Air Flow, Static Pressure, and Impedance
Do you know how to use this graph?
Similar to a motor’s speed-torque curve, this graph is how manufacturers show the performance of their fans, and where the air flow and static pressure specifications come from.
For some customers, this may look completely foreign. Many customers I’ve dealt with in my past life as a technical support engineer selected fans based on dimensions and air flow. However, a deeper understanding is necessary to determine how the fan will actually perform in a real life scenario.
In this post, I will be discussing the definitions of air flow vs static pressure, the relationship between them, and the importance of impedance.
Airflow vs Static Pressure
In the above fan specifications table, «Max. Air Flow» and «Max. Static Pressure» are listed as specifications.
Air flow is the volume of air that is produced by the fan measured by time. In this case, the air flow of a fan is measured in cubic meters per minute (m³/min) in metric units, or cubic feet per minute (CFM) in imperial units. In simplest terms, if you have a 5 ft x 5 ft x 5 ft enclosure, and a fan that produces 5 CFM, it will likely take 25 minutes for the fan to ventilate the hot air in the enclosure. (In actuality, it’s not that easy.)
Static pressure is the amount of air pressure that can be produced by the fan in an enclosure. In this case, the static pressure is measured in Pascals (Pa), or inches of water (inH2O). The pascal (Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress…etc. The unit is named after Blaise Pascal and is defined as one newton per square meter. Inches of water (inH2O) is defined as the pressure exerted by a column of water of 1 inch in height at defined conditions. At a temperature of 4 °C (39.2 °F) pure water has its highest density (1000 kg/m³). At that temperature and the standard acceleration of gravity, 1 inH2O is approximately 249. 082 pascals.
It’s important to know that even though maximum values for air flow and static pressure are specified, the fan will not output both maximum values at the same time.
The relationship between air flow and static pressure of a fan is shown in the graph above. As you can see, air flow and static pressure have a negative correlation. When air flow increases, static pressure decreases; and when static pressure increases, air flow decreases. The 3 points depict possible scenarios where the fan will perform.
To visualize the 3 scenarios, you may have to imagine an electronics enclosure being ventilated by the fan. Refer to the graph above with the 3 designated points 1), 2), and 3).
In example 1), we have an enclosure that is completely open on one end. There is nothing that obstructs the air flow from the fan, and all air flow is expelled out the other end. This example creates a scenario where maximum air flow would occur, and we have zero static pressure.
In example 2), we have an enclosure that is enclosed except with a small exhaust hole, or air outlet, on the other end. The size of the exhaust hole is smaller than the air intake hole, which hinders air flow. The constant build-up of air inside the enclosure not being able to escape increases the static pressure inside. This creates a scenario where air flow is limited by the increased static pressure. The air flow will be less than its maximum value.
In example 3), the enclosure is completely closed. In this scenario, the airflow flowing into the enclosure causes the static pressure to rise since there’s no place for the air to escape. Once the static pressure specification has been exceeded, even if the fan continues to operate, the high static pressure will not let any more air in. In other words, the maximum static pressure has been reached, and air flow volume drops to zero.
In real life, examples 1) and 3) are not realistic. In a practical example of ventilating an electronics enclosure, most fans would perform close to example 2). However, in order to produce the graph, a similar method is used (also known as the double chamber method).
OK now that we understand air flow and static pressure by using an electronics enclosure as an example, let’s make it more realistic. An electronics enclosure houses critical electrical devices, such as PLCs, power supplies, and drivers for motion control within automated machines. Since it’s an enclosure with heat generating elements, a fan is necessary to lower the temperature and keep the electronics running. The number of components inside an enclosure determines the «installation density».
With fewer components (low installation density), there is more room for the air to pass through. This scenario would be somewhat close to example 1) above where the fan would produce high air flow.
With more components (high installation density), there are more obstructions in the path of the air flow. This scenario would be similar to example 2) above, which is the most common. In this case, the high static pressure could decrease the air flow to below its maximum value.
The Importance of Impedance
How are the actual air flow and static pressure requirements determined? The answer is impedance. Impedance is defined as resistance to air flow, and it could be in the form of electronic components, walls, or anything that impedes the path of the air flow. The actual air flow and static pressure is determined by impedance.
Let’s see how this is done. For most forced air cooling application, impedance is calculated by the «square law,» which means that static pressure changes as a square function of changes in the CFM.
P = KrQn
P = static pressure
K = load factor (here’s some reference information)
r = Fluid Density
Q = Flow
n = constant; Let n=2; approximating a turbulent system.
In the graph below, we show 3 yellow lines to depict 3 different levels of impedance (A, B, and C).
The green line depicts both air flow and static pressure. Point A depicts high impedance while point C depicts low impedance. The actual impeded air flow and static pressure are determined where the impedance curve (yellow) intersects the performance curve (green).
Sometimes, it can be difficult to determine system impedance. In this case, it can be safe to assume that the actual air flow will be about half of the fan’s maximum air flow, so select a fan that can produce double the required air flow.
For a successful enclosure ventilation design, in addition to fan selection, other factors such as intake/exhaust hole size, location of holes, and placement of components, should be considered. In the following video, we use smoke to demonstrate how air flow can be affected by different enclosure designs, such as different intake hole diameters and the use of dividers.
Using accessories such as filters, screens, or finger guards can increase the reliability and life of fans in dusty or wet environments, but they will also affect the air flow and static pressure characteristics.
|The above graph shows data regarding pressure loss caused by fan accessories for a frame size 119 mm (4.69″) fan. The filter causes the most significant pressure loss, while the finger guard causes little loss.||The above graph shows how characteristics may change with installation of accessories while using the MU1225S-21 fan as an example. Greater pressure loss causes greater reduction of air flow and static pressure characteristics.|
To learn more about fans, please refer to our .
How to Select a Fan or Blower: Cincinnati Fan
To select a fan, the required data includes the flow rate (CFM), static pressure (SP), and air/gas density.
You have 3 options to select the right fan or blower for your application:
Use our Quick Selector to narrow your choices and sort by Price or Efficiency.
Follow the steps below to select a fan using catalog data.
Flow Rate (CFM)
SCFM stands for Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. It is the CFM at standard density, defined as .075 lb/cubic foot.
ACFM stands for Actual Cubic Feet per Minute. It is the CFM at an identified density other than .075 lb/ft3. It is also the required mass flow rate divided by the density of the gas being handled. Since fans and blowers handle the same volume of air regardless of density, the ACFM value (and corresponding density) is the preferred value to use when selecting a fan or blower. Note that ACFM and SCFM are not interchangeable except at .075 lb/ft3 density.
Airflow is rated in cubic feet per minute (CFM) or the metric equivalent, cubic meters per hour (M3/Hr).
1 CFM = 1.6990 x M3/Hr.
If you will be conveying material, make sure you have enough CFM for the duct, pipe or hose size so the material will maintain the required velocity to carry it completely through the system and not settle in the duct, pipe or hose. See Engineering Data catalog for material conveying velocities.
Static Pressure (SP)
Static Pressure is the resistance to airflow (friction) caused by the air moving through a pipe, duct, hose, filter, hood slots, air control dampers or louvers. Static Pressure is rated in inches water gauge (inWG) or the metric equivalent, millimeters water gauge (mmWG). 1 inWG = 25.4 x mmWG.
Standard air has a density of .075 lb/ft3 and is based on a temperature of 70°F and 29.92″ Hg barometric pressure (sea level). Fan performance tables are based on using standard air. Corrections for density changes resulting from temperature and/or barometric pressure variations, such as higher altitudes, must be made to the static pressure before selecting a fan or blower based on standard performance data. The metric equivalent is in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). lb/ft3 = 16.018 x kg/m3.
The temperature of the air going through the fan or blower will affect the density and performance of the fan or blower. Temperature should be shown in degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The metric equivalent is degrees Centigrade (°C).
°F = 1.8 x °C + 32
If the air temperature will vary, what are the minimum and maximum temperatures?
The altitude the fan or blower will be operating at will also affect the density and performance of the fan or blower. The altitude should be given in feet above sea level. The metric equivalent is meters (m). 1 ft = .30480 x m
Air Temperature Altitude Correction
Chart found on Page 5 of Instructions For How to Properly Select a Fan or Blower
Select a blower for 1500 CFM at 7″ WG at 250°F. and at 6500 feet elevation.
- STEP 1. From the table above, the conversion factor for 250° and 6500 ft. altitude is 1.71.
- STEP 2. The corrected static pressure is: 7″ WG x 1.71 = 11.97″ inWG at standard conditions. Round off to 12″ WG.
- STEP 3. Select fan, using fan performance tables, for 1500 CFM at 12″ WG.
NOTE: If the suction pressure on the inlet side of a blower will exceed 15″ inWG, a correction for suction pressure (called rarefication) should be made. See chart below.
Chart found on Page 4 of Instructions For How to Properly Select a Fan or Blower
- With 45″ of suction pressure on the blower inlet and no discharge pressure on the blower discharge, the total static pressure = 50.3″ inWG.
- With 45″ of suction pressure on the inlet and 12″ of discharge pressure on the discharge, the total static pressure = 50.3″+12″ = 62.3″ inWG.
- With 0″ of suction pressure on the inlet and 12″ of discharge pressure, the total static pressure = 12″ inWG. There is no correction required for discharge pressure.
Centrifugal fans or blowers use one of seven types of wheels that are enclosed in a scroll shaped housing. The air enters the fan wheel through the housing inlet, turns 90 degrees and is accelerated radially and exits the fan housing. Centrifugal fans are typically used for lower flows and higher pressures.
Axial fans use a propeller, having two or more blades, to move air in an axial direction through a cylindrical housing or formed orifice panel. Axial fans are typically used for higher flows and lower pressures. Do not use an axial fan to convey material.
Michigan Air Products — Online StoreBathroom Exhaust Fan, Model SP-A200, 115V, 1Ph, 68-267 CFM
Model SP Ceiling Exhaust fans are designed for clean air applications where low sound levels are desired. Low sound levels are achieved through quiet running forward curved wheels. Lower CFM levels are attainable with the use of an optional solid state speed controller (Model SSC). Fans are also available with an optional ceiling radiation damper (Model CRD).
Key features: ENERGY STAR rated, Acoustic insulation absorbs sound ensuring quiet operation, Spring loaded aluminum backdraft damper eliminates rattling, External electrical access reduces installation time, Speed controllable, Designer grille included
Certifications: AMCA Air & Sound, UL/cUL 507
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Greenheck Fan Corporation
4 in Troy
The SP-A200 is an ENERGY STAR® certified bathroom exhaust fan designed to provide the lowest sound levels for bathroom exhaust. Featuring an insulated housing, this bathroom fan quietly ventilates your space using 70% less energy than a standard fan, saving on energy costs. The SP-A200 includes a spring loaded aluminum backdraft damper eliminating rattling along with external electrical access reducing installation time.
About ENERGY STAR®
ENERGY STAR® is a market-based partnership formed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency and make it easier for consumers to identify energy-efficient products that offer savings, performance, features, and comfort.
To earn the ENERGY STAR label, products must meet strict energyefficient standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for energy consumption, air and sound performance.
Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
|Attribute name||Attribute value|
Grille Length x Width
14 7/8 x 13 1/4 in
Outlet Width x Height
8 x 8 in
11 1/4 in
Max. Operating Amps
Sones (at 0. 0″ wg)
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19 in Troy
Model SP Ceiling Exhaust fans are designed for clean air applications where low sound levels are desired. Low sound levels are achieved through quiet running forward curved wheels. Lower CFM levels are attainable with the use of an optional solid state speed controller (Model SSC). Fans are also available with an optional ceiling radiation damper (Model CRD).
Key features: ENERGY STAR rated, Compact size for height restricted areas, Round standard outlet for quick, easy connections, Integral damper prevents unwanted backdrafts, Speed controllable, Designer grille included
Certifications: AMCA Air & Sound, UL/cUL 507
ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans
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Bathroom and Utility Room Airflow at 0. 25 in.
0.3 — 0.5
Bathroom and Utility Room Sound Level (sones) at 0. 25 in.
6 inch diameter
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Static Pressure Vs Airflow Fans
Choosing the right fan for your PC will make a huge difference in how you maintain, and cool your PC overall. There are many different ways to cool your PC, it could fans or a liquid cooling system. For the most part, fans are the cheaper and most popular option. Liquid cooling systems are much more expensive. Now with fans, there are a variety of different fans you could utilize as they can serve different purposes on your PC.
Fans typically come in two different types of fans — static pressure fans or air flow fans. Choosing between static pressure fans and air flow fans can be hard, especially if you don’t understand their differences or where to use them. However, this choice doesn’t need to be complicated. So I’m going to help you on how you can affectively choose which fan is better for your needs!
What is an Airflow fan?
High airflow fans are exactly what they sound like — they push as much air as they can as quickly as possible through your build using a fan. These are the more traditional fans. These airflow fans usually have bigger, curved blades and have a gap to keep the fan together. These fans move at a maximum RPM (Revolutions Per Minute), and the only factor that can change is the atmospheric pressure.
Airflow fans are very useful where there is no resistance, however if there is anything impeding your build, such as a tighter fit on a case, you may come into contact with some issues. Even more importantly, if your case has mesh inside of it or it comes into contact with dust, your airflow fan may create some future problems for you.
What is a Static Pressure fan?
Static pressure is the resistance pressure that fans have to blow against to maintain the direction of air in a specific direction. So with static pressure fans, these types of fans are made to prioritize the resistance of whatever is pushing against the fans.
Static pressure fans are great for radiators and case meshes, and use resistance to push heat through your PC build. If there is anything impeding your airflow, such as blocking the air from going through the vent from behind, a static pressure fan will be far more efficient.
Static pressure fans are very good at creating negative or positive pressure, which pulls the air through the fan and forces it to move, even if there is something impeding it’s way. It creates a vortex of air in an inverse or converse fashion, and moves the air through this pressure.
Differences of a Static Pressure Fan vs. Airflow Fan
Static Pressure Fans
Air Flow Direction
Space of gaps between blades
Style of Blade (in Surface Area)
Placement in PC Case
Not obstructed in PC
Better for radiators, CPU heat sinks, hard drive cage
Fan Blade Structure
There many different fan blade designs on the market, and picking the most efficient one may seem complicated. However, it doesn’t need to be. Fans should push the air past themselves, using the right angle in how it attaches to its bearing to really make that air flow. With static pressure fans vs airflow fans, the fan blade structure is the main difference between these types of fans. Static pressure fans come with wider blades, but the gaps between The main difference has a direct connection with how the fans are optimized, because the cooling system works differently.
Air flow fans tend to have a smaller surface area blade, and therefore a wider gap between each blade. This is due to the fact that are more blades on an air flow fan. Remember, the whole point of these fans are to get as much air flow through the fans as it optimizes in RPM (Revolutions Per Minute). An incredibly efficient fan should sit at about a fifteen-degree angle on its bearing. This creates broad blades that simultaneously push forward while allowing the air behind it to be pulled into the fan.
Static pressure fans are designed with a blade that has a larger surface area and therefore smaller gap between the blades. This helps push air through radiators, case meshes, and dust filters. These high static pressure fans are built to tackle resistances with ease. More pressure is applied on the outer parts of the fan and not the center like air flow fans. This lets air flow freely in the PC case.
Fan Placement in Your PC
You can integrate both fans into the PC with ease, it’s all about where you place them. Remember, with air flow fans, make sure you have fans placed in open areas, and static pressure fans are placed next to areas that may have some restriction. Each fan is recommended in the following areas of your PC case:
STATIC PRESSURE FANS PLACEMENT
- CPU Heat Sinks
- Front Case Intake & Top Case Intake (with hard drive cage)
AIR FLOW FANS PLACEMENT
- Back Case Outtake
- Top Case Intake
- Front Case Intake
By focusing your attention to the RPMs, or revolutions per minute, the CFM, or the cubic feet for minute, and the quality of the bearings and blades as well as the airflow, you can make a more educated determination of where your fans should be placed. Fan case placements can vary between PC’s, it just depends on the kind of parts you have inside your case. You want to optimize how well fans can cool certain parts. Just remember the types of fans you’re using when placing it next to your components.
At the end of the day, you want to make sure that your PC case and components are properly cooled. Remember, static pressure fans are meant to be placed near obstructed areas, and air flow fans should be placed in more open areas. Both types of fans will determine the proper air flow of your PC. It’s important to keep your air flow optimized because depending on the type of work you do, whether it be heavy gaming or editing, performance can be affected by how much air is able to be cycled through.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is a high static pressure case fan?
A high-pressure static fan is used to cool components that require heavy usage. PC components like radiators, CPU, GPU, front of hard drives, and other places that have poor airflow need high-pressure static fans to maintain a cool system. With high-pressure static fans, it has the capability to combat the resistance caused by placement blockage in a PC case.
What is a pressure optimized fan?
A pressure optimized fan is a fan that optimizes for a greater amount of air that is optimized pushed in a case. These high-pressure static fans have a larger blade design, fewer blades involved, and a smaller gap between the body and the fan of the blade.
Does stacking fans increase airflow?
Stacking fans does not increase airflow in a PC case. Stacking fans can decrease airflow overall due to air flowing in multiple directions.
Is a higher CFM better?
A fan’s airflow is measured by CFM or cubic feet per minute. CFM determines the amount of air that a fan can cycle through in one minute time limit. Generally speaking, the higher CFM the better. But there are issues that can happen if there are hardware obstructions.
Do case fans matter?
PC case fans matter as it keeps air flow properly cooling your PC. Having a cooling fan system allows your PC components to stay at safe temperatures and therefore prevents your PC from malfunctioning caused by overheating.
Which way does airflow go?
The general airflow direction is from front-to-back, and bottom-to-top in a PC.
Red Sea Fan (7-10″) — Echinogorgia SP
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«Rubin» failed the key match, the fans demand the coach’s blood
October 2, 2022 08:00
The central match of the 12th round of the First League «Rubin» — «Arsenal» was supposed to be a saving pill for Leonid Slutsky. The victory in the game with the main competitor could once and for all discard all questions and doubts regarding the expediency of his being in the club. However, everything happened exactly the opposite. Read more in the material «TI-Sport».
Rubin’s fans expressed their collective opinion in a chant: «Fire Lenya from the club!»
«Fan calls? They have the right to such a reaction”
“Fire Lenya from the club!” Rubin fans at the very end of the lost match against Arsenal (1:2), it seems, for the first time expressed a collective opinion on what is happening inside the team. In the chant, which the fans continued to chant almost until the very final whistle, it was, of course, about a call to dismiss the head coach Leonid Slutsky .
Journalists wrote about the possible resignation of the mentor at different periods of time, fans spoke, experts told, but someone, and the fans, were in no hurry to voice their official position on this matter. It is noteworthy that up to this point, the coach and the southern sector were in mutually neutral relations, and even following the unsuccessful last season, Slutsky received words of support from the fans when, before the decisive relegation match with Ufa, they arrived to talk with the team at the club’s base. But now their nerves could not stand it either.
“Fan calls? They are right and have the right to such a reaction. There’s not even anything to say here,” Slutsky said at the post-match press conference.
Even after the unsuccessful last season, Slutsky received words of support from his fans. But now the nerves could not stand it and they have
Photo: © Vladimir Vasiliev / Tatar-inform
The mentor himself, it seems, was not particularly surprised by this alignment. It is understandable, because for Slutsky such an attitude on the part of active fans is not new. Many probably remember how Leonid Viktorovich was “seen off” by CSKA fans in 2016, but not everyone knows that with a certain fly in the ointment, the coach also left Hull with Vitesse. In addition to shouting from the stands, the specialist also got on the Internet, where European fans massively launched the #SlutskyOut hashtag demanding the appointment of a new head coach.
Such a sharp attitude towards the mentor on the part of fans of different clubs does not mean that he is any negative character. Sometimes you just have to know how to leave. Apparently, Slutsky does not have such a skill. This is the root of all Rubin’s problems at the start of the season.
“I don’t want to communicate with such people”
But if the head coach himself reacted to this situation with restraint after the game, then the ex-captain of the team behaved not very correctly and rather strangely Ilya Samoshnikov .
“Fans are the people who should support the team and help it even in a difficult situation. And when such a situation occurs and there are such inappropriate cries in the direction of us and the head coach … I have a negative attitude towards this and do not want to communicate with such people, ”said Samoshnikov.
And not only did the defender say that after shouting from the stands he no longer wanted to communicate with the fans, he also delivered an absolutely illogical speech a la Andrey Arshavin after Euro 2012.
Ilya Samoshnikov: “Fans are the people who should support the team and help it even in a difficult situation”
Photo: rubin-kazan. ru
“Expectations from Rubin? This question about expectations has already been answered by one person. I will not repeat it. Why should there be any expectations, why should anyone expect anything. We live for today, not for the fact that in two years I will receive the Golden Ball. Therefore, I will not talk about expectations, no one expected anything. Everyone always tunes in to the next game, it’s impossible to say that we are not tuned in to Ulyanovsk, but we are tuned in further, ”said the defender.
What Samoshnikov really wanted to say by this, one can only guess. But, based on the last phrase, in his opinion, Rubin fans, apparently, have no right to expect a return to the Premier League from a club with a billion-dollar budget. And, by the way, didn’t the club itself launch the slogan “Let’s get back together” before the start of the season, creating these very expectations?
“There is nothing even to say about the first half”
But if everything continues like this, the slogan will have to be renamed to a more restrained one. For example, «Let’s stay together» or «We won’t fly out together.» With the game that «Rubin» showed in the match with «Arsenal» is closer, of course, to the first, but the second cannot be ruled out.
Zero shots on target and not a single even close dangerous attack for the entire first half with over 50% possession. , no matter how harsh it may sound, declassed Leonid Slutsky. Even the coach of Kazan could not explain what happened in the first half of the game. “There is nothing to even talk about the first half,” Slutsky said.
Even the Kazan coach himself could not explain what happened in the first half of the game
In the second half, Rubin, of course, thanks to a flurry of crosses, scored one goal, created chances for two goals and, if a little more lucky, could even catch a lucky draw. But all this, frankly, is the result of Arsenal’s retreat, and not Rubin’s overpressure.
“Why are there so many sheds? A lot depends on the opponent here. I have already said that there is nothing to even say about the first half. And in the second half, when they got into a deep low block, they could combine as much as they wanted in the middle, but it would be ineffective,» Slutsky said.
Ulyanovsk — Khabarovsk. Further — more
Further, it will only be harder for Rubin. In the middle of the week, the team will play a cup match in Ulyanovsk with the local Volga, and at the weekend they will go to Khabarovsk to visit the good old Roman Sharonov . The Far East, led by the legend of Rubin, after an unsuccessful start, approached the leading group and have not lost nine matches.
We only recall that in December 2019 Slutsky came to Rubin just to replace Sharonov. So 9October, Roman Sergeevich will have a great opportunity to pay a kind of tribute to a colleague and close the circle.
Latest news about fan activities
Latest news about fan activity — RT in Russian
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Fans of the Russian national team allocated 520 tickets for the match with Kyrgyzstan
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Fans of Bosnia and Herzegovina urged to boycott the match against Russia
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Kombarov believes that due to the introduction of Fan ID, a generation may grow up who is not interested in football
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UEFA launched an investigation into the unrest at the match LK «Nice» — «Cologne»
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) reported that a disciplinary case was opened on the fact of unrest at the Conference League group stage match between Nice and Cologne.
Akinfeev told how players check Fan ID before matches
CSKA goalkeeper Igor Akinfeev shared his opinion on the introduction of a fan ID (Fan ID).
RIA Novosti: Fan ID will not be canceled in Russia
Fan ID will continue to be valid in Russia.
«More than 900 Ukrainian servicemen»: the Russian Ministry of Defense spoke about the losses of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the Krasnolimansky direction
Currency framework: how the dollar and euro may change in October
The liberation of the occupied territories and the demilitarization of Ukraine: the Ambassador of the LPR called the condition for establishing peace in the Donbass
Dual position: why Japan again started talking about concluding a peace treaty with Russia
“Indirect data point to a Western trace”: in the Russian Federation, the possible organizers of sabotage on the Nord Streams were named
“Westerners really wanted to shift the focus”: Polyansky spoke about the scandal at the UN Security Council meeting on Nord Stream
Today in the media
Special Operation Z: a chronicle of the main military events on October 3
Detained resident of Kherson about recruitment to the SBU – video
A competition of human towers was held in Spain — video
Ukrainian military fired rockets from HIMARS at the center of Donetsk
Instructor: football fans come from all over Russia to protect Donbass
Instructor: football fans come from all over Russia to defend Donbass
Instructor: football fans come to defend Donbass from all over Russia — RIA Novosti, 05.09.2022
Instructor: football fans come from all over Russia to protect Donbass
Football fans Those wishing to join the first fan unit to defend Donbass come from almost all over Russia, RIA Novosti told… RIA Novosti, 09/05/2022
Special military operation in Ukraine
in the world
MARIUPOL, September 5 — RIA Novosti. Football fans who want to join the first fan unit to defend Donbass come from almost all over Russia, an instructor at the center where volunteers are trained told RIA Novosti. groups in Mariupol. «Inside the fan communities, this movement aroused great support. People support in every possible way: both morally support and try to somehow support financially. They practically come from all over Russia: these are CSKA, Spartak, Zenit, Amkar» , «Rostselmash», Yekaterinburg,» said the instructor with the call sign Yary. According to him, the fans form the backbone of the groups that are now being trained. groups,» the agency’s interlocutor said. He added that earlier, various political views, including those of the far right, which had a strong impact on the movement in 2014, when the conflict broke out in the Donbass and a split occurred. Even then, volunteers from this environment began to join the DNR, but the first completely fan-made Española unit appeared only during the special operation. “Representatives of football clubs who had no combat experience responded, showed their desire to participate in the special operation,” said the instructor.
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MARIUPOL, September 5 — RIA Novosti. Football fans wishing to join the first fan unit to defend Donbass come from almost all over Russia, an instructor at the center where volunteers are trained told RIA Novosti.
Some of the recruits have already completed the course of a young soldier in the «Vostok» brigade, now the instructors of the assault groups in Mariupol are improving their skills.
«Inside the fan communities, this movement aroused great support. People support in every possible way: they support morally and try to somehow support them financially. They practically come from all over Russia: these are CSKA, Spartak, Zenit, Amkar,» Rostselmash, Yekaterinburg,» said the instructor with the call sign Yariy.
According to him, the fans are the backbone of the groups that are currently being trained.
«We are training small infantry reconnaissance and assault groups, we are also conducting sapper and engineering training, combat coordination of small infantry groups,» the agency’s interlocutor said.
He added that the fan community was previously dominated by various political views, including the far right, which had a strong impact on the movement in 2014, when the conflict broke out in the Donbass and a split occurred. Even then, volunteers from this environment began to join the DNR, but the first completely fan-made Española unit appeared only during a special operation.
«Representatives of football clubs who had no combat experience responded and expressed their desire to participate in the special operation,» the instructor said.
September 4, 14: 15 Special Military Operation in Ukraine
Ministry of Defense announced unsuccessful attempts by the Armed Forces of Ukraine to gain a foothold in the offensive of
90,000 football fans hung up on FAN ID
Author photo: TASS
07: 0127: 0127: 0127 August 2022 9000 177474 CONTROLS
07:0127 August 2022
With the start of the championship, «cold wars» began at Russian football stadiums.
Logically, now, at the height of summer, in the absence of European competitions, the Premier League championship has become the main event for Russian fans. And the stands should be bursting with fans. But arena occupancy is only falling, and clubs are losing their planned revenues.
There is only one reason. The introduction of a «fan ID» — Fan ID — has become a prerequisite for going to big football in five cities where there are RPL teams — in Yekaterinburg, Rostov-on-Don, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara and Sochi. Everyone should draw it up — from players to ordinary fans.
The FAN ID is not an absolute novelty. A similar system worked in Russia during the 2018 World Cup, the Confederations Cup and the St. Petersburg matches of the European Championship.
At major international tournaments, it was introduced to keep brawlers out of stadiums. Now the declared reason is the same — increased security.
Although the equipment for working with Fan ID has already been installed at all domestic stadiums that hosted the 2018 World Cup, the system has been launched so far only in five cities — without Moscow and St. Petersburg. But already in 2023, the FAN ID will become mandatory for everyone.
Fans of all RPL teams, except for Akhmat Grozny, announced a boycott of the championship matches last winter due to the introduction of Fan ID. In St. Petersburg, the most dedicated Zenit fans still go to the stadium, but at every match they protest against the passport.
They came to the match against Lokomotiv at the Gazprom Arena in black clothes and honored the memory of the stadiums where Fan ID was introduced with a minute of silence. After 2 weeks, at a meeting against CSKA, a banner was drawn in the style of the film «Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door».
What exactly do the fans not like and why do they wage a fierce fight against «id»?
They can be punished already for «intention»
There are several reasons. For example, a «fan’s passport» can be canceled at any time without explanation.
And not only for violation of the order, but also, as the law says, if there is information «about the intention to commit such illegal actions. » Where the information came from and whether it is confirmed is no longer important.
The fans are convinced that they can be dealt with in this way if, for example, they begin to oppose the actions of the club’s management.
By the way, it is very difficult to protest the cancellation or non-issuance of a Fan ID. For this, ordinary fans will have to go to court. Thus, the presumption of innocence is violated.
But is it really so bad with security in Russian arenas? Not at all!
All Premier League stadiums have long had the latest video surveillance and control systems. Now it is almost impossible for the offender to escape responsibility for what they have done.
Also at the stadiums, sectors for fans and ordinary fans — with children and families — have long been delimited. Some, as a rule, have seats outside the goal, while others have seats in the central stands, and they do not intersect with each other, and do not interfere with each other in any way. It is rare now to meet a fire show that can threaten the safety of others. And the clashes of «militants» of the opposing teams have long been taking place in other places. So it’s unfair to paint fans as absolute evil, preventing everyone from enjoying their favorite spectacle.
Minus 10% of revenues
On the other hand, we can say for sure that if fans stop visiting stadiums at all, then clubs will face significant predictable financial losses. For example, at the Gazprom Arena in St. Petersburg, which seats about 60,000, fans occupy from 10 to 15% of the stands. Moreover, they always purchase season tickets that allow you to attend every home match of your favorite team.
And it is the fans who are the main buyers of club merchandise. They do not have the right to come to the game without a «rose» (scarf) or a T-shirt in company colors, unlike «kuzmichi» (ordinary fans). And it’s all money, and a lot of it. Conditionally minus 10% of income.
In the case of complete «passportization» one should expect an outflow from the stands not only of ardent fans. All football fans have now lost the opportunity to spontaneously go to the stadium.
Yes, there is a group of people who now constantly attend matches: some of them will make a Fan ID, some will refuse on principle, considering this pressure from the state.
But there is also a large number of «sympathizers», those who went to the stadium several times a year. And «go» for them is a clear barrier.
After all, to get it, you need to download the application, register … Why such difficulties? You can sit at the TV screen with a friend in a nearby bar…
And the MFC will obviously not be able to cope with the number of unique visitors if tickets are purchased 3 days before the match. This means that bald spots in the stands will increase and, accordingly, the losses of clubs due to a decrease in income from ticket sales, catering and the outflow of sponsors who care about the occupancy of the arena.
According to the Ministry of Digital Development, by the beginning of August, 100,000 people had already registered Fan IDs to attend RPL matches. Seems like a good number. But in fact, the matches of the penultimate round at five stadiums, where a «fan’s passport» is already required, were attended by a little more than 34 thousand people. That is, less than 7 thousand on average per match.
The insipid atmosphere in the stadiums is not interesting
Last year, the attendance figures were almost twice as high. The consumer votes against «certification» with his feet! At the same time, attendance is also decreasing for those teams whose home stadiums will launch the «fan ID» system only in the second round. 17 thousand spectators against 11 thousand last year.
It is clear that top-managers of the clubs are not happy with such a fall. Moreover, they are well aware that without a fan show, the atmosphere in the stands will become too insipid. After all, many people come to stadiums just to see a bright performance at the fan sectors. And for fans of «sterile football» there is also a TV.
In any case, the «months of protests» did not go unnoticed at the top. Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Physical Culture and Sports Dmitry Svishchev has already said that a meeting is planned at which, together with the Ministry of Digital Development, representatives of clubs and the football community, they will discuss the effectiveness of Fan ID.
However, one can hardly hope for a complete abolition of passports. So far, for the authorities, the dissatisfaction of the fans and the reduced attendance is not a reason to somehow revise the Fan ID system or cancel it.
By the way, in Italy and Turkey, the introduction of a similar identification system led to an instant two-fold decrease in match attendance. The Italian authorities were forced to backtrack. Now there Fan ID is just a recommendation, not a mandatory document.
And in England there are no «IDs», there are personalized season tickets, which Russian clubs have been giving out for a long time.
In short, the victory over the fans can be truly pyrrhic for officials. Russian football is now reminiscent of a seriously ill person, on whom a council of doctors is testing different drugs instead of treatment, watching with curiosity — will the patient survive or not?
This means that our stadiums will continue to empty, and the fans will continue their senseless war with windmills.
Currywurst, Bifana, deep fried bar / What football fans eat in stadiums and pubs in Europe — article from the column «How to relax» on Food.ru and at home when watching the match. In England, the dish has long been associated with football: the third division club Wigan Athletic chose a pie as their mascot — a mascot character — a pie, and one of the goalkeepers of the Sutton United football club is infamous for having eaten a pie right on the field — for such a trick he was expelled from the team.
Pies in England are so popular that they got their own name — Football Pie or Football Pie. Their dough can be puff or shortbread, and the filling is most often meat. Traditionally, these pies are made with sliced steak, tomato paste, garlic, onion and herbs. But there is also a vegan pie — you can try it at the stadium of the Forest Green Rovers club in Gloucestershire.
In Belgium, football fans often buy mayonnaise fries, or frites mayonnaise, at the stadium. The average Belgian eats 75 kilograms of French fries every year.
Frites mayonnaise is fried in beef tallow, salted and topped with a tablespoon or two of mayonnaise. French fries are served in a paper cone or cardboard glass.
Fans in stadiums often eat currywurst, a popular fast food in Germany. Currywurst is a deep-fried sausage with a special sauce based on curry and tomato paste. Often currywurst is served with french fries, and sometimes with a bun.
The creator of the recipe is Hertha Heuver, who is in her West Berlin diner at 1949 began to feed sausage with curry sauce to everyone. 10 years later, when currywurst became popular in almost all of Germany, she patented the recipe for her sauce.
At stadiums in Portugal, fans eat bifana, a pork sandwich. Thin slices of meat are first marinated and then simmered in a sauce of white wine, garlic and paprika. Pork is served on soft buns with mustard and piri-piri sauce. The Portuguese consider Bifana a simple and cheap sandwich that is very easy to make at home.
In Portugal, bifana is cooked in different ways: in Lisbon, for example, it’s just pork and bread, without the addition of sauce. In other cities, chefs may pour the sauce on top of the bread or on the whole sandwich.
In Scottish pubs you can eat not only potatoes with fish or a piece of steak. One of the most popular dishes among fans is a deep-fried chocolate bar. It can be bought in almost many pubs in Edinburgh and in other cities.
This bar was first made at 1992 in Aberdeen. In 1995, he had already become famous throughout the country: teenagers were the first to buy it. Then he gained popularity among football fans who eat chocolate while watching the match.
First, the bar is cooled, then it is dipped in batter and deep-fried. By the way, you can try fried chocolate not only in pubs: in restaurants it is served for dessert and served with ice cream and sweet sauce.
At stadiums in Barcelona, Madrid, Seville, Valencia and other cities, fans eat bocadillo, a baguette sandwich with various fillings. Some fans, in order not to spend money at the stadium, prepare a sandwich at home and bring it with them, not forgetting to wrap it in foil.
Sauce, mayonnaise, aioli, ketchup, mustard, meat, fried onions, bacon, squid, ham, fried egg, french fries are traditionally added to bocadillos.
Different types of bocadillos are prepared in different parts of Spain and called by different names, such as serranito, almoussafes and esgarrat.
In Sweden, contrary to stereotypes, while watching a match, fans do not eat meatballs, but hot dogs. The Swedes first learned about them back in the 17th century thanks to German migrants. Now hot dog stands are on the main streets in many Swedish cities, this food is sold at stadiums and at concerts. Of course, there are also vegan hot dogs with vegetable meat sausages.
Traditional toppings — mustard, fried onions, mayonnaise — are popular in Sweden, but locals love tunnbrödsrulle. This is a hot dog with sausage, mashed potatoes, shrimp salad, onion and mayonnaise.
In stadiums, Italians eat panini with sausage, paprika and fried onions — Panino con la Salamella. This is street food, which is bought in special trailers next to the stadium, and is often made at home during barbecues. Italians consider bread to be the most important ingredient of the dish — the best paninis are made from crispy white Michetta, which is traditionally prepared in Lombardy.
The favorite dish of French fans depends on the region of their residence, but the most popular dish in all French cities remains Galette saucisse — hot sausage wrapped in a thin pancake, crepe. The dish was invented back in the 19th century in Brittany and it immediately became one of the most beloved in the region. Now you can buy it in almost all French cities, but fans traditionally eat Galette saucisse at the Rennes football club stadium.
What can be done?
If you are used to watching games not at the stadium, but at home, study the recipes for the most satisfying and simple snacks.
5 best snacks for fans
How and why to brew beer at home
How to turn a sandwich into a culinary masterpiece
Who are the fans of kalcho? — football.ua
Italy continues to investigate the circumstances of the case related to the events in the city of Catania. This is done directly by law enforcement agencies, while on television there are many hours of discussions on the state of affairs in Calcio and around it.
They recall, for example, cases of dictatorship by the supporters of the capital’s Lazio and Roma clubs in relation to individual leaders and players and passionately discuss current topics in Italian football — from the game itself and refereeing to the behavior of fans in stadiums and the legality of their presence there. As is often the case, two points of view emerge in such disputes. Some believe that we need to “tighten the screws” even more, while others believe that playing without spectators is no longer football. Meanwhile, the Football Federation, together with the Supervisory Board of the Italian Ministry of Internal Affairs, is gradually lifting some restrictions, other stadiums are opening for fans, and lucky season ticket holders are the first to get access to them.
However, it does not do without curiosities. So, at the Ennio Tardini stadium in Parma, the height of the turnstiles turned out to be below the permissible norm (in human height), and there were many daredevils who easily jumped over a simple barrier. In this regard, someone remembers both Sergei Bubka and Elena Isinbayeva, who is training in Italy, who were not subject to such heights. And one of the fans decided to «play a prank» on the controllers, calmly writing out two tickets for himself with the names of people who lived a century ago — the famous Italian air ace of the First World War Francesco Baracchi and the anarchist Gaetano Bresci, who committed at 1900 assassination attempt on King Umberto I of Italy.
Who sets the tone for illegal actions in Italian stadiums? Such, for example, as manifestations of racism or acts of vandalism and cruelty. An analysis of the alignment of forces of fans, or ultra (s), in Calcio devoted one of its materials to the Italian magazine Panorama. The following is a translation of the part of it referring to fans of Serie A clubs.
« ASCOLI «: curva Rozzi ). And although now at football stadiums such stands are gradually losing their semicircle and becoming straight, the fans have not abandoned this word.
Friends: Lazio, Torino (Granata Korps), Regina.
Enemies: Livorno, Fiorentina, Inter, Torino.
This is one of the «blackest» (politically associated color with neo-fascism) stands in the general panorama of Italian ultras (AP, Settembre Bianconero, Black Warriors). She is especially intransigent towards Livorno, whose fans are known for their commitment to the Reds.
Note: Settembre Bianconero — “Black and white September” (according to the color of club shirts).
« ATALANTA «: curva Pisani.
Enemies: Roma, Lazio, Torino, Inter, Milan, Fiorentina.
After the dissolution of the «black and blue brigades» (Brigate Nerazzurre), there was less politics on the podium of the Nord. There is a shift to the left, and the influence of the populist League of the North party (former Wild Kaos fans) remains the same.
« INTER «: curva Nord (i.e. the north stand behind the goal at Milan’s San Siro stadium).
Enemies: Milan, Roma, Fiorentina, Atalanta.
The traditional «den» of the ultra-right. The most radical groups are the Viking and the Irriducibili («Indomitable»), whose symbols are a sword, a double-edged battle ax and a tricolor Italian banner. There are also skinheads among them.
« CAGLIARI «: curva Nord.
Enemies: Milan, Fiorentina.
The most zealous fans (Sconvolts) gravitate towards the right. On this platform, the Sardinian flags with the image of the four Moors are always fluttering, and this emphasizes the identity of the islanders.
« CATANIA «: curva Nord.
Enemies: Palermo, Messina, Regina.
Historically associated with the neo-fascist right since the «Assault Phalanx» formed in 1971, and now with representatives of the extreme right of Catania.
« CHIEVO «: curva Nord.
People get sick here peacefully and in a sporty way (in British style), there is no politics (unlike their neo-fascist compatriots, Verona fans).
« LAZIO «: curva Nord (at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome).
Enemies: Roma, Milan, Livorno, Fiorentina, Atalanta, Palermo.
Since 1987, the Indomitables, close to the Roman right neo-fascist groups and in contact with Real Madrid’s Ultras Sur and Chelsea’s hooligans, have set the tone on this podium.
« LIVORNO «: curva Nord.
Enemies: Lazio, Roma, Siena, Milan, Inter.
After the dissolution of the Livorno Autonomous Brigades, they are the most «Stalinist» tribune in Italy, and their ideas are expressed on banners with the call: «To the last bandit» is the name of the anthem of the punk band Banda Bassotti. The banners of the Italian Communist Party and the Soviet Union fly on the podium. They are friends with the fans of the Marseille Olympic and Athens AEK.
« MILAN «: curva Sud (south stand of San Siro).
Enemies: Inter, Roma, Fiorentina, Sampdoria, Lazio, Atalanta, Cagliari.
After the dissolution of the Lion’s Den (Fossa dei Leoni) of the left-wing orientation, which occurred in November 2005, they began to shift to the right: Brigate Commandos and Guerrieri Ultras («Militant Brigades» and «Ultras Fighters»).
« MESSINA «: curva Sud.
Enemies: «Regina» (on the opposite coast of the Strait of Messina) and fellow islanders «Catania» and «Palermo».
They lean towards the right, but adhere to the principle of not displaying political symbols in the stadium.
« PALERMO «: curva Nord.
Friends: Lecce, Roma.
Enemies: Catania, Messina, Regina, Livorno, Cagliari.
Penetration of neo-fascist elements among the most passionate and politically engaged fans. «Political» twinning with fans of the northern Italian club «Padova».
« PARMA «: curva Nord.
Friends: Sampdoria, Empoli.
Apolitical. Philosophy Boys-1977 rejects the mixing of football passions and politics in the stadium.
« REGINA «: curva Nord.
Friends: AC Milan.
Enemies: Messina, Palermo.
All major fan groups (Boys, Cucn, Irriducibili) are clearly right-wing, with strong nationalism.
« ROMA «: curva Sud (on the same Olimpico).
Friends: Palermo, Udinese, Regina.
Enemies: Lazio, Livorno, Inter, Fiorentina, Milan, Atalanta, Ascoli.
After the elimination of the Cucs group, the fan tribune has turned right (except for the pro-Palestinian «fedayeen»), and it is associated with the extreme right in Rome.
« SAMPDORIA «: curva Sud.
Enemies: Milan, Torino, Inter, Ascoli, Lazio.
Team fans separate football passions from politics. “Our policy is Sampdoria,” say Ultras Tito Cucchiaroni.
« SIENNA «: curva Robur.
Enemies: Fiorentina, Empoli, Livorno (i.e. all neighbors in the Tuscany region).
The grown-up Ultras Fighters set the tone on the podium, but here a variety of ideas emerge. The smallest grouping is the right Gruppo d’Azione («Group of Action»). And everyone is connected by love for the city, where the famous Palio takes place (exciting horse races along the perimeter of a triangular square).
« TORINO «: curva Maratona.
Enemies: Inter, Sampdoria, Roma, Atalanta, Milan, Lecce (Juventus should be in the first place, but they are still serving their sentence in Serie B).
The Tribune is ideologically and politically diverse, but on the whole adheres to the left orientation, in contrast to the Juventine fans who have shifted to the right. Torino’s historical grouping of the right is Granata Korps.
« Udinese «: curva Nord.
In the past, fans of the team have been criticized for anti-Semitic attacks against Dutch player Aron Winter. Now their tribune is mostly apolitical.
« FIORENTINA «: curva Fiesole.
Friends: Torino (they are connected, in particular, by their love for Francesco Graziani, the 1982 world champion who played for both clubs).
Enemies: «Siena» (this antipathy between the two cities took root after the war between them back in 1260), «Lazio», «Roma», «Inter», «Milan», «Atalanta» (not enough in this list the same «Juve», and the bone of contention between the two teams was Roberto Baggio, who was forced to move at the behest of the owners of the two clubs from Florence to Turin).
In the past, the tribune was leftist, but now it is rather apolitical. There is no explicit propaganda here, and this rule is followed by all ultra groups (even those close to the right).
« EMPOLI «: curva Maratona.
Enemies: Siena, Fiorentina, Lazio.
The fans here have always been the Reds (Desperados Rangers). The ultra’s meeting point outside the stadium is the Zapata City Social Center.
Even a cursory acquaintance with the «insignia» of various fan groups shows that football among Italians, including young ones, is often confused with politics. This indicates, on the one hand, how politically active young people are, and on the other hand, the danger of using politics for unseemly purposes remains. In the fan sectors, one can encounter manifestations of a wide variety of ideological views: from the left-wing views of the fans of the traditionally “red” region of Tuscany (Livorno, Siena, Fiorentina, Empoli) to the right-wing neo-fascist ideas preached more in the southern part of Italy , from Rome to Sicily.