-bit output. 6-bit panels are prone to color banding, while native 8-bit panels have smoother color gradients and therefore better color output.

Not all TN panels are 6-bit. The top-end TNs are native 8-bit, but it’s safe to say most TNs will only be native 6-bit, even today. If you are after a native 8-bit display, you’ll need to go with either IPS or VA, where many more panels come native 8-bit.

While there are still 6-bit entry-level IPS and VA panels, pretty much all mid-range to high-end options are 8-bit.

As for native true 10-bit, typically you’ll need to look for an IPS panel, which make up the majority of native 10-bit panels. Some VA panels can do it, but they are rare. Most displays you purchase that claim to be 10-bit, are actually 8-bit+FRC, with only high-end professional-grade monitors offering a native 10-bit experience.

Color Gamut

This is another area where VA and IPS provide a superior experience. The best TN panels tend to be limited to sRGB, or in the case of the worst entry-level panels, don’t even cover the entirety of the sRGB gamut. Wide-gamut TN panels do exist, but they are rare.

VA panels typically start with full sRGB coverage as a minimum, and depending on the panel can push higher. VAs that use a quantum dot film, typically from Samsung, offer higher gamuts, around the 125% sRGB or 90% DCI-P3 mark. Most of the wide gamut VA monitors we’ve tested fall between 85 and 90% DCI-P3 coverage, which is a decent result, though the best can approach 95% or higher.

With IPS panels, there is the largest variance. Entry-level IPS displays tend to offer 95% sRGB coverage or less, while the majority stick to full sRGB coverage. Then with high-end displays, usually for professionals, it’s not unusual to see full DCI-P3 and Adobe RGB coverage. Of all the wide gamut IPS displays I’ve tested, the lowest DCI-P3 coverage I’ve seen has been 93%, with over 95% a typical figure. This makes IPS the best technology for wide gamut work.

Refresh Rates

Throughout most of this discussion we’ve been talking about TN as the worst of the three technologies. So far, it has the worst color reproduction, contrast ratios and viewing angles. But it does have one key advantage, and that comes in the form of speed. TN panels have historically been the best for both refresh rates and response times, however that trend is slowly changing for the better.

Not long ago, we argued that only with a TN panel it was possible to hit 240 Hz, doing so at 1080p and later up to 1440p. Most recently, however we’ve seen IPS monitors hit the highest mark ever for a consumer-grade gaming monitor at 360Hz, and do so very convincingly. We’re sure other monitors will follow but as of writing, the Asus ROG Swift PG259QN can deliver both the fastest response times and an accurate color experience using an IPS panel.

More mainstream monitors using IPS panels tend to range from the regular 60Hz for productivity, up to 165 Hz and 240 Hz depending on the market they’re aimed at. VA panels top out at around 240 Hz at the moment.

Most IPS displays, especially high-grade options for professionals, as well as entry-level office monitors, are either 60 or 75 Hz. Meanwhile, a significantly larger number of VA panels across a wider range of sizes and resolutions are high-refresh, while the big selling point of TN is its super high refresh capabilities.

Response Times

Another major consideration is response times, which govern the level of ghosting, smearing and overall clarity of a panel. Early IPS and VA panels were very slow, however this has improved a lot with modern panels, so the differences between the three technologies aren’t as pronounced as they once were. TN still holds an advantage here.

Most TN panels have a rated transition time of 1ms, or even lower with some recent releases. Actual grey to grey averages we’ve measured for TN panels tend to be in the 2-3 ms range when overdrive is factored in, which makes TN the fastest technology.

IPS panels are next in terms of speed, though as tends to be the case with IPS, there is a wide variance between the best and worst of this type. High-end IPS monitors, typically those with high refresh rates, can have a transition time as fast as 3ms. Compared to the best TN panels, this still makes IPS slower. However entry-level IPS panels or those without overdrive sit closer to the 10ms range, while mid-tier options tend to occupy the 5 to 7 ms bracket.

VA panels are consistently the slowest of the three types, but again, high-end gaming monitors have been pushing this further on every generation. The absolute fastest VA panel we’ve measured so far has a 4ms response time which is very impressive, though more typical numbers are between 8 and 10 ms for gaming monitors. VA panels also tend to be less consistent with their transitions; some individual transitions can be fast, while others very slow, whereas IPS panels tend to hover more around their overall grey to grey average.

While a lot of people are unlikely to spot the difference between an 8ms VA panel and a 5ms IPS, TN panels overall tend to be noticeably clearer in motion, but that gap is closing with every generation. The slowness of VA panels also limits their real world refresh rate: a 144 Hz panel that only manages a 9ms response time, is actually delivering an image most equivalent to a 110 Hz panel. Whereas most 144 Hz IPS panels can transition faster than the 6.94ms refresh window, leading to a true 144 Hz experience. So that’s something to consider.

Wrap Up

As a quick summary, TN panels are the fastest and have the highest refresh rates, however they have the worst viewing angles by far, as well as weak color performance and typically the lowest contrast ratios. TNs are typically used for ultra-fast gaming displays, as well as budget class displays, for both desktop monitors and laptops.

IPS is a middle-ground technology. They typically have the best color performance and viewing angles, mid-tier response times and refresh rates, along with mid-tier black levels and contrast ratios. Due to its top-end color output, IPS panels are the go-to choice for professionals, but you’ll also find them in entry-level displays, office monitors, most laptops and a handful of gaming monitors.

VA panels are the slowest of the three, but have the best contrast ratio and black levels by far. Color performance isn’t quite at the level of IPS, but they still offer a significantly better experience than TN in this regard.

With response times for the best modern VAs approaching the level of a typical IPS, along with broad support for high refresh rates, VA monitors are commonly used for gaming monitors. Entry-level VAs also tend to be superior to entry-level TN and IPS panels, though you won’t find VA used in laptops.

There’s no right answer to which monitor technology is best, because all have their strengths and weaknesses which is why all three coexist on the market today. However if you want our recommendation, we tend to gravitate towards VA panels for most buyers, especially gamers and those after something entry-level. Creative professionals should be looking exclusively at IPS monitors, while those after something dirt cheap or ultra high refresh for competitive gaming should opt for TN, although superior latest-gen IPS and VA offerings are finally matching or even beating the best of TN in some regards.

Recommended reads:
  • The Best Monitors
  • Best PC Gaming Monitors

VA or IPS panel

We recently talked about the pros, cons and differences in general between the three types of modern 4K HDR TV panels. These were OLED TVs, LCD/LED TVs and the newest addition to the TV landscape, QLED TVs. In covering these technologies, we briefly touched on the current state of IPS or VA displays in QLED and LCD 4K TVs. Now we will explain what these two terms mean and how they can affect your choice in purchasing a 4K TV. It’s also worth noting that VA and IPS display technologies have nothing to do with OLED 4K TVs, that’s a whole different matter.

IPS or VA

Which is better VA or IPS is a matter of preference for the two types of LCD TV panel technologies that completely dominate today’s 4K LED TV market. All LCD TVs sold by major domestic and foreign brands that you find at any retailer are built using IPS or VA technology.

This is also true of Samsung’s current QLED TVs, because despite the marketing slang and a few color enhancements, QLED is still a backlit LCD/LED TV (at least for now). Obviously, the VA or IPS panel types occupy a large niche in the market, and therefore knowing what is behind each of the technologies will affect which 4K TV you buy, because when comparing VA and IPS, they have their own pros and cons.

VA and IPS difference

VA literally means Vertical Alignment, i.e. vertical alignment in the display matrix, and IPS — In-Plane Switching or planar switching. Although both types of panels do the same basic job of passing LED backlighting through pixel blocks and color filters to form an image on a 4K TV. Each of them accomplishes this fundamental task in their own specific ways. This, of course, greatly affects how both technologies work.

In summary, all LCD TVs, whether 4K or not, operate on tiny liquid crystal structures within the RGB (red, green, and blue) color packets that make up each pixel to form different color images by reacting and changing the position of these crystals when electric current passes through them. Depending on how the said crystals are charged, their position changes and either blocks the light, or to a certain extent allows it to pass through them.

The ultimate goal of an IPS and VA TV is to create specific levels of brightness, black depth and color reproduction. However, as we have already said, each matrix performs the process described above in its own way and the results of the work vary greatly. In the case of IPS displays, their LCD crystals are structurally aligned horizontally.

When charged, they rotate so that they either let light in or block it out. VA displays have a vertical crystal alignment (as the name implies) and these crystals only move horizontally when charged to allow light to pass through.

However, since the VA display crystals are vertically aligned and therefore narrower when closed, they block light more effectively when needed. In contrast, IPS crystals tend to let in more backlight light due to the constant horizontal alignment.

Another effect of these different alignments is that although VA panels are much better at blocking light due to their vertical closed positioning, the same scheme results in significantly smaller viewing angles in VA TVs.

There are other differences between the two TVs, which we will show below, but in general terms. IPS TV panels provide a much wider viewing angle at the expense of black levels and contrast. 4K VA TV panels, on the other hand, provide excellent black levels and contrast, which is essential for high picture quality. But the advantage of IPS is excellent viewing angles. Let’s take a closer look at these and other details.

Black level and uniformity

Absolute black levels are undoubtedly better displayed on 4K TVs with vertically aligned IPS or VA matrix crystals. This is what we have seen in all cases where VA is used on any 4K TV from any brand versus IPS models from the same or any other brand.

A typical 2016 or 2017 VA display can deliver black levels between 0. 025 and 0.015 nits, while their IPS counterparts from even the best manufacturers such as Vizio, Sony and LG deliver levels between 0.075 and 0.090 nits That’s a big difference, especially when shooting high-contrast shots or watching TV in dimly lit rooms.

This is probably the biggest negative with IPS panels, and because contrast and deep, rich blacks are so important for high quality images, weak blacks from IPS panels can negatively affect color perception and realism. They can also affect the quality of HDR, since even in HDR mode, IPS TVs still have insufficient black levels.

Note, however, that some 4K IPS TVs come with local dimming technology. A particularly good example of this is several of the 2016 and 2017 Vizio HDR LCD 4K TVs. This fully applies to TVs with full-massive IPS 4K LED backlighting, for example, the 55-inch Vizio P-series model.

Black uniformity in IPS 4K TVs also suffers greatly due to the nature of IPS pixel arrays. Because their pixels let in more light in general, small changes in LED backlight brightness will be much more noticeable due to the appearance of cloudy effects, while the display should give out complete «darkness».

Conclusion 1 : VA technology is the clear winner in providing excellent black levels and black uniformity.

Contrast

With such a comparison, the answer to the question of which matrix is ​​better, IPS or VA, should be obvious. Given the much better black levels with vertical alignment technology, the contrast ratio of VA TVs is significantly higher than IPS models, if you don’t take into account the high quality of local (local) dimming.

The difference in contrast is huge. While a typical 4K TV with VA can at least handle a contrast ratio of 3500:1, and in many cases achieve a ratio of 6000:1 or higher, 4K IPS TVs are still characterized by contrast ratios that do not go beyond frames 1400:1.

And for most 4K IPS TVs, such as many of LG’s LCD TVs, the contrast ratio is actually even weaker — in some cases 850:1 or even lower. This, of course, can be expected from IPS, but you must admit that this is not a very good indicator of image quality.

Conclusion 2 : Contrast-wise, VA is the winner by a huge margin.

Color Efficiency

When it comes to 4K HDR TVs with a wide color gamut and 10-bit color, the difference in color tones between IPS and VA models is practically zero. In other words, for all the same HDR color performance, the two different panel types perform roughly the same, delivering high dynamic range color i.e. 10-bit color with 1.07 billion shades at full saturation.

LG Super UHD 4K HDR TVs such as the LG 65UH9500 and LG UH8500 are two particularly notable IPS TVs with excellent color reproduction despite their poor contrast performance and black levels compared to a typical mid-range VA HDR TV with the same color characteristics.

However, good black levels and contrast create a visual perception of brighter colors due to the way the human eye perceives shades. So a VA TV with deeper, richer blacks may look like it delivers crisper, richer colors in a picture, simply because the dark tones on the screen contrast much more strongly with colorful objects in the same piece of content. Therefore, viewers should be aware of this reason why black levels and high contrast are considered so important for a more realistic and higher level of picture quality.

Conclusion 3 : Based on actual comparisons of original color levels made, VA or IPS TVs are technically comparable. However, from a human visual perspective, the higher contrast and deeper black tone of a VA panel may lead the viewer to conclude that the color quality is higher.

Motion reproduction

Where do 4K IPS TVs really beat their VA counterparts? Two important factors stand out here. First of all, IPS — according to its horizontal pixel alignment — provides much better viewing angles than a VA display.

An average 4K VA TV loses significant color fidelity and contrast at angles of 20 to 25 degrees from the dead center, while an IPS TV can often show excellent picture quality even when viewed more than 50 degrees off center. This means that if you have a large living room and some of your viewing positions are located to the side of where the TV is, then VA will ruin the viewing experience while IPS will produce a great picture.

Second, IPS TVs tend to consume less power than their VA counterparts due to lower peak brightness levels (think of contrast). This, of course, means your TV doesn’t have the glare of a VA competitor, but if you’re worried about saving money on your energy bill, IPS gives you a definite edge.

It’s worth noting that motion processing in 4K TVs is not significantly affected by whether your TV is equipped with an IPS or VA matrix. In our experience, TVs with excellent motion handling can come in both versions, handling motion blur removal, judder and other things like motion interpolation equally. In general, if a TV does not reproduce the movement on the screen well, then this is not determined by the fact that it is either IPS or VA.

IPS vs. VA Comparison Summary

Of course, it can be argued that neither type of IPS or VA matrix is ​​inherently superior to the other. Although there is some validity to this statement due to the fact that both have an area in which one panel is much more perfect than the other.

It’s still clear that the VA is the best choice for most people who don’t need wide viewing angles in their living room or office. Assuming you don’t need to view your 4K TV far from the center axis of the screen, the VA display easily delivers better performance in three of its most important metrics: black level, contrast, and black uniformity. It is also possible to consider PLS and IPS differences.

https://ultrahd.su/video/va-vs-ips-chto-luchshe.htmlMatrix VA or IPS

Semen and differences in general between the three types of modern 4K HDR TV panels. These were OLED TVs, LCD/LED TVs and the newest addition to the TV landscape, QLED TVs. While covering these technologies, we briefly touched on the current state of IPS or VA displays in QLED TVs and … Semen
EditorUltraHD

Which matrix should I choose — TN, VA or IPS?

When choosing a gaming monitor, you need to pay attention to many characteristics — screen size and resolution, refresh rate, response time, and type of matrix. In this article, we talk about what matrices exist in modern monitors, and in the same place we consider their features, pros and cons.

What types of matrices are there?

Modern liquid crystal LCD monitors use three main types of matrices: twisted nematic (TN), vertical alignment (VA) and in-plane switching (IPS). Although thanks to recent technological improvements, the differences between matrices, especially VA and IPS, no longer seem so huge, the difference between them still exists. Monitors with TN are suitable for competitive gamers, while IPS and VA are for those who care about graphics.

TN Matrix

TN is the oldest type of liquid crystal matrix. The biggest advantage of this type of matrix is ​​its affordable price and the responsiveness of the monitor to user actions.

Until recently, only TN matrices provided fast response times, as low as 1ms. And so for competitive games or e-sports, it was an obvious choice. TN panels also provide a maximum screen refresh rate of 240Hz, other types only operate at a maximum frame rate of 150-200Hz.

On the negative side, TN panels have fairly limited color reproduction capabilities, as they cover only about 100% of the standard sRGB color gamut, as well as limited viewing angles. In real life, on monitors with a TN panel, viewing angles reach a value of 170/160 degrees, and therefore, when the monitor is rotated, the colors on the screen are distorted.

Who is a TN monitor suitable for?

Because of their speed, TN matrices remain the best choice for gamers who love shooters and other fast-paced games, as well as those who are interested in competitive games where every split second counts.

4K HDR gaming monitor EL2870U with TN panel

  • 4K resolution (UHD) 3840×2160
  • HDR support
  • Response time 1ms

VA panels

VA panels support a much larger color space than TN and offer the highest contrast ratio of any LCD panel. VA sensors outperform standard RGB and often cover the wider Adobe RGB color gamut as well as wide 178/178 viewing angles. Because they have an impressive contrast ratio (usually 3000:1 or more), they are great for HDR content.

Another distinct advantage is that VA monitors are often curved.

VA sensors, however, are not as fast as TNs, although they can achieve response times of 2-3ms and refresh rates of 200Hz.

Who is a VA monitor suitable for?

VA monitor for almost any game. A monitor with a VA matrix will suit fans of games of different genres. You’ll get good performance and excellent image quality no matter what game you’re playing. The exception will be those gamers who participate in competitions and those whose focus is victory.

IPS arrays

IPS arrays have been developed to overcome the shortcomings of TN arrays. IPS monitors are widely recognized for their lack of image distortion when viewing angles and for their color display abilities. This is the only sensor type that provides 95% or even 100% DCI-P3, the color space used in digital cinema. Even basic IPS panels offer 20-30% more color space than the most advanced TN panels. In addition, IPS panels offer wide 178/178 viewing angles, which means the picture will be the same from any angle. They reproduce HDR content much better than TN.

Who is an IPS monitor suitable for?

IPS monitors are best suited for gamers who enjoy games that require graphics and color reproduction, such as the popular interactive cinema genre.

BenQ EX2780Q IPS Gaming Monitor

  • 27″ IPS Panel 2K QHD
  • HDR technology and FreeSync support
  • USB-C™ connector

TN, VA, IPS 9 matrix comparison0007

Matrix type

Speed ​​

Color rendering

Contrast

Viewing angles

Suitable for…

Matrix type

TN

Speed ​​

The fastest option. Support for refresh rates up to 240Hz. Very fast response time, typically less than 1ms.

Color reproduction

Limited color space — typically standard RGB, but excellent deep blacks.

Contrast

Lowest contrast.

Viewing angles

Changes in colors and fading of the image when changing the viewing angle.

Suitable for…

Competitive gameplay. Ideal for those who focus on winning.

Matrix type

VA

Speed ​​

Response time has improved significantly to 2-3ms. Refresh rate up to 200Hz.

color rendering

Good color reproduction with a wider range than TN-often Adobe RGB and sometimes even DCI-P3

Contrast

The highest contrast among all matrix, usually 3000: 9000

215

215

Viewing angles

Viewing angles are noticeably better than TN-178/178.

Suitable for…

Ideal for multi-genre gamers, movie and TV lovers.

Sensor type

IPS

Speed ​​

The slowest option with the highest total input lag due to more complex processing for each pixel.

Color reproduction

Support for color spaces, DCI-P3 and Rec. 2020. Excellent color reproduction.

Contrast

The contrast ratio is between TN and VA. Bad blacks.

Viewing angles

Great for viewing from different angles.

Suitable for…

Gamers who want to enjoy beautiful graphics.

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HDR settings in Windows

With HDR in Windows 11, you can get the best results when using HDR mode on your TV or computer monitor. When you connect an HDR10-enabled TV or display to a Windows PC that supports HDR and WCG modes, you can enjoy a brighter, richer, and more detailed picture than a standard dynamic range (SDR) display.

More HDR apps and games are coming to the Microsoft Store. To find HDR-enabled games, visit the Microsoft Store. To watch HDR movies and videos online, you may need to change some settings. To be able to play HDR games and use HDR apps, your computer and display must meet certain hardware requirements. See Display requirements for Windows HDR mode for details.

If your computer and display support HDR, turn it on to get started.

  1. Press button Start and enter parameters . Select Options > System > Display .

  2. If you have multiple screens connected to your computer, please select an HDR capable screen at the top of the page.

  3. Enable HDR video streaming .

Power settings for HDR monitors

Playing HDR content while the notebook is running on battery power may reduce battery life. Therefore, your computer manufacturer may have disabled HDR mode by default when on battery power. You can change the default power settings if needed.

If HDR mode is enabled while the laptop is plugged in and you then unplug the laptop, HDR mode will be disabled to save battery power. If you plug your laptop back into the mains, HDR mode will turn on automatically.

Note: The screen may temporarily turn black when turning HDR on and off, or after plugging in or unplugging the laptop.

HDR content playback on battery power

  1. Select an HDR capable display at the top of the screen.

  2. Select Video streaming in HDR mode .

  3. Select Battery settings and check Allow apps, videos and games in HDR mode when the device is running on battery or Allow HDR video streaming when the device is running on battery .

    If HDR mode was already enabled when the laptop is plugged in, HDR mode will remain enabled if you unplug the computer and it runs on battery power.

Troubleshooting common problems

Many modern HDR displays are designed primarily for watching HDR movies and videos. Therefore, sometimes you need to follow some steps to get the best experience when using an HDR display in Windows. If you are considering purchasing a new HDR display, it is recommended that you select an HDR certified display. These displays are designed and tested for comprehensive HDR performance on PC, including HDR gaming and HDR applications. See Display requirements for Windows HDR mode for details.

If you’re having problems displaying HDR content on your computer, you can try to fix it by following the instructions here.

Problem

Solutions

Monitor or TV does not display HDR content

  • Go to Settings > System > Display and make sure that option HDR video streaming is enabled.

  • Make sure your Windows PC meets the hardware requirements for displaying HDR content and see if your display supports HDR10. Below is how to do this.

      Press Windows key + R , enter dxdiag and select OK .

    1. Press Yes in the query window.

    2. In the DirectX Diagnostic Tool, on the System tab, view area System Information .

    3. To save the data to a file, click Save all information , then name the text file and save it.

    4. Open the text file and find the value of the parameter Additional colors . This contains information about your screen’s HDR configuration and status. You need to find the following values.

      • AdvancedColorSupported . This means that your display and installed display driver support HDR10.

      • AdvancedColorEnabled . This means that the HDR mode for your screen is currently enabled.

    5. Check the value of parameter Monitor capabilities . It contains more detailed information about the capabilities of your screen.

      • If the value is HDR supported is , it means that your screen supports HDR10. Additional values ​​may be enclosed in parentheses.

        • BT2020RGB or BT2020YCC . One of these color spaces must be displayed for a display that is considered an HDR10 capable display.

        • Eotf2084Supported . A screen can only be considered HDR compliant if this value is present.

      • If the value is HDR is not supported , this means that the screen does not meet the requirements for HDR10.

On the HDR settings screen, under Display Options, next to HDR video streaming is Supported , but the switch HDR video streaming cannot be turned on or off.

On laptops with HDR support, the default power management settings disable HDR when on battery power. To enable HDR, do one of the following:

  • Connect your laptop to the mains (recommended).

  • Press button Start and enter «settings». Select Settings > System > Display > HDR video streaming . Select Battery Options and check Allow HDR apps, videos and games when the device is running on battery or Allow HDR video streaming when the device is running on battery .

    Please note that if you enable HDR while running on battery power, the battery will drain faster.

An HDR capable monitor is connected to a TV or laptop. However, in the Display Capabilities section of the HDR settings screen, next to Video streaming in HDR mode , it says Not supported , and the switch Video streaming in HDR mode is not displayed.

When you connect an external monitor to a laptop for the first time, Windows duplicates the desktop on both monitors by default. However, HDR mode is not supported in this configuration. To view HDR content on an external HDR-enabled monitor or TV, extend your desktop to both monitors.

  1. Press button Start and enter parameters . Select Options > System > Display .

  2. At the top of the screen, select Extend these screens .

All standard dynamic range (SDR) content and applications appear too bright or too dark on an HDR capable display.

You may need to adjust the relative brightness level of SDR and HDR content for your HDR capable display. This is because the display interprets the HDR and SDR signal differently and these results will vary depending on the manufacturer and model.

    Press button Start and enter «settings». Select Options > System > Display .

  1. If you have multiple displays connected to your computer, select an HDR-enabled display at the top of the screen and move the Settings app window to the HDR display you’re configuring.

  2. In the settings screen for Display , select Video streaming in HDR mode .

  3. When you change parameter Brightness of SDR content for an external HDR-enabled display or parameter Brightness of HDR content for an integrated HDR-enabled display, the effect it has on SDR content depends on whether the display is used external or internal HDR display.

    • On an HDR capable external display, this setting will change the brightness level of SDR content relative to HDR content.

    • On an HDR-capable built-in display, a separate brightness setting controls the brightness level of SDR content, or it can be controlled automatically. (For more information, see Changing the screen brightness in Windows 10.) Since the brightness level of SDR content is already set, option HDR Content Brightness will change the brightness of HDR content relative to the brightness of SDR content.

  4. For built-in HDR displays, such as laptops that support HDR, the appearance of HDR content is affected by both the brightness setting and HDR content brightness setting .

    • Brightness setting . When viewing HDR content in bright light, you may need to increase the brightness level to view the image on the display. However, this will reduce both the effective dynamic range for HDR content in applications and the overall contrast as dark pixels will be brighter. To improve the display of HDR content, view HDR content in low light and use fairly low brightness settings. If a very low brightness level is selected, this increases the overall contrast between bright and dark areas of the content. However, this results in less detail in the dark areas of the images. For example, if there is a scene in a movie that shows a dimly lit room at night, less detail may be visible in that scene.

    • If you have multiple displays configured to work with both SDR and HDR displays at the same time, move the application to an SDR capable display.

    • If you are using an external HDR display, move slider Brightness of SDR content down. This will make brighter SDR content appear darker so that all SDR content has the same brightness level. After that, use the OSD menu on your HDR-enabled TV or display to increase the brightness to the desired level.

      If you have adjusted the brightness setting for SDR or HDR content, but the brightness of SDR content has not changed in some applications, try restarting the application.

    • If you are using a laptop with an integrated HDR display, move the slider Brightness of HDR content to decrease. This will make applications that looked too dark appear lighter so that all SDR applications have the same brightness level.

      If you have changed parameter SDR Content Brightness or Brightness of HDR content is , but the brightness of some applications has not changed, or if the SDR content looks too bright and with minimal saturation, try restarting the application.

Color is not displayed correctly (for example, color bars around vertical strokes when black text is displayed on a white background)

  • If you are using an HDMI connection and your display supports HDR via DisplayPort, connect your computer and display via DisplayPort.

  • If your only connection option is HDMI, use it, and then do one of the following:

Reduce update rate

    1. In the Settings app, select System > Display > Secondary display .

    2. In parameters Additional display in section Select refresh rate select 30 Hz (if available).


— OR —

Reduce resolution

    1. In the Settings app, select System > Display > Secondary display and click Display adapter properties.

    2. On the tab Adapter select List all modes .

    3. Under List of all modes , select the resolution option 1920 x 1080, 60 Hz , and then press the OK button.

On a laptop with an integrated HDR display, colors do not display correctly. For example, colors may appear undersaturated or oversaturated.

On laptops with HDR support, the default power management settings disable HDR when on battery power. This may result in insufficient color saturation after restarting the computer. To avoid this, plug the laptop into the mains before rebooting, or change the power options so that HDR remains enabled when on battery power.

To leave HDR on when running on battery

  1. Select Battery settings and check Allow apps, videos and games in HDR mode when the device is running on battery .

On HDR-enabled devices, when the night light function is enabled, colors appear too saturated.

If night light is on, screen colors may appear red and content may be unreadable. It depends on the level of night light. Here is how you can work around this issue.

Possible solution:

  1. Go to section Parameters > System > Display > Night light .

  2. In parameters Night light do one of the following.

    • If night light is on, drag slider Intensity to the left to reduce red shading in the display.

    • Press the Start button and select Settings > System > Display .

    • If you have multiple displays connected to your computer, select an HDR capable display under Rearrange monitors .

    • Select Windows HD Color Settings .

    • Under Display Capabilities , check if the checkbox Yes is checked next to HDR video streaming .

    • Enable HDR video streaming .

Power settings for HDR monitors

Playing HDR content while the notebook is running on battery power may reduce battery life. Therefore, your computer manufacturer may have disabled HDR mode by default when on battery power. You can change the default power settings if needed.

If HDR mode is enabled while the laptop is plugged in and you then unplug the laptop, HDR mode will be disabled to save battery power. If you plug your laptop back into the mains, HDR mode will turn on automatically.

Note: The screen may temporarily turn black when turning HDR on and off, or after plugging in or unplugging the laptop.

HDR content playback on battery power

    Press the button Start and select Parameters > System > Display .

  1. Select an HDR capable monitor under Change display order .

  2. Select Windows HD Color Settings .

  3. Under battery settings, uncheck Do not allow HDR games and apps when running on battery .
    If HDR mode was already enabled when the laptop is plugged in, HDR mode will remain enabled if you unplug the computer and it runs on battery power.

Troubleshooting common problems

Many modern HDR displays are designed primarily for watching HDR movies and videos. Therefore, sometimes you need to follow a few steps to get the best experience when using an HDR display in Windows 10. If you are considering purchasing a new HDR display, we recommend that you select a VESA DisplayHDR certified display. These displays are designed and tested for comprehensive HDR performance on PC, including HDR gaming and HDR applications.

If you’re having problems displaying HDR content on your computer, you can try to fix it by following the instructions here.

Problem

Solutions

Monitor or TV does not display HDR content

  • Go to Settings > System > Display and enable the setting HDR Video Streaming in Windows HD Color .

  • Make sure your Windows 10 PC meets the hardware requirements for displaying HDR content and see if your display supports HDR10. Below is how to do this.

      Press Windows logo key + R , type dxdiag , and then select OK .

    1. Press Yes in the query window.

    2. In the DirectX Diagnostic Tool, on the System tab, view area System Information .

    3. To save the data to a file, click Save all information , then name the text file and save it.

    4. Open the text file and find the value of the parameter Additional colors . This contains information about your screen’s HDR configuration and status. You need to find the following values.

      • AdvancedColorSupported . This means that your display and installed display driver support HDR10.

      • AdvancedColorEnabled . This means that the HDR mode for your screen is currently enabled.

    5. Check the value of parameter Monitor capabilities . It contains more detailed information about the capabilities of your screen.

      • If the value is HDR supported is , it means that your screen supports HDR10. Additional values ​​may be enclosed in parentheses.

        • BT2020RGB or BT2020YCC . One of these color spaces must be displayed for a display that is considered an HDR10 capable display.

        • Eotf2084Supported . A screen can only be considered HDR compliant if this value is present.

      • If the value is HDR is not supported , this means that the screen does not meet the requirements for HDR10.

On the Windows HD Color settings screen, under Display Options, next to Streaming HDR is Yes , but the switch Streaming HDR cannot be turned on or off.

On laptops with HDR support, the default power management settings disable HDR when on battery power. To enable HDR, do one of the following:

  • Connect your laptop to the mains (recommended).

  • Click the Start button and select Settings > System > Display > Windows HD Color Settings . Under battery settings, uncheck Disable HDR games and apps when running on battery power .
    Please note that if you enable HDR while running on battery power, the battery level will drain faster.

An HDR capable monitor is connected to a TV or laptop. However, in the Display Features section of the Windows HD Color settings screen, next to the Streaming video in HDR mode is No and the switch Streaming video in HDR mode is not displayed.

When you connect an external monitor to a laptop for the first time, Windows duplicates the desktop on both monitors by default. However, HDR mode is not supported in this configuration. To view HDR content on an external monitor or HDR-enabled TV, extend your desktop to both monitors.

  1. Press the Start button and select Settings > System > Display .

  2. Press the Start button and select Settings > System > Display .

  3. If you have multiple displays connected to your computer, select an HDR capable display under Rearrange displays and move the Settings application window to the HDR display you are configuring.

  4. On the Display Settings screen, select Windows HD Color Settings .

  5. Under HDR/SDR brightness balance , drag the slider to achieve the correct brightness balance between HDR and SDR content.

Notes

  • On an HDR capable external display, this setting will change the brightness level of SDR content relative to HDR content.

  • On an HDR-capable built-in display, a separate brightness setting controls the brightness level of SDR content, or it can be controlled automatically. (For more information, see Changing the screen brightness in Windows 10.) Since the brightness level of SDR content is already set, option HDR/SDR brightness balance will change the brightness of HDR content relative to the brightness of SDR content.

  • For built-in HDR displays, such as laptops that support HDR, the appearance of HDR content is affected by both the brightness setting and the HDR/SDR brightness balance setting.

    • Brightness setting . When viewing HDR content in bright light, you may need to increase the brightness level to view the image on the display. However, this will reduce both the effective dynamic range for HDR content in applications and the overall contrast as dark pixels will be brighter. To improve the display of HDR content, view HDR content in low light and use fairly low brightness settings. If a very low brightness level is selected, this increases the overall contrast between bright and dark areas of the content. However, this results in less detail in the dark areas of the images. For example, if there is a scene in a movie that shows a dimly lit room at night, less detail may be visible in that scene.

    • HDR/SDR brightness balance setting . In most cases, using the default HDR/SDR brightness balance settings or settings close to them gives a good result. You can increase the HDR/SDR brightness balance to improve the overall contrast between bright and dark areas of images. However, this will reduce detail in dark areas of content, such as a scene in a dark room at night.

  • Some desktop apps look too dark on an HDR display.

    Some SDR apps appear darker on an HDR capable screen compared to other SDR apps on the same display. This can happen with apps that don’t support option HDR/SDR brightness balance . Here are some ways to solve this problem:

    • If you have multiple displays configured to work with both SDR and HDR displays at the same time, move the application to an SDR capable display.

    • If you are using an external HDR display, move slider HDR/SDR brightness balance down. This will make brighter SDR content appear darker so that all SDR content has the same brightness level. After that, use the OSD menu on your HDR-enabled TV or display to increase the brightness to the desired level.

      If you have adjusted HDR/SDR brightness balance but the brightness of SDR content has not changed in some applications, try restarting the application.

    • If you are using a laptop with an integrated HDR display, move the slider for HDR/SDR brightness balance down. This will make applications that looked too dark appear lighter so that all SDR applications have the same brightness level.

      If you have changed parameter HDR/SDR 9 brightness balance0352 , but the brightness of some applications has not changed, or if the SDR content looks too bright and with minimal saturation, try restarting the application.

    Color is not displayed correctly (for example, color bars around vertical strokes when black text is displayed on a white background)

    • If you are using an HDMI connection and your display supports HDR via DisplayPort, connect the computer and display via DisplayPort.

    • If your only connection option is HDMI, use it, and then do one of the following:

      Reduce the refresh rate

        Select Settings > System > Display > Additional display options .

      1. In the advanced display options, under Refresh rate , select 30 Hz .



      — OR —


      Reduce resolution

        Select Settings > System > Display > Advanced display settings and then Display adapter properties .

      1. On tab Adapter select List of all modes .

      2. Under List of all modes , select the resolution option 1920 x 1080, 60 Hz , and then press the OK button.

    On a laptop with an integrated HDR display, colors do not display correctly. For example, colors may appear undersaturated or oversaturated.

    On laptops with HDR support, the default power management settings disable HDR when on battery power. This may result in insufficient color saturation after restarting the computer. To avoid this, plug the laptop into the mains before rebooting, or change the power options so that HDR remains enabled when on battery power.

    To leave HDR on when running on battery

    1. Click the Start button and select Settings > System > Display > Windows HD Color Settings .

    2. Under battery settings, uncheck Do not allow HDR games and apps when running on battery .

    On HDR-enabled laptops running Windows 10 version 1809, colors on the built-in display may appear undersaturated, oversaturated, or otherwise incorrect. This can happen if your external monitor is connected to your laptop and your desktop screen is mirrored to both displays.

    This issue is fixed in an update for Windows (see Microsoft KB 44

  • for more information). To download and install the latest updates, go to Settings > Update and Security > Windows Update and click the Check for updates button.

  • On HDR-enabled devices, when the night light function is on, colors appear too saturated.

    If night light is on, screen colors may appear red and content may be unreadable. It depends on the level of night light. Here is how you can work around this issue.

    Possible solution:

    1. Go to Settings > System > Display > Night light settings .

    2. If the night light is on, drag the slider Intensity to the left to reduce the red tint on the display.

    3. Select Turn off now to turn off the night light.

    For more information about night light, see Set up night light for the display in Windows 10.

    An HDR-enabled external display does not display colors correctly.

    Many HDR capable displays support a wider color gamut than sRGB. When parameter HDR video streaming enabled, HDR display must correctly reproduce sRGB colors used in desktop applications. However, some HDR-enabled displays do this incorrectly. When purchasing an HDR-enabled display, choose a VESA DisplayHDR-certified display and read reviews on the display’s color accuracy beforehand.

    When playing HDR video in full screen mode, the brightness changes unexpectedly, or the bottom of the image appears black or otherwise incorrectly displayed.

    When playing HDR video in full screen on Windows 10 version 1809:

    • An HDR capable external display may not play HDR video correctly when the external display is connected to a computer with a discrete graphics card. For example, the bottom of the screen may be black or otherwise incorrect.

    These issues are fixed in an update for Windows (for more information, see Microsoft KB 44

  • ). To download and install the latest updates, go to Settings > Update and Security > Windows Update and click the Check for updates button.

  • Video flickers when played in full screen mode in the Movies & TV app with HDR enabled.

    If HDR support is enabled, video flickers when played in full screen mode in the Movies & TV app in Windows 10, version 2004.

    Possible solution:

    Disable HDR and play videos in full screen in the Movies & TV app.

    1. Click the Start button and select Settings > System > Display > Windows HD Color Settings .

    2. The brightness level of the built-in display may change when the computer wakes up from sleep mode while on battery power. This happens if the Automatically turn on battery saver when battery level is below check box is selected.

    3. Solutions.

      • If the built-in display becomes brighter when the battery saver is enabled, reduce the brightness manually in Settings > System > Display . After that, the correct brightness level should be restored on the screen. For more information on how to change the screen brightness, see Change the screen brightness in Windows 10.

      • If the brightness level changes unexpectedly when the computer wakes up from sleep, disable the battery saver feature to resolve this issue. To change the battery saver setting, go to Settings > System > Battery and uncheck Automatically turn on battery saver when battery level is below .

      Note:

      On laptops running Windows 10, version 1809, setting Reduce screen brightness in battery saver mode under Settings > System > Battery is not applied correctly. As a result, the display brightness changes when the battery saver function is enabled. This can happen on laptops with and without HDR support.

      To work around this issue, manually change the brightness setting under Settings > System > Display when battery saver is enabled. For more information about how to change the screen brightness, see Change the screen brightness in Windows 10.

    On a laptop with an HDR-enabled built-in display, brightness changes unexpectedly when the power setting is changed to Do nothing when closing the lid.

    On an HDR-enabled laptop running Windows 10 version 1809, brightness may change unexpectedly if Do nothing when closing lid is enabled. When you close the lid and open it again, the brightness setting will be the same, but the actual screen brightness may be lower.

    To find the «Action on lid close» power setting, follow these steps.

    1. Click the button Start , type control panel , and then select it from the list of results.

    2. From the control panel select Hardware and Sound > Power > Lid Close Action .

    Possible solution:

    After opening the cover, change the value of the brightness parameter manually in section Parameters > System > Display . After that, the correct brightness level should be restored on the screen. For more information about how to change the screen brightness, see Change the screen brightness in Windows 10.

    On a laptop with an HDR-enabled built-in display, the brightness changes unexpectedly when switching between battery and AC power modes while the laptop is plugged in, or when the battery saver feature is enabled.

    On an HDR-enabled laptop running Windows 10 version 1809, the actual brightness of the built-in display and the brightness setting may change when switching between battery and AC power modes.

    Possible solution:

    After changing the laptop’s power mode from «Battery» to «AC» and vice versa, change the brightness setting manually in section Settings > System > Display . For more information about how to change the screen brightness, see Change the screen brightness in Windows 10.

    On a laptop with an integrated HDR-enabled display, with turned off Play HDR-enabled games and applications , the display brightness is incorrect after restarting, shutting down, or waking the computer from sleep.

    On an HDR-enabled laptop running Windows 10 version 1809, the brightness is set incorrectly after rebooting it with disabled Play games and apps that support HDR .

    This issue may be resolved by updating the video driver. Check with your device manufacturer to see if an updated driver is available. For information about updating drivers, see Manually update drivers in Windows. If the issue persists or an updated driver is not available, you can try the next solution.

    Possible solution:

    After restarting the computer, manually change the brightness setting in Settings > System > Display . Even a small change can restore your display’s expected brightness level. For more information on how to change the screen brightness, see Change the screen brightness in Windows 10.

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    More air than metal.

    The grid pattern has many advantages. It more than doubles the surface area that is blown by air, facilitating its inflow and removal of heat. This provides fast and silent cooling, so Pro Display XDR can maintain its highest brightness levels indefinitely. The inlet and outlet vents that make up the grille draw in cold air and remove hot air from the system, limiting the possibility of re-sucking hot air.

    New turn. And a new level.

    Every aspect of Pro Display XDR is designed for professional use. And the Pro Stand is no exception. Height, tilt, rotation — all this can be customized. The stand is exceptionally stable and does not take up much space. And the ability to rotate the monitor horizontally or vertically makes it ideal for any work task.

    High professionalism in every movement.

    The Pro Stand allows you to move the monitor smoothly. Precise tilt selection and 120mm height adjustment help Pro Display XDR adjust to any viewing environment. The angle of the monitor does not change even when the height is adjusted. With the Pro Stand, the monitor feels weightless. You can easily change its position, and it will lock securely.

    Beautiful, whatever one may say.

    Pro Stand allows you to quickly move the monitor to a horizontal or vertical position. It is enough to unlock the slider and rotate the monitor. Developers, photographers, composers, and anyone else who is more comfortable working with a vertical screen will be able to see more without endless scrolling.

    Easy to remove. Easy to put.

    The ability to move freely between the set and the studio can play an important role in your work. The Pro Stand magnetic connector allows you to easily attach and detach the stand from the opposite polarity magnet on the back of the Pro Display XDR. Magnets guide the latches to the desired position, after which they automatically snap into place and securely fix the monitor to the stand. And to remove the monitor, just unlock the slider.

    VESA mounting adapter available.

    Many professionals have their own way of installing a monitor. For such cases, there is a VESA mounting adapter — it attaches to the display in seconds. Fast and convenient.

    Will be an excellent partner.

    Connect Pro Display XDR to your Mac Pro for a powerful workstation. Or connect it to another Mac with a Thunderbolt 3 port. 2

    Pro Display XDR in your workplace.

    Open this page on your iPhone or iPad to see the monitor in augmented reality.

    Look in augmented reality

    Look in augmented reality

    Just a monster

    Learn more about Mac Pro

    display — CSS | MDN

    The display (CSS) property defines the display type of the element_, which has two main properties that determine the generation of boxes — the outer display type defines the location of the box in the flow layout (flow layout) and the inner display type defines the location of the child elements of the box (a box is a rectangular area that is an image of an element).

    Some values ​​of the display property are fully defined in their individual specifications; See the table at the end of this document for links to all relevant specifications. The full list of values ​​is given below.

     /*  values ​​*/
    display:block;
    display: inline;
    display: run-in;
    /*  values ​​*/
    display:flow;
    display: flow-root;
    display:table;
    display:flex;
    display:grid;
    display: ruby;
    /*  plus  values ​​*/
    display:block flow;
    display: inline table;
    display: flex run-in;
    /*  values ​​*/
    display:list-item;
    display: list-item block;
    display: list-item inline;
    display: list-item flow;
    display: list-item flow-root;
    display: list-item block flow;
    display: list-item block flow-root;
    display: flow list-item block;
    /*  values ​​*/
    display: table-row-group;
    display: table-header-group;
    display:table-footer-group;
    display:table-row;
    display:table-cell;
    display: table-column-group;
    display:table-column;
    display: table-caption;
    display: ruby-base;
    display: ruby-text;
    display: ruby-base-container;
    display: ruby-text-container;
    /*  values ​​*/
    display: contents;
    display: none;
    /*  values ​​*/
    display: inline-block
    display: inline-table;
    display: inline-flex;
    display: inline-grid;
    /* global values ​​*/
    display: inherit;
    display: initial;
    display: unset;
     

    Property display is set using keywords. Keywords are grouped into six categories:

    These keywords define the element’s outer display type, which plays an essential role in the flow schema.

    (en-US)

    These keywords define an element’s inner display type, which specifies the type of formatting context in which its content resides (assuming it is a non-replaceable element).

    Creates a block box for the content and a separate inline box for the list item.

    (en-US)

    Some markup models, such as table and ruby, , have a complex internal structure with several different roles that their children and descendants can play. This section defines those «internal» display values ​​that make sense only within those particular markup methods.

    (en-US)

    These values ​​determine whether the element generates a box display at all.

    (en-US)

    CSS 2 uses a single keyword syntax for the display property , which requires separate keywords for the block and inline levels of the same layout.


    Non standard
    Obsolete

    Values ​​used only in Firefox, mainly for styling purposes. XUL documents.

    «Inherited» display values ​​

    The level 3 specification implies two values ​​for the display property — Allows you to specify an external and internal display type explicitly — but this is not yet well supported by browsers.

    The display-legacy methods allow for the same results with single keyword values ​​and should be supported by developers until two keyword values ​​are better supported. For example, using two values, you can define an inline flex container like this:

     .container {
        display: inline flex;
    }
     

    This can currently be set with a single value.

     .container {
        display: inline-flex;
    }
     

    Formal syntax

     display = 
    [ (en-US) || (en-US) ] (en-US) | (en-US)
    | (en-US)
    | (en-US)
    | (en-US)
    | (en-US)
    || (en-US) [ (en-US) | (en-US) math ] (en-US)

    "> =
    block | (en-US)
    inline | (en-US)
    run-in

    "> =
    flow | (en-US)
    flow-root | (en-US)
    table | (en-US)
    flex | (en-US)
    grid | (en-US)
    ruby ​​

    "> =
    ? (en-US) && (en-US)
    [ (en-US) flow | (en-US) flow -root ] (en-US)? (en-US) && (en-US)
    list-item

    "> =
    table-row-group | (en-US)
    table-header-group | (en-US)
    table-footer-group | (en-US)
    table-row | (en-US)
    table-cell | (en-US)
    table-column-group | (en-US)
    table-column | (en-US)
    table-caption | (en-US)
    ruby -base | (en-US)
    ruby-text | (en-US)
    ruby-base-container | (en-US)
    ruby-text-container

    ">=
    contents | (en-US)
    none

    "> =
    inline-block | (en-US)
    inline-table | (en-US)
    inline-flex | (en-US)
    inline- grid

    The Syntax section contains several examples of the different types of values ​​ display that this property can take. 0003

    • CSS Grid Layout
    • CSS Flexible box layout
    • CSS Markup (Beginner Learning Module)

    display: none;

    If the display property is set to none on an element, then the element is removed from the accessibility tree. This causes the element and all of its child elements to no longer be read by screen readers.

    If you want to visually hide an element, a more accessible alternative is to use a combination of properties to visually remove the image from the screen, but this saves it for parsing by assistive technologies such as screen readers.

    display: contents;

    Browsers remove any element with a display, value of contents from the accessibility tree. This causes the element (but not its children) to no longer be read by screen readers. The child elements become children of the next level element in the DOM.

    • Display: Contents Is Not a CSS Reset | Adrian Roselli
    • More accessible markup with display: contents — hiddedevries. nl

    Tables

    Changing the display property of an element

    (en-US) to ``block , grid , or flex changes its representation in the accessibility tree. This causes the table to not be properly declared by screen reader technology.

    • Short note on what CSS display properties do to table semantics — The Paciello Group
    • Hidden content for better a11y | Go Make Things
    • MDN Understanding WCAG, Guideline 1.3 explanations
    • Understanding Success Criterion 1.3.1 | W3C Understanding WCAG 2.0
    Specification
    CSS Display Module Level 3
    Enable JavaScript to view data.

    • Block and Inline layout normal flow (en-US)
    • Formatting contexts explained (en-US)
    • visibility , float , position
    • grid , flex

    Last modified: , by MDN contributors

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