Pi windows: Setting up a Raspberry Pi — Windows IoT

Setting up a Raspberry Pi — Windows IoT





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Overview

Note

Dashboard cannot be used used to setup the Raspberry Pi 3B+. If you have a 3B+ device, you must use the 3B+ technical preview. Please view the known limitations of the technical preview to determine if this is suitable for your development.

Important

When the «format this disk» pop up comes up, do not format the disk. We are working on a fix for this issue.

When setting up a Raspberry Pi for prototyping, we recommend using the Windows 10 IoT Core Dashboard. However, if you’re looking to manufacture with a Raspberry Pi, please refer to the IoT Core Manufacturing Guide. You cannot use maker images for manufacturing.

Using the Dashboard

To flash, or download, IoT Core onto your Raspberry Pi, you’ll need:

  • A computer running Windows 10
  • Windows 10 IoT Core Dashboard
  • A high-performance SD card, such as a SanDisk SD card
  • An external display
  • Any other peripherals (e.g. mouse, keyboard, etc.)

Instructions

  1. Run the Windows 10 IoT Core Dashboard and click on Set up a new device and insert an SD card into your computer.
  2. Hook up your Raspberry Pi to an external display.
  3. Fill out the fields. Select «Broadcomm [Raspberry Pi 2 & 3]» as the device type. Make sure to give your device a new name and password. Otherwise the default credentials will remain as:
Device: minwinpc
Password: [email protected]
  1. Accept the software license terms and click Download and Install. If all goes well, you’ll see that Windows 10 IoT Core is now flashing your SD card.

Connect to a network

Wired connection

If your device comes with an Ethernet port or USB Ethernet adapter support to enable a wired connection, attach an Ethernet cable to connect it to your network.

Wireless connection

If your device supports Wi-Fi connectivity and you’ve connected a display to it, you’ll need to:

  1. Go into your default application and click the settings button next to the clock.
  2. On the settings page, select Network and Wi-Fi.
  3. Your device will begin scanning for wireless networks.
  4. Once your network appears in this list, select it and click Connect.

If you haven’t connected a display and would like to connect via Wi-Fi, you’ll need to:

  1. Go to the IoT Dashboard and click on My Devices.
  2. Find your unconfigured board from the list. Its name will begin with «AJ_»… (e.g. AJ_58EA6C68). If you don’t see your board appear after a few minutes, try rebooting your board.
  3. Click on Configure Device and enter your network credentials. This will connect your board to the network.

Note

Wifi on your computer will need to be turned on in order to find other networks.

Connect to Windows Device Portal

Use the Windows Device Portal to connect your device through a web browser. The device portal makes valuable configuration and device management capabilities available.






How to Install Windows 11 on a Raspberry Pi 4

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

The Raspberry Pi is commonly associated with Linux operating systems such as Raspberry Pi OS. But what about running Microsoft OS on your Raspberry Pi? Officially, Microsoft’s only operating system for the Pi is Windows 10 IoT Core, but that is not a true operating system, merely a means to create an appliance with the Pi. Ambitious developers from the Raspberry Pi community are always finding a way to run a full desktop version of Windows on Raspberry Pi.

In 2020, we installed a version of Windows 10 onto a Raspberry Pi 4 and it performed admirably, if a little slowly. With the recent announcement of Windows 11 we revisited Windows on Raspberry Pi and thanks to a new ARM64 Insiders Preview image we’ll show you how to install Windows 11 on your Raspberry Pi 4. This how-to has been updated to include a new, simpler method which downloads and installs Windows 11 for Raspberry Pi using the Raspberry Pi itself no Windows PC is required. This new method is easier than installing via a Windows 10 computer, but the trade off is that it is much slower, taking well over an hour (sometimes two) versus under an hour for the manual (via a PC) method which we also show below.

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

However, before you begin, please note that this is not an official Microsoft product and the source of the images and software used is from a passionate and vibrant community working together to create this project. The Windows 11 image file is easy to source but there is a process that we have to follow in order to create a valid image which can be used with our Raspberry Pi. We can’t vouch for the safety or legitimacy of any of the custom files the community has created for this project so proceed at your own risk. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

At the time of writing, this project runs surprisingly well (see below for more details) but has a lot of caveats. The Raspberry Pi’s onboard Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPIO do not work so you’ll need to use Ethernet or a USB Wi-Fi dongle to get online (there’s no list of supported dongles so we can’t guarantee yours will work). If your Pi isn’t near an Ethernet connection,  you can always share a Windows PC’s Internet via Ethernet. Audio via HDMI is also not available but audio via the 3.5 mm headphone jack does work, with the occasional “pop”. Again, Bluetooth is not available so we can’t use a Bluetooth speaker.

What you will need to install Windows 11 on a Raspberry Pi 4

  • Raspberry Pi 4 4GB or 8GB
  • An 32GB or larger SSD via a USB 3 caddy. Best for performance or 16GB or larger microSD card, (see best microSD cards for Raspberry Pi)
  • USB boot enabled, see below.
  • A micro SD card with the latest Raspberry Pi OS
  • Windows 10 PC (if you are following the longer method).  
  • USB to Ethernet or WiFi dongle
  • Bluetooth dongle (if you want Bluetooth)
  • Keyboard, mouse, HDMI and power for your Raspberry Pi

Configuring Raspberry Pi to boot off of SSD 

For our install we chose to use an SSD via a USB3 caddy with USB boot enabled on the Pi. This did not go as expected. The images were successfully written to the drive, and they did indeed boot, but they failed at the device discovery portion of the setup. After discussing the issue with YouTuber leepspvideo, it turned out that our USB 3 caddy was to blame. So we opted to use an Argon M.2 case which has a built in USB 3 to SATA board. This worked the first time, and the added bonus is that our Pi is kept cool.

Before using Windows 11 on the Raspberry Pi 4  with an SSD, we first need to ensure that the firmware and bootloader of our Raspberry Pi 4 is set to the latest version so that we can boot from USB 3. The process to do this is detailed in our How to Boot Raspberry Pi 4 / 400 From a USB SSD or Flash Drive. Please complete those steps before moving on.

Installing Windows 11 the Simple Way Via a Raspberry Pi 4 

The Windows on Raspberry Pi community never sleeps and we’ve just seen their work on installing Windows 11 onto a SSD using nothing more than the Raspberry Pi 4. No Windows machines are required to do this! The original method was complex and convoluted, but thanks to WoR member Botspot we now have a largely automated install process that runs completely from the Raspberry Pi 4. Many thanks to leepspvideo for bringing this simpler method to our attention.

There are drawbacks, however. This method takes longer than the manual method (shown below) which involves using a PC to generate the ISO file. Depending on your Internet connection and whether anything fails (which it can, causing you to start again), this method could take an hour or two. The manual (via PC) method below should take less than an hour but has more steps and requires a PC.

1. Boot Raspberry Pi OS and open a Terminal to download the WoR-flasher tool from GitHub.

$ git clone https://github.com/Botspot/wor-flasher

2. Connect the SSD that will contain the Windows 11 installation.

3. Run the WoR-flasher GUI tool.

$ ~/wor-flasher/install-wor-gui.sh

4. In the GUI, select Windows 11 and then your model of Raspberry Pi and click Next. We chose Pi4/400. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

5. Select the correct language and click Next. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

6. Select the drive that will be used to install Windows 11 then click Next. Click Refresh if none are shown. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

7. Click Next to install Windows 11 to the drive. We do not have to make any changes to this screen.

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

The install process will take some time, possibly up to an hour. Take no action but continue to monitor the output for any errors. There is a chance that the install may fail, if so close the terminal and repeat the previous steps, 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

8. Once the installation is complete you will see the Next Steps screen. This screen tells us what to expect when we boot into Windows 11 for the first time. Click on Close. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

9. Power off your Raspberry Pi, and remove the Raspberry Pi OS boot drive / micro SD. Ensure your Windows 11 drive is connected via USB3 and then power up your Raspberry Pi

The first boot will take quite some time. Leave the installation to complete and you will soon be presented with the typical Windows 11 setup screens. Follow these screens to complete the installation.

How to Install Windows 11 on the Raspberry Pi 4 Using a PC

To install Windows 11 on a Raspberry Pi 4 we first need to create a viable installation image.

1. Search for “Windows 11 Arm” on UUDump 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

2. Select the latest build for “arm64”. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

3. Set your preferred language

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

4. Choose the edition of Windows 11 that you would like. We chose Windows Home and Pro. Click Next. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

5. Set the download method to “Download and convert to ISO” then click “Create download package”. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

6. Extract the contents of the download into a folder called “win11” and go to that folder. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

7. Double click on the uup_download_windows.cmd file. This will trigger a security warning. Click on “More info” and then “Run anyway” and finally allow the app to make changes to your device.

The command prompt will now fill with text. This is the output of a command that will download the Windows 11 for Arm image, patch it and then prepare an ISO image. This process may take some time, depending on your Internet connection and the power of your computer.  

8. Press 0 to close the prompt when the process is complete. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

We now have an ISO image that we can install to a micro SD card or SSD.

9. Insert a micro SD card / SSD via USB into your PC. The drive should appear and be ready for use. Please note that the drive will be formatted, and any existing data on the drive will be lost.

10. Download the Windows on Raspberry Imager tool and extract the ZIP to the “win11” folder.

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

11. Open WoR and allow the application to make changes to your computer. Set your preferred language and then click Next

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

12. Select the micro SD / SSD storage device that you wish to install Windows 11 to. Then set the device type, in this case a Raspberry Pi 4 / 400. Click Next to move on.  

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

13. Select the freshly-created Windows 11 ISO image and click Next. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

14. Use the latest driver packages, available from the remote server. These files are cached locally for future installs. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

15. Use the latest UEFI firmware from the server. This is also stored locally for future installs. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

16. Click on Next to accept the current configuration. Only make changes here if you understand what you are changing. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

17. Check the installation overview. Is the correct drive selected? Have you chosen the correct model of Raspberry Pi? Click Install. The installation process will take  around 10 minutes for an SSD. MicroSD installations are longer. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

18. Close WoR when finished, eject the micro SD / SSD and insert it / connect it into your Raspberry Pi 4. Connect up your Pi peripherals and power on. 

Setting Up Windows 11 on Raspberry Pi 4 

With the Windows 11 micro SD /  SSD inserted and our Raspberry Pi booting we now have to setup the Windows 11 install using the standard post installation setup sequence. Follow the process and your Windows 11 Raspberry Pi is ready for use.

There are a couple of tweaks that we can make to the install, especially if we are using a Raspberry Pi 4 with 4GB or more of RAM.

1. Reboot / power up the Raspberry Pi and press ESC when prompted.

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

2. Scroll down to Device Manager and press Enter

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

3. Select Raspberry Pi Configuration

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

4. Select Advanced Configuration.  

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

5. Set Limit RAM to 3 GB to <Disabled> and press F10 to save. Press Esc to exit.

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

6. Select Display Configuration

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

7. Set the resolution by highlighting the option and press Enter. Press F10 to save and then Esc to exit. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

8. Ensure that the CPU Clock is set to Default in the CPU configuration menu, Any overclocking at this time will prevent Windows 11 from booting. Press Esc until you reach the first menu. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

10. Select Continue to exit the BIOS and boot Windows 11 with the new settings. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

How does Windows 11 on Raspberry Pi perform? 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

In our testing, overall performance is decent, in fact it was much better than our 2020 Windows 10 install. Boot time was good, longer than Raspberry Pi OS, but nothing major. Feeling more like an Intel N4100 Celeron in general use. 

Once the desktop was loaded the overall feel of Windows 11 on Raspberry Pi was responsive. Windows 11 responded to our input with minimal lag, and moving windows around the screen held up pretty well. The Edge web browser provided a good browsing experience. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

Heavy sites such as YouTube proved troublesome due to the lack of a hardware graphics driver which meant our CPU was working harder to render an image. Videos at 480p were smooth, 720P was passable. Going fullscreen caused a large delay, and a number of dropped frames. We didn’t attempt 1080p as the odds are that it will be a slideshow.

We ran a brief test to install applications. First we installed the Arduino IDE via the Microsoft Store, and the installation was successful, but did take some time. 

(Image credit: Tom’s Hardware)

The Arduino IDE successfully loaded, and we were able to open one of the included examples to flash to our Arduino Uno board. Here is where we hit a snag, we couldn’t locate a COM port for the Arduino. Nothing was listed in the device manager, so we rebooted and tried again, nothing. Uninstalling an app is not done via the store, rather we have to go into Settings and then add / remove applications. This felt counter-intuitive. We then installed the Arduino IDE using a typical x86 .exe file and were surprised to see the app install, and open. But the COM port issue remained, and we were unable to use the Arduino IDE to control our Uno. 

Les Pounder is an associate editor at Tom’s Hardware. He is a creative technologist and for seven years has created projects to educate and inspire minds both young and old. He has worked with the Raspberry Pi Foundation to write and deliver their teacher training program «Picademy».

Topics

Windows

Raspberry Pi

How to read and decipher the formula of a double-glazed window in a plastic window

Everyone who dreams of home comfort thinks about installing PVC windows. They are gradually replacing the outdated wooden frames. When buying a plastic window, you have to choose not only the model and type of profile, but also a double-glazed window — the most important element of the system. It is he who helps protect against heat leaks, external noise, and contributes to the penetration of sunlight into the room. In order to avoid mistakes, you need to correctly choose the formula of a double-glazed window, and for this you need to be able to read its decoding. How to learn to read and understand the «encoded» information about the double-glazed window, we will describe further.

In order to have a clear understanding of the technical data of a PVC window, it is important to be able to understand the formulas of an insulating glass unit, consisting of alphanumeric characters, each of which conveys certain information. The formula displays the features, the number and type of glasses, the width of the spacers, the type of filling of the air chambers. As a result, you will receive valuable information about the operational parameters of a double-glazed window.

Thus, the formula is the structure of an insulating glass unit, expressed in signs and defining specific parameters. It does not depend in any way on the type of glazed real estate, the “reading” will always be the same, regardless of whether we are talking about a living room or a warehouse.

The insulating glass unit formula is a set of signs, a kind of abbreviation, the reading of which starts from the outside of the structure:

  1. thickness and type of glass.
  2. inner spacer width.
  3. characteristics of the second glass.
  4. parameters of the second distance frame.
  5. parameters of the third glass.

Sometimes a formula does not start with numbers, but with an abbreviation. For example, SPO stands for single-chamber double-glazed window. SPD — two-chamber. At the same time, the joint venture is an abbreviation for «double-glazed window», and O and D are an indication of one or two air chambers.

To indicate the thickness of the glasses and the distance between them, the numbers we are used to are used, while the smaller number, as a rule, is the parameter of the glasses, and the larger one is the distance between them, called the spacer or spacer.

Here is a simple example of an open source package. His formula 4-16-4 suggests that the outer and inner glass are 4 mm each, and between them there is a frame of 16 mm. The total thickness of the double-glazed window is 24 mm.

Indices with letters may occur in the marking, for example, M1 is the designation of float glass. Clarifications are sometimes added to the numbers, which we will discuss below.

When reading the formulas, pay attention to the following patterns:

  • Glass thickness of 4 mm is considered standard for windows of «regular» formats, but for large openings, glass with a thickness of 6 mm is chosen.
  • The thicker the glass, the smaller the width of the distance between them.
  • The distance between panes is always even.

Formulas are read from left to right. The first digit refers to the outer glass facing the street, the last — to the inner (indoors).

  • M — standard clear glass, without additional options.
  • F — High strength, also known as «float glass». Improves heat and sound insulation of the window.
  • PI — covered with energy-saving film.
  • K — low-emission with a hard coating, its task is to protect against mechanical influences.
  • I is a low-emissivity, soft-coated type designed to improve heat retention.
  • S — coloring in mass.
  • Oud — impact resistant.
  • B — armored.

In the manufacture of such glasses of increased strength, low carbon steel wire is included in the composition. A marking indicating that we have reinforced glass in front of us — A. An example of a formula: SPO 4A-10-4A. This is a 18 mm thick single chamber bag with two 4 mm reinforced glass panes and a 10 mm spacer. Under the influence of high temperatures, it can crack, but due to the reinforcement it will retain its integrity. It is used for facade glazing, as well as in industrial enterprises. Wire inclusion is minimal, so the light transmission is practically not affected.

It is obtained by bonding individual sheets with polymers. This guarantees an increase in strength. There are two ways to designate a triplex in the formula of a double-glazed window:

  • MS — multilayer. The MC33.2 index suggests that there are 2 glasses of 2 mm and a film of 1 mm in the design.
  • Numerals: 3-3-1 (3(1)3, 3.1.3). The marking suggests that the design includes 2 glued glasses of 3 mm each with a film thickness of 1 mm.

Please note that sometimes additional indices are indicated in the marking, their decoding is offered in the contract or its annexes.

Stratophone film can be used in triplex double-glazed windows, which is characterized by improved sound insulation. The formula looks like this: 4.4.2S-12-4. This is a SPO package with a thickness of 24mm.

They have the following designation in the formula: Ton, T, Ton, ton.mass. For example, if we are talking about a single-chamber tinted double-glazed window, we have the formula: SPO 4T-12-4T. The structure includes two 4 mm tinted glasses with a 12 mm spacer.

Often a specific color is indicated in the marking: Gray (gray), Bronze (bronze), Green (green) and others. These indices follow the thickness of the sheet. For example, SPO 4 Gray — 16 — 4 Gray. The design includes two gray tinted glasses 4 mm with a frame 16 mm.

Multifunctional glasses are marked with the index MF. As the name implies, such designs compile two properties — energy saving and UV protection. They feature multi-layer spraying, keeping the room at a comfortable temperature and reflecting solar radiation. Some manufacturers prescribe the type of coating, for example, CSG.

Formula: 4csg-10ar-4-10ar-4i. Let’s decipher it: this is a SPD package, with 3 types of glasses:

  • multifunctional CSG,
  • regular float
  • energy saving i-coated.

Argon filled, spacer width 10 mm. The total thickness of the structure is 32 mm.

Such translucent glass is used to create an unforgettable interior. They are made using chemical etching or sandblasting matting technologies.

The following designations are used for marking: Satin, Satin, Matelux. For example: SPO 4Matelux -12-4 Matelux. There are glasses with white, graphite and bronze matte finishes.

Embossed glass is called patterned, they also have their own marking, the most common designation is Krizet (corrugated). Such designs are painted in a wide palette or transparent.

Produced by two methods, the designation of which can be found on the marking:

  • Heat hardened. Strength is achieved by heating to 680 degrees and subsequent cooling. If such a sheet is accidentally broken, it will shatter into fragments that cannot be cut. Referred to as ESG. Formula: SPO 4ESG-12-4 ESG. The double-glazed window includes two tempered glass 4 mm, made by thermal hardening, the distance between them is 12 mm.
  • Heat strengthening. Cooling is longer than in the first variant. If the glass is broken, the fragments will be traumatic. Designated TVG. For example: SPO 4TVG-12-4 TVG.

There are also designations Z, Zach — tempered glass, shock and thermally resistant.

If a double-glazed window is characterized by energy-saving functions, the letter E is included in its formula. For example: SPD E4-10-4. This is a single chamber package with 2 4mm glass panes, energy saving. The marking also takes into account the manufacturing method:

  • K — tin or indium is deposited on the glass surface. Reduces heat leakage.
  • i — Silver-coated finish. It has greater transparency and retains heat better than k-glass.

Factories also use unique indexes in marking, they need to be specified in companies.

Energy-saving structures are required for residential buildings, as well as premises where maintaining temperature is important, such as heated warehouses.

Sometimes double-glazed windows are distinguished by improved sun protection parameters. Knowledge of the formula will help to determine them when buying, such designs are denoted by the letter C. Example: SPD C 4-12-4.

Sometimes manufacturers produce such bags using unique technologies, their designation in the formula must be specified at the factory.

Such frames — spacers — are used to distinguish between chambers. They are made of aluminum or plastic, standard frames do not have an alphabetic index in the marking, only graph paper is indicated — width, from 6 to 30 mm. Example: SPO 6-14-4 . This is a single-chamber double-glazed window with two panes of 4 and 6 mm and a spacer 14 mm wide.

The second variety — insulated — is marked. The designation TD (TR) is used — Warm Distance (thermal break). Let’s give an example: SPO 4-10TD-4 . Other index options: Termix, TPS, Spacer, etc. This is how manufacturers designate thermal inserts, the task of which is to increase thermal insulation.

A chamber is a cavity between panes that is filled with air or an inert gas. By looking at the package formula, we can determine how many cameras are in it. Their number coincides with the number of spacers. For example, if the designation is 6-14-4 then dist. frame one, the camera is also one. 4-10-4-10-4 is a double glazing unit with two 10 mm spacers.

The distance between the panes varies from 6-24 mm. Sound-absorbing types have different indicators, which allows you to achieve improved sound insulation parameters.

Indexes in the formula indicate which gas is used to fill the cavity. The most common options due to their efficiency and affordability are Air, Ar, Xe.

Examples of deciphering formulas: 4-ar16-4-ar16-4 – argon gas is chosen as filling the cavities of this double-glazed SPD. The design includes three glasses of 4 mm and 2 spacers of 16 mm. The second example: 4-16-4-14-4 — the absence of letter indices suggests that the filling of the chambers of this package is air, and the glasses are ordinary transparent with a thickness of 4 mm, and the spacers are different in width — 16 and 14, respectively.

Sometimes only one chamber is filled with an inert gas, the corresponding marking will help not to make a mistake: 4-16-4-14ar-4i — the first chamber is air-filled, the second is filled with argon.

Double-glazed windows are standard — not endowed with any additional properties and special (impact-resistant, noise-absorbing, tinted, multifunctional). Each option has its own formula. For single-chamber, it begins with the abbreviation SPO. Let’s give an example: SPO 4-8-4 — the marking suggests that the structure contains two glasses (4 mm thick), between them there is a 10 mm wide spacer. You can easily identify a single-chamber model. She has three numbers.

Also, the marking may contain the letter M with an index from 1 to 8, where 1 is the glass of the best quality, 8 is the worst. The absence of a letter suggests the use of M1.

Let’s give an example of the formula of a two-chamber double-glazed window. It starts with the abbreviation SPD, followed by the numbers: 4-12-4-16-4 . It is not difficult to decipher it: the design includes three glasses of the same thickness of 4 mm, with spacers of 12 mm in the first case and 16 mm in the second.

Energy-saving double-glazed windows

Often the standard package is not enough, so customers order options with improved features, such as energy saving. A metal coating is applied to their surface, reflecting heat rays. Therefore, in the room where such packages are placed, it will be cool in summer and warm in winter. The Latin letters K (hard) or u, i (soft) were chosen to designate the coatings. The formula looks like this: 4-14-4-14-4i. The double-glazed window includes three glasses of 4 mm, the last one is internal — energy-saving with i-coating. The model is two-chamber, the width of the spacers is 14 mm. The total thickness is 32 mm.

Noise-insulating double-glazed windows

Noise-insulating double-glazed windows are marked with the letter Sh. Formula example: SPD Sh 6-16-4. This package allows you to get a noise reduction level of up to 32 dB. Often in such cases, glasses of various thicknesses are mounted, as well as a significant width of the spacer, due to which unwanted sounds are “quenched”.

Let’s give examples of reading the formula of a double-glazed window. Entry SPD UdE6ESG–16–4M1–12Ar–4i designates:

  • This is a SPD double-glazed window with improved characteristics: impact-resistant and energy-efficient.
  • The thickness of three translucent fillings is 4 mm each.
  • In the manufacture of the first, thermal hardening was used, the second — the usual one. The third has a soft silver coating.
  • The design has two chambers, the first is filled with air (no designation), the second is filled with argon.

Another example: SPD 4M1-10TR-4M1-10Ar-4K . Let’s read the manufacturer’s information:

  • This is a double-glazed window with a thickness of 32 mm (we find out the parameter by adding up all the digital indices) with 3 glasses of the M1 brand, 4 mm each, one of which has an energy-saving coating.
  • First spacer 10 mm wide, aluminium, with thermal break.
  • The second frame has the same width and forms a chamber, filled with argon.

Let’s read the formula for the SPO of an insulating glass unit: 4-16-4 . This is a design with two glasses 4 mm thick and a spacer 16 mm. Since there are no letter indices, we conclude that there is also no energy-saving coating. The total thickness is 24 mm, the air chamber is one, filled with air. These parameters make it possible to achieve thermal insulation of 0. 36 m 2 K/W. The indicator is insignificant, such a package is allowed to be mounted only in unheated rooms.

Double glazing example: 4-10-4-10-4 . We start reading from left to right. This is a two-chamber design with three glasses of 4 mm each. The total thickness of the package is 32 mm. Between the glasses there are two spacers of 10 mm each, the chambers are filled with air. There is no energy-saving coating — this is evidenced by the absence of letter indices. Heat loss resistance coefficient 0.86 m 2 K/W. The design itself is suitable for installation in rooms in which heat preservation is not a priority, for example, for country houses.

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Showing and hiding slide thumbnails

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In normal mode (editing), the slide thumbnail area is in the left margin of the PowerPoint window. This makes it easy to move from one slide to another or rearrange (drag and drop) the slide order.

On desktop and macOS, the panel can be resized to expand or shrink, or hide completely in view. Just hover over the right edge of the area and then click and drag to change the width. Dragging to the left will collapse the area completely.

In PowerPoint for the web, the thumbnail area is fixed in width and is always visible.

Display or enlarge the slide thumbnail area

If the slide thumbnails on the left side of the screen are hidden or collapsed, they can be displayed or expanded as follows:

  1. On tab View in group Presentation views press button Normal .

  2. Move the mouse pointer over the right edge of the vertical scroll bar in the thumbnail area. Mouse pointer becomes double arrow:

  3. Click and drag the mouse to the right to expand the area.

  4. If the thumbnails are hidden, you will see a collapsed thumbnail panel . Click it to display slide thumbnails again:

Hide or reduce the size of the slide thumbnail area

To make more space available in the editing area, you can hide or collapse the thumbnails on the left side of the screen.

  1. On the View tab , in the Presentation group, click the Normal button.

  2. Move the mouse pointer over the right edge of the vertical scroll bar in the thumbnail area. Mouse pointer becomes a double-headed arrow:

  3. Click and drag left to narrow the area. When dragging to the left margin of the window, the area will be completely collapsed from the view.

Display and expand the Outline and Slides tabs

When the area containing the Outline and Slides tabs is hidden or collapsed, use the following steps to show or increase the width of the area:

    On the View tab , in the Presentation group, click the Normal button.

  1. In Normal View, hover over the vertical divider between the slide area and the area containing the Outline and Slides tabs, and then drag it to the right.

    Note: When the area containing the Outline and Slides tabs is hidden, the edge of the vertical separator line is displayed on the left side of the application window. Drag it as described in step 2.

Hiding and collapsing the Outline and Slides tabs

To make more space available in the editing area, you can hide or reduce the area containing the Outline and Slides tabs.

If the area containing the Outline and Slides tabs is taking up too much screen space, follow these steps to hide it or reduce its width:

  1. On tab View in group Presentation views press button Normal .

  2. In Normal View, click the x icon in the upper right corner of the pane to hide it, or hover over the vertical divider between the slide pane and the pane containing the Outline and Slides tabs, and then drag it to the left.

Display or enlarge the thumbnail area

If the slide thumbnails on the left side of the screen are hidden or collapsed, they can be displayed or expanded as follows:

    In menu «View » select «Normal » (⌘+1)

  1. Move the mouse pointer over the right edge of the thumbnail area. Mouse pointer becomes double delimiter arrow:

  2. Click and drag the mouse to the right to expand the area.

  3. Or, if the thumbnail area is completely hidden from view, hover over the left edge of the application window. Mouse pointer becomes unidirectional separator arrow:

  4. Click and drag the mouse pointer to the right to open and expand the area.

Hide or reduce the size of the thumbnail area

To make more space available in the editing area, you can hide or collapse the thumbnails on the left side of the screen.

  1. In menu «View » select «Normal » (⌘+1)